Unit 12 Crossing Culture - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

About This Presentation
Title:

Unit 12 Crossing Culture

Description:

Crossing Culture The space in the home also shows a lot about psychological space needs. Some families gather closer to one another and the size of their house has ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:141
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 193
Provided by: vod5Pkud
Category:

less

Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Unit 12 Crossing Culture


1
Unit 12 Crossing Culture
2
Outline
  • Text A
  • Conversation Are We Dating?
  • Text B
  • The Influence of Culture
  • Exercises

3
Text A Conversation Are We Dating?
  • Date v. to spend time with someone you have a
    romantic relationship with ??
  • e.g. They were dating for
  • five years before they got
  • married.
  • How long have you
  • been dating Nicky?

4
Text A An Overview
  • Alvaro Jaramillo from a university in Mexico has
    come to the United States for a three-day
    conference held by Ritas department. Yesterday,
    Rita invited Alvaro to join her for dinner, and
    tonight theyre meeting at Shalimar, a popular
    Indian restaurant. Though Rita has explained how
    to get there from his hotel, Alvaro still can not
    find the restaurant. So he asks Ryan, a passerby,
    for direction.

5
  • Alvaro Excuse me, sir. Can you tell me where
    Main Street is? Im looking for Shalimar, an
    Indian restaurant.
  • Ryan Oh, Shalimar, thats a good place. Turn
    left at the second light and then go straight for
    two blocks. Shalimar is on the corner.
  • Alvaro Is it far?
  • Ryan No. It's only a five-minute walk.
  • Alvaro Thanks a lot.

6
  • (At the restaurant)
  • Rita Hi, there! Glad you could make it! I was a
    little concerned.
  • Alvaro What time is it? Am I late?
  • Rita Its almost 730. Youre only 20 minutes or
    so late, so its no big deal.
  • Alvaro In Mexico people are usually at least 20
    minutes late. If people decide to meet at 7, no
    one will be there until 730, maybe even 8
    oclock.

7
  • Rita You are kidding! Most of the people I know
    get upset if Im more than 10 or 15 minutes late.
  • Alvaro I assume most Latin Americans are just
    not as concerned with time.
  • Rita I suppose you are right.
  • Alvaro In fact, this whole experience is pretty
    strange.
  • Rita What do you mean?

8
  • Alvaro Well, in my country, women dont invite
    men to dinner very often.
  • Rita Really? I suppose there are a lot of women
    in the U.S. who wont ask men out either. But
    there are a lot of women who like doing it, like
    me. I like to decide who I want to spend my time
    with and how. Whenever a guy asks me out, that
    usually means hes the one in charge.

9
  • Alvaro So, are you in charge tonight? You asked
    me out, you picked the restaurant, you reserved
    the table
  • Rita Come on! Quit giving me a hard time. I
    figured you are here by yourself and probably
    sick of your hotel room. Im just trying to be
    nice
  • Alvaro So this isnt a real date?
  • Rita Not at all!

10
  • Alvaro I just needed to make sure, you know?
    People in Mexico dont usually go on, how do I
    say it, this sort of casual date.
  • Rita People here do it all the time, you know.
  • Alvaro At home I would go out with a group of
    friends if I just wanted to have fun, but going
    out with just one woman would automatically be
    considered a date.

11
  • Rita So, what looks good to you?
  • Alvaro I dont know what I want. Im actually
    not very hungry yet. This is a little early for
    me.
  • Rita What are you talking about? Its almost 8
    oclock. Im starving!
  • Alvaro Is this late for you? I usually dont
    have dinner until 9 or later.

12
Detailed reading
  • Alvaro Jaramillo from a university in Mexico has
    come to the United States for a three-day
    conference held by Ritas department.
  • Yesterday, Rita invited Alvaro to join her for
    dinner, and tonight theyre meeting at Shalimar,
    a popular Indian restaurant. Though Rita has
    explained how to get there from his hotel, Alvaro
    still can not find the restaurant. So he asks
    Ryan, a passerby, for direction.

13
  • Alvaro Jaramillo from a university in Mexico has
    come to the United States for a three-day
    conference held by Ritas department.
  • a three-day conference held by Ritas department
    ????held?????conference

14
  • Conference n. a meeting in which matters are
    discussed formally ??
  • e.g. a conference on women's rights
  • They frequently hold conferences at
    that hotel.
  • be in conference (formal) to be in a meeting
  • Ms O'Neill isn't available at present.
    She's in conference.

15
  • Yesterday, Rita invited Alvaro to join her for
    dinner, and tonight theyre meeting at Shalimar,
    a popular Indian restaurant.
  • join her for dinner e.g.
  • Would you like to join us for fun?
  • Indian restaurant ????

16
  • Though Rita has explained how to get there from
    his hotel, Alvaro still can not find the
    restaurant.
  • though conj. ??
  • explained how to get there ?????
  • still ??

17
  • So he asks Ryan, a passerby, for direction.
  • passerby n. someone who is going past a
    particular place, especially when something
    unusual happens ??? e.g.
  • The gunmen opened fire, killing a policeman and
    a passer-by.
  • ask sb. for direction ??

18
  • direction instructions that you give to someone
    about how to find a particular place e.g.
  • Can you give me directions to your house?
  • "Did you have any difficulty finding the
    theatre?" "No, your directions were excellent."

19
  • ???????????????????????????????,????????????????,
    ????????????,??,??????,???????????????????????????
    ????????,??????????,?????????

20
  • Alvaro Excuse me, sir. Can you tell me where
    Main Street is? Im looking for Shalimar, an
    Indian restaurant.
  • Ryan Oh, Shalimar, thats a good place. Turn
    left at the second light and then go straight for
    two blocks. Shalimar is on the corner.
  • Alvaro Is it far?
  • Ryan No. It's only a five-minute walk.
  • Alvaro Thanks a lot.

21
  • Conversation skill asking for and giving
    directions ??
  • --Excuse me, sir. Can you tell me where Main
    Street is? Im looking for Shalimar, an Indian
    restaurant.
  • --Oh, Shalimar, thats a good place. Turn left
    at the second light and then go straight for two
    blocks. Shalimar is on the corner.

22
  • Can you tell me where Main Street is?
  • Can you tell me??where???????,???????
  • Turn left at the second light (traffic light)
  • go straight for two blocks (??)
  • on the corner ???? E.g.
  • Then we passed the bookshop on the corner.
  • It's on the corner opposite the hospital.

23
  • It's only a five-minute walk.
  • five-minute walk ??5?????,????five minutes walk.
  • 10-minute/ 10 minutes drive ??10??
  • ????how far??????
  • Conversation
  • How far is it from here?
  • Its within walking distance.

24
  • ???????,??????????????????????,???????
  • ???,???,??????????????????,??????????????????
  • ???????
  • ????,??5???
  • ????????

25
  • (At the restaurant)
  • Rita Hi, there! Glad you could make it! I was a
    little concerned.
  • Alvaro What time is it? Am I late?
  • Rita Its almost 730. Youre only 20 minutes or
    so late, so its no big deal.
  • Alvaro In Mexico people are usually at least 20
    minutes late. If people decide to meet at 7, no
    one will be there until 730,
  • maybe even 8 oclock.

26
  • Hi, there! Glad you could make it! I was a little
    concerned.
  • Hi, there! ?,?(?)?!?????,????????
  • Glad you could make it!
  • make it v. lt?gt????,??????, ???? e.g.
  • The train goes at10.15. I think we shall make
    it.  ??10?1??,????????
  • Give me a chance. I can make it. ?????,?????

27
  • concerned adj. worried ??? ??? e.g.
  • I'm a bit concerned about/for your health.
  • He was concerned to hear that two of his
    trusted workers were leaving.
  • Concerned parents held a meeting. 
    ??????????????
  • concerned???????? e.g.
  • as far as is concerned
  • ???
  • Where money is concerned,
  • I always try to be very careful. 
  • ????????,?????
  • ?????

28
  • Youre only 20 minutes or so late, so its no big
    deal.
  • 20 minutes late ??20??
  • or so about ?? e.g.
  • There are 300 students or so in this middle
    school.  ???????300????
  • its no big deal Its not a serious problem.
    ???????e.g.
  • We'll have to pay a little more - it's no big
    deal.

29
  • In Mexico people are usually at least 20 minutes
    late.
  • At least ?? e.g.
  • He ate at least three apples.
  • This car will cost you at least 300 thousand
    Yuan.
  • You might at least apologize. 
  • compare at most ??

30
  • If people decide to meet at 7, no one will be
    there until 730, maybe even 8 oclock.
  • no one will be there until 730,730??????
  • no one ???
  • no one vs. none

31
no one vs none
  • none???nobody?nothing,????,????,?????????????????,
    ????of????????,??????????????
  • None of us are(is)interested in this book.
    ????????????
  • None of the food was bad.???????
  • I like none of these books.?????????

32
  • no one???nobody,????,????,?????of??,???none???????
    ???,????????????
  • No one knows where Jack has gone.????????????
  • No one likes the film.??????????

33
  • none?????how many?how much?????noone?????who?????
    ??? How many students are there in the
    room????????? None.??????? Who will go to the
    party??????????? No one.????

34
  • His father has bought many books home, but
    _______ is easy enough for him to read. ?
  • A. none B. no one
  • C. every one D. some one?
  • She doesn't know anyone here. She has got______to
    talk to.
  • A. anyone B. someone
  • C. everyone D. no one

A
D
35
  • (???)
  • ???,??!??????,????????
  • ????????????????
  • ???7???,????20??,????????
  • ????????,?????????20???????7???,?????730??8?????
    ?

36
  • Rita You are kidding! Most of the people I know
    get upset if Im more than 10 or 15 minutes late.
  • Alvaro I assume most Latin Americans are just
    not as concerned with time.
  • Rita I suppose you are right.
  • Alvaro In fact, this whole experience is pretty
    strange.
  • Rita What do you mean?
  • Alvaro Well, in my country, women dont invite
    men to dinner very often.

37
  • You are kidding! Most of the people I know get
    upset if Im more than 10 or 15 minutes late.
  • You are kidding! ?????????!?????????????
  • You must be kidding me!
  • You must be joking.
  • Are you kidding me?

38
  • get upset
  • upset adj. afflicted with or marked by anxious
    uneasiness or trouble or grief ???,???
  • Im always upset when I dont get any mail. 
    ????????????????
  • upset ???Last-minute changes caused a great deal
    of upset.  ??????????????
  • upset???The news quite upset him.  ??????????

39
  • I assume most Latin Americans are just not as
    concerned with time.
  • assume v. to accept something to be true without
    question or proof e.g.
  • I assumed (that) you knew each other because you
    went to the same school.
  • Let's assume (that) they're coming and make
    plans on that basis.

40
  • Latin America ????
  • not as concerned with time ???????,?????????as
    Americans
  • as as ?..??,??????,????????????????????????????
    ??Your pen writes as smoothly as
    mine.????????????????
  • ????not as/so adj./ adv. as???
  • This dictionary is not as/so useful as you
    think.???????????????

41
  • I suppose you are right.
  • suppose v. ?, ??, ?? ??, ?? e.g.
  • I suppose you are right.
  • Let's suppose (that) the news is true.
  • be supposed to do sth. ????? e.g.
  • You are supposed to sumbit your writing before
    the end of this month.

42
  • In fact, this whole experience is pretty strange.
  • in fact ???
  • this whole experience ?????
  • pretty adv. ??

43
  • ??????!?????10?15??,????????????????
  • ??????????????????????
  • ?????????
  • ?????????????????
  • ???????
  • ?????,?????,??????????????

44
  • Rita Really? I suppose there are a lot of women
    in the U.S. who wont ask men out either. But
    there are a lot of women who like doing it, like
    me. I like to decide who I want to spend my time
    with and how. Whenever a guy asks me out, that
    usually means hes the one in charge.

45
  • I suppose there are a lot of women in the U.S.
    who wont ask men out either. But there are a lot
    of women who like doing it, like me.
  • there are a lot of women who ????
  • ask men out ?????
  • either adv. ?,????? e.g.
  • It's not as heavy, either.  ???????

46
  • But there are a lot of women who like doing it,
    like me.
  • ??like,??????,??,??like to do/ doing
    sth.??????,???e.g.
  • We like our work to be justly evaluated. 
    ?????????????????
  • Like me, she enjoys all kinds of
    music.?????,????????
  • He is a like a son to her. ?????????

47
  • I like to decide who I want to spend my time with
    and how.
  • who I want to spend my time with?decide?????,???wi
    th????,??spend my time with sb.
  • and how??????,?and how to spend my time?

48
  • Whenever a guy asks me out, that usually means
    hes the one in charge.
  • hes the one in charge,in charge??the one,the
    one???,??
  • whenever ????
  • in charge

49
  • whenever adverb , conjunction every or any
    time????
  • e.g. I blush whenever I think about it.
  • Whenever I go there they seem to be in
    bed.
  • I try to use olive oil whenever
    possible.

50
  • in charge being the person who has control of or
    is responsible for someone or something
  • e.g. Who will be in charge of the department
    when Sophie leaves?
  • I left Jack in charge of the suitcases
    while I went to get the tickets.

51
  • ??????????????????????????,??????????????,???????
    ??????????,????????????????????,???????????????

52
  • Alvaro So, are you in charge tonight? You asked
    me out, you picked the restaurant, you reserved
    the table
  • Rita Come on! Quit giving me a hard time. I
    figured you are here by yourself and probably
    sick of your hotel room. Im just trying to be
    nice
  • Alvaro So this isnt a real date?
  • Rita Not at all!

53
  • You asked me out, you picked the restaurant, you
    reserved the table
  • ask me out
  • pick v. to choose?? e.g.
  • pick a card from the pack.
  • reserve v. to keep something for a particular
    purpose or time ?? e.g.
  • I reserve Mondays for tidying my desk and
    answering letters.
  • These seats are reserved for the elderly and
    women with babies.

54
  • Come on! Quit giving me a hard time.
  • Come on! ???????,????
  • quit v. stop ??,??
  • quit doing sth. ?????
  • quit smoking ??
  • Would you quit your job if you inherited lots of
    money?
  • give sb. a hard time ????

55
  • I figured you are here by yourself and probably
    sick of your hotel room.
  • figure v??,??? e.g.
  • They figured it was better to stay where they
    were.  ????????????
  • (be) sick of be tired of ??
  • e.g. Im sick of the way youre behaving.
  • Im sick of doing nothing all day long.

56
  • ??????,????????????????,??????,??????
  • ????,?????????????????,??????????????????????????
  • ?????????????????
  • ??????!

57
  • Alvaro I just needed to make sure, you know?
    People in Mexico dont usually go on, how do I
    say it, this sort of casual date.
  • Rita People here do it all the time, you know.
  • Alvaro At home I would go out with a group of
    friends if I just wanted to have fun, but going
    out with just one woman would automatically be
    considered a date.
  • Rita So, what looks good to you?

58
  • I just needed to make sure, you know?
  • make sure ?? to establish something without doubt
  • just want to make sure that everything is
    ok.?????????.
  • Make sure he writes everything down.
  • be sure of/ that ?? e.g. I'm sure that no one
    will love me more than he does.?????????????.

59
  • People in Mexico dont usually go on, how do I
    say it, this sort of casual date.
  • how do I say it ???,????????????
  • casual adj. not taking or not seeming to take
    much interest not finding something important
    ???
  • e.g. The psychologist's attitude seemed far
    too casual.

60
  • At home I would go out with a group of friends if
    I just wanted to have fun, but going out with
    just one woman would automatically be considered
    a date.
  • ????
  • have fun ???
  • automatically ???
  • be considered a date

61
  • automatically adv. If something happens
    automatically, it happens as part of the normal
    process or system
  • e.g. Employees who steal are dismissed
    automatically.

62
  • Conversation
  • -- So, what looks good to you? ?????????
  • ???????What are you going to get??????????

63
  • ??????????,?????????,???????,?????,????????
  • ??????,????????????
  • ???????,???????,????????????????????,???????????
    ???
  • ????,???????

64
  • Alvaro I dont know what I want. Im actually
    not very hungry yet. This is a little early for
    me.
  • Rita What are you talking about? Its almost 8
    oclock. Im starving!
  • Alvaro Is this late for you? I usually dont
    have dinner until 9 or later.

65
  • This is a little early for me. ??????????
  • This course is a bit difficult for me.
    ????????????
  • He is a little demanding for me. ???????????

66
  • Im starving!
  • v. to (cause to) become very weak or die because
    there is not enough food to eat ?? e.g.
  • Whole communities starved to death during the
    long drought.
  • From talking to former prisoners in the camps, an
    obvious conclusion is that they have been
    starved.

67
  • ????????????,????????????????????
  • ?????????8??,??????
  • ??????????????????9???9????????

68
Idiomatic Study asking for directions
  • A Excuse me. Can you tell me where Main Street
    is?
  • B Turn left at the second light and then go
    straight for two blocks. It's only a five-minute
    walk.

69
  • A Excuse me. Could you please tell me how to get
    to the station?B Turn left at the first light.
    You can't miss it.

70
  • A Can you help me out? I'm trying to find a post
    office.B Go three block and make a right. It's
    right there.

71
  • A Excuse me. How do I find the city hall?
  • B Just go straight, its on this street, on the
    right, about a mile and a half.

72
  • A Pardon me, Im lost. How do I get to the
    museum?
  • B Go to the second light and turn left. Then go
    the third stop sign. The museum is on that corner.

73
  • Thank you!

74
Text B The Influence of Culture
75
Main idea
  • Para. 1 It is wrong to assume that different
    cultures socialize children in the same way.
  • Para 2-3 There are evidence showing the
    differences of different cultures in socializing
    their children.

76
Detailed reading para. 1
  • It is easy to assume that every culture
    socializes children in the same way. Studies of
    other cultures, however, show that children are
    socialized differently depending on the culture
    they are brought up in.

77
  • It is easy to assume that every culture
    socializes children in the same way.
  • ??It is easy to do sth. ,??it?????,to do
    sth.??????
  • assume??that???????

78
  • assume v. to accept something to be true without
    question or proof e.g.
  • ( that ) I assumed (that) you knew each
    other because you went to the same school.
  • Let's assume (that) they're coming and make plans
    on that basis.
  • to infinitive We can't assume the suspects
    to be guilty simply because they've decided to
    remain silent.

79
  • socialize the children in the same way
  • socialize v. to train people or animals to
    behave in a way that others in the group think is
    suitable e.g.
  • Here at the special school we make every effort
    to socialize these young offenders.
  • in the same way??????
  • in the way of/ in way ???

80
  • Studies of other cultures, however, show that
    children are socialized differently depending on
    the culture they are brought up in.
  • however adv. ?? I thought those figures were
    correct. However, I have recently heard they were
    not.  ?????????????????????????
  • that??????,??depending on ??????????
  • ??????they are brought up in?????,??culture

81
  • depend on to be decided by or to change
    according to the stated thing e.g.
  • Whether or not we go to Spain for our holiday
    depends on the cost.
  • It all depends on whether she like the boss or
    not.  ???????????????????
  • All living things depend on the sun for their
    growth.  ????????

82
  • bring (brought, brought) sb up to care for a
    child until it is an adult, often giving it
    particular beliefs e.g.
  • She was brought up by her grandmother.
  • They brought her up (as/to be) a Catholic.

83
  • ?????????,???????????????,?????????????,?????????,
    ?????????????

84
Para. 2
  • A study of 6-to 11-year-old children in six
    farming communities in the United States, Kenya,
    Okinawa, northern India, the Philippines, and
    Mexico is a good example of these studies.
    Beatrice and John Whiting (1975) found a big
    difference between the types of household chores
    that children were expected to do in these
    cultures. More importantly, they found that
    parental expectations about work around the house
    were an important part of childrens
    socialization.

85
  • A study of 6-to 11-year-old children in six
    farming communities in the United States, Kenya,
    Okinawa, northern India, the Philippines, and
    Mexico is a good example of these studies.
  • ????A study of is a good example
  • farming communities ????
  • is a good example of??

86
  • community n. the people living in one particular
    area or people who are considered as a unit
    because of their common interests, social group
    or nationality ??,???,??
  • E.g.
  • local community
  • farming community
  • There's a large black/white community living in
    this area.

87
  • Beatrice and John Whiting (1975) found a big
    difference between the types of household chores
    that children were expected to do in these
    cultures.
  • Beatrice and John Whiting (1975) ?,1975????????
  • that children were expected to do ????
  • household chores
  • be expected to do sth. e.g.

88
  • Household n. a group of people, often a family,
    who live together e.g.
  • household expenses
  • a household name
  • Chore n. a job or piece of work which is often
    boring or unpleasant but needs to be done
    regularly e.g.
  • I'll go shopping when I've done my chores.
  • I find writing reports a real chore .

89
  • expect sb to do to think that someone should
    behave in a particular way or do a particular
    thing e.g.
  • Borrowers are expected to ( should) return books
    on time.
  • Teachers are expected to be well prepared for
    every lesson.

90
  • More importantly, they found that parental
    expectations about work around the house were an
    important part of childrens socialization.
  • more importantly ??????
  • parental expectations about ?????
  • work around the house ??
  • socialization n. ???

91
  • expectation n. when you expect good things to
    happen in the future e.g.
  • I have high expectations for this job.
  • We did so well - beyond all our expectations.
  • She ate a light lunch in expectation of a good
    dinner.  ???????,??????????

92
socialization theory
  • The term socialization is used to refer to the
    process of inheriting norms, customs and
    ideologies.
  • It may provide the individual with the skills and
    habits necessary for participating within their
    own society a society itself is formed through a
    plurality of shared norms, customs, values,
    traditions, social roles, symbols and languages.
  • Socialization is thus the means by which social
    and cultural continuity are attained.

93
  • ?????????????????????????????????6?11?????????????
    ??????????????????(1975)??,??????????????????????
    ???????,????,????????????????????????

94
  • Where children were expected to take care of
    other younger children and do chores that helped
    the whole household (as in the Kenyan and Mexican
    communities studied), they quickly learned to be
    responsible and caring toward others. In
    communities like the one studied in the United
    States, where children were only expected to do
    chores such as cleaning their rooms and picking
    up toys, they were less likely to develop these
    traits at an early stage.

95
  • Of course, not every family in the particular
    culture socializes their children in exactly the
    same wayand this would be true of expectations
    about household chores also. Nevertheless, many
    cross-cultural differences in socialization have
    been identified by researchers.

96
  • Where children were expected to take care of
    other younger children and do chores that helped
    the whole household (as in the Kenyan and Mexican
    communities studied), they quickly learned to be
    responsible and caring toward others.
  • ????where??????,???they quickly learn
  • ????????that?????????chores

97
  • take care of other younger children ??????
  • take care of ??
  • take care ??
  • do chores ???
  • the whole household (n.) ??,???

98
  • responsible adj.????,??? e.g.
  • Whos responsible for the terrible mess? 
    ???????????
  • caring adj. ??? The solicitude of the caring
    husband for his wife made her feel unhappy. 
    ??????????????????????

99
  • In communities like the one studied in the United
    States, where children were only expected to do
    chores such as cleaning their rooms and picking
    up toys, they were less likely to develop these
    traits at an early stage.
  • ????in communities?????,??where?????????,??they
    were less likely to do sth.
  • these traits??????????reponsible and caring

100
  • communities like the one studied in the United
    States
  • the one??community,studied???????the one,?????

101
  • where children were only expected to do chores
    such as cleaning their rooms and picking up toys
  • such as ???
  • pick up ??,?? e.g
  • She picked up a valuable first edition at a
    village book sale.  ?????????????????????
  • The children have picked up the local accent. 
    ????????????
  • toy n. ?? e.g. a toy car ???

102
  • they were less likely to develop these traits at
    an early stage
  • ???????,less likely?????than the first group of
    children
  • be likely to
  • develop a trait
  • at an early stage ??

103
  • likely adj. describes something that will
    probably happen or is expected
  • be likely to do sth. ??
  • E.g. Do remind me because I'm likely to forget.
  • I suppose that might happen but it's not very
    likely.

104
  • trait n. a particular characteristic that can
    produce a particular type of behavior
  • E.g. His sense of humour is one of his better
    traits.

105
  • at an early stage ??
  • stage n. ??
  • e.g. The project is in its final stages and
    should be completed by August.
  • Our marriage is going through a difficult
    stage at the moment.

106
  • Of course, not every family in the particular
    culture socializes their children in exactly the
    same wayand this would be true of expectations
    about household chores also.
  • not every ????
  • socialize their children in exaclty the same way
  • this would be true of

107
also, too, either, as well??
  • too ? as well ??????,????,???????,?????????I
    like you too as well. ??????
  • too ???????????I, too, know where he lives.
    ????????????
  • ? Me too, You too???????,???? as well?also??
  • AIm tired. ????
  • BMe too. ???

108
  • also ? too ? as well ??,?????????,??????????????,?
    ????????,??????????????????(????)??
  • He also came. / He came also. ?????
  • She is young and beautiful,and also rich.
    ?????,?????
  • either(?)????????,????????
  • I dont know, either. ??????
  • He hasnt finished it, either. ????????

109
  • We won't go to the cinema next Saturday. They
    won't____.
  • A. too B. also C. neither D. either
  • He didn't know her address, ____ did I.
  • A. too B. also C. either D. neither

D
D
110
  • Nevertheless, many cross-cultural differences in
    socialization have been identified by
    researchers.
  • Nevertheless adv. despite what has just been
    said or referred to e.g.
  • I knew a lot about the subject already, but her
    talk was interesting nevertheless.
  • She was very tired, nevertheless she kept on
    working.

111
  • be identified by researchers
  • identify v. ??,??,??
  • Can you identify your umbrella among this lot? 
    ????????????????
  • One can not identify happiness with wealth. 
    ????????????
  • She identified that the man was her attacker. 
    ????????????????

112
  • ??????????????????????????(????????????????)????,?
    ???????????????????????????????????,??????????????
    ?????????,???????????????????????????,????????????
    ????????????????????????????????,???????????????
    ?????????

113
Para 3
  • Other evidence of these differences in
    socialization practices comes from a study of how
    traditional Vietnamese and Chinese socialize
    their children (Dillard 1987). In these families,
    the needs of the group are seen as more important
    than the needs of the individual, and so children
    learn that their first responsibility is to their
    parents rather than to themselves. For example,
    many children work hard at school so that their
    parents will be proud of them.

114
  • Other evidence of these differences in
    socialization practices comes from a study of how
    traditional Vietnamese and Chinese socialize
    their children (Dillard 1987).
  • evidence n. ??
  • socialization practices
  • Vietnamese n. ???

115
  • In these families, the needs of the group are
    seen as more important than the needs of the
    individual, and so children learn that their
    first responsibility is to their parents rather
    than to themselves.
  • more important than ???
  • individual

116
  • Individual n. a single person or thing,
    especially when compared to the group or set to
    which they belong
  • E.g. Every individual has rights which must never
    be taken away.
  • We try to treat our students as
    individuals.

117
  • their first responsibility is to their parents
    rather than to themselves
  • Ones first responsibility is to ?????
  • rather than????,???but not,???????(??)???
    (??),???????????????
  • He is a writer rather than a teacher.
    ????????????????
  • You are doing this for yourself rather than for
    others. ?????????????????
  • It was what he meant rather than what he said.
    ??????,????????

118
  • For example, many children work hard at school so
    that their parents will be proud of them.
  • work hard at school ????
  • be proud of feeling pleasure and satisfaction
    because you or people connected with you have
    done or got something good e.g.
  • You must be very proud of your son.
  • to infinitive I'm very proud to have been
    involved in this project.
  • ( that ) I was so proud (that) my son had
    been chosen for the national team.

119
  • ???????????????????,?????????????????????????????(
    Dillard 1987)???????,?????????????????,???????????
    ???????????,????????????????????????

120
End of Text B
Comprehension Questions
121
  • 1. We can infer the best way to understand
    socialize in Line 1 is ______________.
  • A. to place under group control
  • B. to become sociable
  • C. to take part in social activities
  • D. to convert or adapt to the needs of society

D
It is easy to assume that every culture
socializes children in the same way.
122
  • 2. In the first sentence of paragraph 2, what
    does these studies refer to?
  • A. the studies of the six countries
  • B. the studies of farming communities
  • C. the studies of 6-to 11-year-old children
  • D. the studies of different influence of culture
    on childrens growth

D
Studies of other cultures, however, show that
children are socialized differently depending on
the culture they are brought up in. A study of
a good example of these studies.
123
  • 3. Which of the following is NOT a finding of
    Beatrice and John Whiting study?
  • A. In these cultures, children are expected to
    take up different type of housework.
  • B. In these cultures, what the parents expect the
    children to do has an impact on the childrens
    socialization.
  • C. Children in Kenyan communities learned to be
    responsible and caring to others later than in
    USA.
  • D. The cross-cultural differences socialize the
    children differently.

C
124
  • Beatrice and John Whiting (1975) found a big
    difference between the types of household chores
    that children were expected to do in these
    cultures. More importantly, they found that
    parental expectations about work around the house
    were an important part of childrens
    socialization. In communities like the one
    studied in the United States, where children were
    only expected to do chores such as cleaning their
    rooms and picking up toys, they were less likely
    to develop these traits at an early stage.
    Nevertheless, many cross-cultural differences in
    socialization have been identified by researchers.

125
  • 4. The best interpretation of the sentence not
    every family in a particular culture socializes
    their children in exactly the same way is that
    ____________.
  • A. in the same culture, parents can have
    different ways to bring up the children
  • B. in the same culture, children are encouraged
    to grow up according to the same social values
  • C. in the same culture, no two families would
    bring up their children in the same way
  • D. in the same culture, parents always want their
    children to be different from the others

A
126
  • 5. We can infer from the study of how
    traditional Vietnamese and Chinese socialize
    their children that _________________________.
  • A. the children want to succeed mainly because
    they want to glorify their families
  • B. the children attach more importance to their
    own needs rather than their families
  • C. the children would never sacrifice their
    future for the family
  • D. the children would never challenge their
    parents authority

A
In these families, the needs of the group are
seen as more important than the needs of the
individual, and so children learn that their
first responsibility is to their parents rather
than to themselves. For example, many children
work hard at school so that their parents will be
proud of them.
127
I. Conversation
  • 1. Pardon me, Madam. Can you tell me how to get
    to the nearest bank?
  • ________________________.
  • A. No, dont ask that.
  • B. Sure, thats the nearest way.
  • C. Sorry, Im a stranger here.
  • D. No, youre driving too fast.

C
128
  • 2. Madam, do all the buses go downtown?
  • ___________________.
  • A. Sorry, Im new here.
  • B. Pretty well, I assume.
  • C. No, never mind.
  • D. Wow, you got it.

A
129
  • 3. Good morning, sir. Can I help you?
  • _________________.
  • Yes, why not?
  • B. Yes, is there a bank near here?
  • C. Are you kidding?
  • D. You are welcome!

B
130
  • 4. Excuse me, could you tell me the way to the
    Art museum?
  • _____________. Oh yes! Two blocks away from
    here at the Green Avenue.
  • I beg your pardon?
  • Youre welcome!
  • C. What do you mean?
  • D. Mm, let me see.

D
131
  • 5. Excuse me, where can I buy a film for my
    camera?
  • _______________. There is one opposite the
    post office.
  • At the chemists.
  • What do you want?
  • C. Never mind.
  • D. Pretty good.

A
132
II. Reading Comprehension
133
  • Just as the degree of individual freedom in
    America seems loose and therefore uncomfortable
    to many visitors, in many countries, people will
    tell you what they think you want to hear,
    whether or not it is true. To them, this is the
    polite thing to do.

134
  • To Americans it is considered confusing even
    dishonest to avoid telling the truth, even if
    the only purpose is to be polite. It is helpful
    to remember that different cultures consider some
    matters more important than others. For
    Americans, however, trust and truth are most
    important. One of the worst things that can be
    said about someone in America is that you cannot
    trust him.

135
  • Considering such differences in values among many
    cultures of the world, it is natural that
    misunderstandings occur. How far is it to the
    next town? an American asks a man standing by
    the road. In some countries , because the man
    realizes the traveler is tired and eager to reach
    the next village, he will politely say, Just
    down the road.

136
  • He thinks this is more encouraging, gentler, and
    therefore the answer the traveler wants to hear.
    So the American drives alone for many more hours
    before he comes to the village. The traveler is
    angry, with a feeling of being fooled. He thinks
    that the man has lied to him on purpose because
    he must have known quite well what the distance
    was.

137
  • If a visitor to the United States asked an
    American standing by the road how far the next
    town was, the American would think it dishonest
    if he said it was near when he knew it was really
    24 miles away. Although he, too, would be
    sympathetic with the tired traveler, he would
    say, You have a long way to go yet it is at
    least 24 miles more. The traveler might be
    disappointed , but he would know what to expect,
    and there would be no misunderstanding.

138
  • 1. People in other cultures choose not to tell
    the truth to the visitors because
    _______________.
  • A. they try to confuse the visitors
  • B. they consider it comfortable
  • C. they try to be polite
  • D. they consider it helpful

C
P2 In some countries , because the man realizes
the traveler is tired and eager to reach the next
village, he will politely say, Just down the
road.
139
  • 2. Americans insist on telling the truth because
    __________________.
  • A. they dont mind confusing people
  • B. they are not considerate
  • C. they are not polite
  • D. they value trust and truth

D
P1 It is helpful to remember that different
cultures consider some matters more important
than others. For Americans, however, trust and
truth are most important.
140
  • 3. In paragraph 2, the misunderstanding occurs
    because ____________________.
  • A. the man standing by the road doesnt know
    where the American is going
  • B. the man standing by the road is dishonest and
    lied to the American
  • C. the man standing by the road wants to
    encourage the American
  • D. the man standing by the road knows the
    shortest way to the village

C
P2he will politely say, Just down the road. He
thinks this is more encouraging, gentler, and
therefore the answer the traveler wants to hear.
So the American drives alone for many more hours
before he comes to the village.
141
  • 4. We can infer from paragraph 3 that
    ____________________.
  • A. the American has no idea about how tired the
    traveler is
  • B. the American considers honesty important
  • C. the American wants to disappoint the traveler
  • D. the American knows what the traveler wants to
    hear

B
If a visitor to the United States asked an
American standing by the road how far the next
town was, the American would think it dishonest
if he said it was near when he knew it was really
24 miles away.
142
  • 5. What is the writers attitude toward the
    different cultures?
  • A. The writer thinks it natural for people in
    different cultures to misunderstand each other.
  • B. The writer thinks American culture better than
    many cultures of the world.
  • C. The writer thinks American culture worse than
    many cultures of the world.
  • D. The writer thinks people will always get
    confused with the cultural differences.

A
P1 Considering such differences in values among
many cultures of the world, it is natural that
misunderstandings occur.
143
III. Vocabulary and Structure
  • 1. This is a tough job. But I believe if you try
    your best, you can _______ it.
  • A. take B. keep C. make D. hold

C
144
  • 2. I feel puzzled and ________. What on earth
    does he want with me?
  • A. upset B. excited
  • C. comfortable D. joyful

A
145
  • 3. It's not urgent we can do it next week or
    ___________.
  • A. whatever B. whichever
  • C. wherever D. whenever

D
146
  • 4. Smoke less everyday, then you might be able to
    quit ___________ for good.
  • A. smoke B. smoking
  • C. to smoke D. smoked

B
147
  • 5. This work is terrific, and you gentlemen
    should not adopt a ________ attitude towards it.
  • A. careful B. cautious
  • C. casual D. capable

C
148
  • 6. Its no big ________ that his car is more
    expensive than mine.
  • A. deal B. event C. thing D. stuff

A
149
  • 7. It is harder to marry a daughter well than to
    ______ her ______ well.
  • A. bring down B. bringin
  • C. bring about D. bring up

D
150
B
  • 8. We cant act on your advice. _____________,
    thank you for giving it.
  • A. Moreover B. Nevertheless
  • C. Therefore D. After all

151
  • 9. She ___________ to enjoy the party if she
    hadn't been very busy.
  • A. would come
  • B. would have come
  • C. will have come
  • D. should come

B
152
  • 10. The leader ordered that the task _________ as
    soon as possible.
  • A. to be finished B. finish
  • C. be finished D. finished

C
153
IV. Cloze
154
  • Not everyone in the world requires the same
    amount of living space. The amount of space a
    person needs around him is a cultural difference,
    not an economic one. Knowing your own
    psychological (???) space needs is important
    because they ___1___ affect your choices,
    including, for example, the ___2___ of bedrooms
    in the home.

155
  • If you ___3____ in a two-child family and ___4___
    you and your sister or brother had your own
    bedrooms, the chances are, if you have two
    children or more, that you also will ___5___
    separate bedrooms for them.

156
  • In America, for example, they train people to
    want to have their own rooms by giving them their
    own rooms when they are babies. This is very
    ___6___ in the world. In many other countries,
    the baby sleeps in the ___7___ bed with his
    parents or in bed near them.

157
  • The space in the home also shows a lot about
    psychological space needs. Some families gather
    closer to one another and the size of their house
    has ___8___ to do with it. Others have separate
    little corners where family members go to bed
    alone.

158
  • Although it is true that psychological space
    needs are not decided by economic reasons, they
    ___9___ have to be changed a little because of
    economic ___10___. It is almost impossible,
    however, to completely change your psychological
    space needs.

159
  • Not everyone in the world requires the same
    amount of living space. The amount of space a
    person needs around him is a cultural difference,
    not an economic one. Knowing your own
    psychological (???) space needs is important
    because they ___1___ affect your choices,
    including, for example, the ___2___ of bedrooms
    in the home.
  • 1. A. hardly B. strongly C. only D. highly
  • 2. A. number B. amount C. quantity D. quality

v
v
160
  • If you ___3____ in a two-child family and ___4___
    you and your sister or brother had your own
    bedrooms, the chances are, if you have two
    children or more, that you also will ___5___
    separate bedrooms for them.
  • 3. A. bring up B. brought up
  • C. were brought up D. had brought up
  • 4. A. neither B. no one C. none D. both
  • 5. A. give B. share C. present D. offer

v
v
v
161
  • In America, for example, they train people to
    want to have their own rooms by giving them their
    own rooms when they are babies. This is very
    ___6___ in the world. In many other countries,
    the baby sleeps in the ___7___ bed with his
    parents or in bed near them.
  • 6. A. hard B. rare C. seldom D. usual
  • 7. A. single B. one C. same D. similar

v
v
162
  • The space in the home also shows a lot about
    psychological space needs. Some families gather
    closer to one another and the size of their house
    has ___8___ to do with it. Others have separate
    little corners where family members go to bed
    alone.
  • 8. A. something B. anything
  • C. nothing D. everything

v
163
  • Although it is true that psychological space
    needs are not decided by economic reasons, they
    ___9___ have to be changed a little because of
    economic ___10___. It is almost impossible,
    however, to completely change your psychological
    space needs.
  • 9. A. sometimes B. sometime
  • C. some time D. some times
  • 10. A. tension B. condition
  • C. influence D. pressure

v
v
164
V. Translation Put the following sentences into
Chinese.
  • 1. It is easy to assume that every culture
    socializes children in the same way.

??????????????????????
165
  • 2. A study of 6-to 11-year-old children in six
    farming communities in the United States, Kenya,
    Okinawa, northern India, the Philippines, and
    Mexico is a good example of these studies.

??????????????,?????????????????????????????????6
?11??????
166
  • 3. More importantly, they found that parental
    expectations about work around the house were an
    important part of childrens socialization.

?????,????????????????????????????
167
  • 4. Not every family in the particular culture
    socializes their children in exactly the same
    wayand this would be true of expectations about
    household chores also.

??????????????????????????????????????????
168
  • 5. In these families, the needs of the group are
    seen as more important than the needs of the
    individual, and so children learn that their
    first responsibility is to their parents rather
    than to themselves.

??????,?????????????????,???????????????????????
???
169
VI. Writing
  • You are required to write a composition on the
    topic Communicating Effectively Across Cultures
    with no less than 80 words based on the outline
    given below.
  • ???(globalization)???????????????
  • ???????????
  • ???????????

170
Sample
  • As the result of globalization, communication
    across cultures is getting more and more
    frequent.
  • Cultural differences may lead to
    misunderstanding. For example, most Americans are
    used to being on time, while in some other
    cultures people dont mind being late. Knowing
    nothing of the other culture, people may find the
    other strange or ill-mannered.

171
  • To communicate effectively across cultures, we
    should be positive. Remember there are different
    ways of thinking and living, and we need to
    respect those different from our own. In
    addition, wed better learn about habits and
    customs in other cultures to avoid
    misunderstanding.

172
Additional Information
  • Globalization

173
  • Globalization (or globalisation) describes an
    ongoing process by which regional economies,
    societies, and cultures have become integrated
    through a globe-spanning network of communication
    and execution.
  • The term is sometimes used to refer specifically
    to economic globalization the integration of
    national economies into the international economy
    through trade, foreign direct investment, capital
    flows, migration, and the spread of technology.

174
  • However, globalisation is usually recognized as
    being driven by a combination of economic,
    technological, sociocultural, political, and
    biological factors. The term can also refer to
    the transnational circulation of ideas,
    languages, or popular culture through
    acculturation.

175
  • Culture is defined as patterns of human activity
    and the symbols that give these activities
    significance. Culture is what people eat, how
    they dress, beliefs they hold, and activities
    they practice. Globalization has joined different
    cultures and made it into something different.

176
  • One classic culture aspect is food. Someone in
    America can be eating Japanese noodles for lunch
    while someone in Sydney, Australia is eating
    classic Italian meatballs. India is known for its
    curry and exotic spices. France is known for its
    cheeses. America is known for its burgers and
    fries. McDonalds is an American company which is
    now a global enterprise with 31,000 locations
    worldwide. This company is just one example of
    food causing cultural influence on the global
    scale.

177
  • Another common practice brought about by
    globalization is the usage of Chinese symbol in
    tattoos. These tattoos are popular with todays
    youth despite the lack of social acceptance of
    tattoos in China. Also, there is a lack of
    comprehension in the meaning of Chinese
    characters that people get, making this an
    example of cultural appropriation.

178
  • The internet breaks down cultural boundaries
    across the world by enabling easy,
    near-instantaneous communication between people
    anywhere in a variety of digital forms and media.
    The Internet is associated with the process of
    cultural globalization because it allows
    interaction and communication between people with
    very different lifestyles and from very different
    cultures. Photo sharing websites allow
    interaction even where language would otherwise
    be a barrier.

179
Anti-globalization
  • The "anti-globalization movement" is a term used
    to describe the political group who oppose the
    neoliberal version of globalization, while
    criticisms of globalization are some of the
    reasons used to justify this group's stance.

180
(No Transcript)
181
Additional Information
  • Western Culture vs Eastern Culture

182
Culture
  • Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from
    colere, meaning "to cultivate") is a term that
    has different meanings.

183
  • most commonly used in three basic senses
  • Excellence of taste in the fine arts and
    humanities, also known as high culture
  • An integrated pattern of human knowledge, belief,
    and behavior that depends upon the capacity for
    symbolic thought and social learning
  • The set of shared attitudes, values, goals, and
    practices that characterizes an institution,
    organization or group

184
West vs East
  • The division between "East" and "West" is a
    product of European cultural history
  • With the European colonization of the Americas
    the East/West distinction became global.

185
  • During the Cold War, the term "Eastern world" was
    sometimes used as an extension of Eastern bloc,
    connoting the Soviet Union, China and their
    communist allies, while the term "Western world"
    often connoted the United States and its NATO
    allies such as the United Kingdom and France.

186
Western Culture
  • Western culture (sometimes equated with Western
    civilization or European civilization) refers to
    cultures of European origin. However, the idea
    that all European countries belong to the Western
    culture is refused by the majority of Western
    scholars of social sciences.

187
  • The term "Western culture" is used very broadly
    to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical
    values, traditional customs, religious beliefs,
    political systems, and specific artifacts and
    technologies.

188
  • Elements of Western culture have had a very
    influential role on other cultures worldwide.
    Peop
Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
About PowerShow.com