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From Housing Need to Housing Markets:


From Housing Need to Housing Markets: Changing Institutions and Structures of Governance Martin McNally – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: From Housing Need to Housing Markets:

  • From Housing Need to Housing Markets
  • Changing Institutions and Structures of
  • Martin McNally

Presentation overview
  • Research aims
  • Approach to the research
  • The factors influencing the analytical framework
  • New institutionalism and rationale
  • Key structures of governance in West Yorkshire
  • Making sense of governance and territorial
    rescaling - key questions and themes
  • Conclusions
  • Did new institutionalism work?
  • Questions / comments

PhD Research Aims
  • To examine and investigate the roles and
    responsibilities of (mainly public) institutions
    who have a stake in relation to understanding
    housing markets analysis
  • To examine the utility of different analytical
    and methodological approaches to understanding
    housing markets
  • To consider practical use that is being made of
    the data being generated and whether it
    translates into housing market intervention
  • To look at role of new and emerging institutional
    structures of governance and the impact they are
    having on existing stakeholders charged with
    understanding housing markets
  • Case study focus on West Yorkshire due to the
    significance of housing market interventions
    characterised varied markets and interpretations
    of housing markets
  • Policy relevant funded as an ESRC Case
    Studentship and sponsored by the West Yorkshire
    Housing Partnership

Approach to the research
  • Approximately 50 interviews have been conducted
    with mainly with key stakeholders in West
  • Focus group with managers of the Housing Market
    Renewal (HMR) Pathfinders
  • Attendance at key stakeholder conferences and
  • Documentary analysis
  • The identification of three case study areas East
    and South East Leeds (EASEL), Castleford and
    Pontefract (growth areas) and Ilkley (rural
    housing market).

The factors which have influenced the research
and analytical framework
  • The increased saliency of housing markets linked
    to a political shift in concern away from housing
    need, tenure and neighbourhood leading to the
    residualisation of social housing (Lambert and
    Malpass 1998, Mullins and Murie 2006).
  • The growing academic and policy interest in and
    awareness of the need to understand and intervene
    in housing markets at various spatial scales
    (inter alia Maclennan and Tu 1996, Meen 2001,
    Cole et al 2003, Jones 2002)
  • The shift to housing markets and strategic
    housing at an institutional level (Bramley et al
  • The existence of differentiated housing markets
    one size now does not fit all
  • Variety of conceptualisations and interpretations
    of housing markets
  • The link between the housing market and
    macroeconomic performance - The Barker Review of
    Housing Supply (HM Treasury 2004)
  • And a recognition that housing markets do not
    respect administrative boundaries and the
    consequences for institutional working and
    emergence of complimentary structures of

New institutionalism
  • New institutionalism is presented as the central
    theme of the analytical and theoretical framework
  • new institutional theory highlights the
    importance of the formal andinformal rules,
    norms and conventions through which social action
    is shaped. (Newman 200126)new
    institutionalists concern themselves with
    informal conventions, as well as formal rules and
    structures they pay attention to the way in
    which institutions embody values and power
    relations, and study not just the impact of
    institutions upon behaviour, but the interaction
    between individuals and institutions. (Lowndes
    2001 1953)

Key Structures of Governance and Institutional
Relationships in West Yorkshire
(No Transcript)
Regional Governance post SNR
Source WYHP
Regional arrangements being planned
Source WYHP
West Yorkshire Sub-region
  • West Yorkshire Housing Partnership
  • Representing component local authority strategic
    housing interests
  • Became designated as a Housing Market Renewal
  • Developed a sub-regional housing strategy
  • Managed a substantial investment programme
    addressing neighbourhood regeneration, private
    sector housing renewal, empty homes, and fuel
  • Collaborated on research, policy, and lobbying
    activity in a number of key areas

Leeds City Region
  • The Leeds City Region Partnership brings together
    the eleven local authorities to work together
    toward a common prosperous and sustainable city
    region in areas such as transport, skills,
    housing, spatial planning and innovation.
  • The Leeds City Region is the real economy for 11
    local authorities across North, South and West
    Yorkshire. It is the area across which people
    travel to work, spend their leisure time, go to
    school, and live
  • We work as a city region because the day-to-day
    lives of people do not start and stop at local
    authority boundaries. The LCR Partnership is
    about councils working across the boundaries in
    which people choose to live, work and spend their
    leisure time

Institutional alliances below the sub-region
The spatial and institutional configurations
which can reflecting how housing markets are
understood and conceptualised
  • The Discourse of City Regions
  • Recognised as a new scale of strategic and
    administrative government (Robson et al 2006, HM
    Treasury, DTI and ODPM 2006, DCLG 2006b, Core
    Cities Group )
  • Cities increasingly seen as the locus of economic
    activity and development
  • Performing a central role in lifting and
    accelerating regional and economic growth
  • Existing local administrative boundaries less
    representative when compared to their real
    strategic and functional reach (Robson et al
  • The link between the geometry of labour markets
    and housing markets through journeys to work and
    commuting flows
  • The alternative arguments
  • The need for variable geometries in structures of
    governance (Robson et al 2006)
  • Kooiman (2008) Interactive governance

Making Sense of Rescaling and Changing Structure
of Governance
  • The shift to housing markets and strategic
    housing brought about the need to work in a
    variety of institutional settings partnerships
    and policy networks
  • Institutional structures attempt to reflect the
    changing perspectives regarding the
    configuration, conceptualisation and functioning
    of housing markets
  • Therefore rescaling and changing structures of
    governance are important shapers in relation to
    how stakeholders respond to and instigate their
    strategic housing responsibilities and housing
    market analysis
  • Stakeholders required to make sense of
    governance and rescaling
  • Raised questions about the optimal scales of
    governance for understanding and responding to
    housing markets

Changing governance and institutional structures
key questions and themes
  • To what extent can higher level structures and
    strategies articulate local priorities?
  • Is the city region a better, more optimal scale
    of governance for strategic housing than existing
    sub-regional governance e.g. the West Yorkshire
    Housing Partnership?
  • Is sub-regional governance politically and
    institutionally possible?
  • Collaboration versus competition
  • Politics and democratic accountability
  • The bigger picture
  • The dominance of Leeds
  • Increasing layers and complexity of governance
    and institutional relationships
  • Local priorities, higher strategies and the
    increasing difficulties of translating policy
    into delivery

Collaboration versus Competition
  • The tensions between achieving collaboration
    versus competitionas soon as you start looking
    at how housing money is going to be divided up
    whos getting what? What are the programmes? Then
    the councils begin to act quite differently and
    people are then looking to get as much of a bite
    as they can. Senior Housing Manager
  • The push towards strategic networks and
    partnerships versus local concerns and
  • The dominance of the larger metropolitan
  • Seeing the bigger pictureyou have to have a
    bigger voice than simply (the neighbourhood)
    advocating to government about whats needed.
    if we didnt have WYHP then everyone has to deal
    with government separately, then the more
    vociferous ones get the money. They have more
    clout ..and they have got people who are experts
    in the field. They (WYHP) are almost the honest
    broker to make sure that the voices at the lower
    level are heard Neighbourhood Manager

Politics and Democracy
  • The call for elected members to think outside the
    political box versus the democratic deficit of
    regional and sub-regional governance
  • Criticism of the constitution of the Regional
    Assembly being politically controlled by
    council leaders pedalling their own political
  • Not enough involvement of professional
    officersIf theres a housing requirement for a
    particular area, then its not something that
    there ought to be political intervention in and
    thats the difficulty because a large amount of
    the housing crisis is down to the fact that we
    dont release or control the release of housing
    as and when it is actually required. Private
    sector planner
  • Recognising the democratic deficit of structures
    of governancepoliticians are elected on a local
    ticket and therefore have to deal with difficult
    and sensitive decisions back to their respective
    cabinet colleagues and ward constituents Senior
    Regional Assembly ManagerI find regional
    government very worrying actually because it is
    not democratic for starters and we are taking a
    great part in the city region. I am on the
    regional transport board and I am also on the
    regional planning board. The hat I wear tomorrow
    morning is Leeds city region and thats for
    planning. When I go to the transport board I am
    West Yorkshire authorities, and I am the one
    representative of all those authorities I think
    its absolutely appalling I suppose the argument
    is you have to be strategic and space yourself
    out, but that isnt really what politics is
    about. Thats not what people elect you for they
    have elected you as a representative for them and
    I cant possibly represent all those areas I
    just dont think its representative at all.
    Local councillor

Increasing Layers of Governance
  • I think sometimes it just adds another layer of
    confusion to the challenges and the business
    that people are trying to get on with I just
    wonder if we really do need any more complexity
    in terms of political structures and how they
    work together and all the play offs and the stuff
    that it inevitably brings with it. I just dont
    know that its fully embedded itself in peoples
    way of thinking and peoples understanding and
    what its going to mean for Halifax or Dewsbury
    Im not clear on that. Senior Local Authority
    Housing Manager
  • I think sometimes we get so wound up about
    whats the region, whats the sub-region, whats
    the city .and people just get switched off. Its
    just like well what are we actually delivering?
    What are you actually implementing? I know we
    have to have the overall coordinated approach and
    I know we have to have the ideas and priorities
    as youd get nothing done, but sometimes I think
    we debate things that, you know, you just feel
    like saying Lets just get on and do it! And see
    what its going to do ..I just think there
    seems to be a lot of layers, a lot of
    bureaucracy, a lot of strategies but what are we
    actually delivering on the ground? LSVTO
  • the thing is with all of this sort of stuff,
    there is so much discussion about frameworks,
    strategic alliances bla bla bla bla bla that what
    gets forgotten is that there is a little old tax
    payer who wants a return for the money which is
    taken out of their back pocket. One of the
    messages for local government is that there is
    too much structure and architecture of change in
    the front of peoples heads and not enough work
    under the bonnet. Big Town Plan Project Director

High Level Strategy versus Local Priority
  • The remoteness of regional and larger
    sub-regional governanceThe regions are far too
    big theres nothing that happens in Hull that
    looks anything like what happens in Craven.
  • The lack of synchronisation with top down
    strategy results in compliance at the local
    levelJust thinking about this now how many
    times will I look back and say this was the
    housing strategy from the local authority? Not
    really. The housing strategy might say you have
    to consider low cost home ownership that might
    be in the back of my mind somewhere but its not
    something Ill go through with a fine toothcomb
    Which ever strategy it needs to fit into get the
    bloody money nationally!! Come on Martin, you
    know youve been around you know what its about
    you have to make things fit dont you? Senior
    Housing Association Director
  • I am sure it will do (connect to city regional
    strategy) but I am too ignorant of the detail of
    that agenda to really answer you accurately. If I
    am writing a funding bid I can bullshit about the
    city region and Northern Way and all those kinds
    of things. Programme Director Ayerton Case
    Study talking about the link to local Ayerton

Setting the sub-regional boundary (I)
  • The city region as a new scale of governance
  • Doubts about whether a formal structure could be
  • There is evidence of political buy in as well
    as conflict and democratic accountability
  • The most sensible scale of governance (e.g. for
    housing markets)
  • The need for variable geometry and systems of
    governance that are fit for purpose (Kooiman 2008
    , Robson 2006)
  • The view of the city regionalistsThey (city
    regions) are just a recognition of the reality
    arent they? If you map out how people move
    around the notion that its bounded by a district
    or an artificial boundary like West Yorkshire is
    a nonsense we create more problems for ourselves
    by sticking to these boundaries. Thats why we
    have to create things like a Golden Triangle
    partnership etc. Senior Manager City Region
  • Arguments against the remoteness of regional
    government could arguably apply to the city

Setting the sub-regional boundary (II)
  • The West Yorkshire sub-region has its roots in
    the political, historic former WYCC
  • Cultural, geographical and demographic
    similarities compared to the city region
  • Its post-industrial urban landscape
  • The concentration of BME and other marginalised
  • The characteristics of its housing stock, e.g.
    social housing and back to back terraces
  • The partnerships track record and expertise
    managing an investment programme of 200m 2008-11
    and leverage of 300m
  • The predominant paradigm of the city region is
    pro-growth with the city as the economic engine
  • The city region Multi-Area Agreement prioritised
    transport and skills

  • The clarity of the boundaries of the sub-regional
    scale matters when it comes to identifying the
    frameworks for housing market intervention
  • Rescaling at the sub-regional level is not a
    neutral exercise in relation to housing markets
  • Are interventions about housing supply and the
    housing for economic growth (as in the case of
    the city region) or quality and decency in the
    context of renewal?
  • Where the multi-layered nature of the housing
    markets meets increased differentiation in
    institutional roles and responsibilities
    resulting from rescaling policy management and
    policy implementation becomes more complex
  • The further away governance takes place it
    becomes less representative of local need
  • Compliance with new structures is instrumental
    Is it a way of getting our hands on the money?
    Housing Association Chief Executive
  • Top down perspectives suggest the world has
    changed when it comes to understanding housing
    markets and that new ways of working have been
    driven by rescaled structures
  • In practice local stakeholder are satisficing
    on the basis of dealing with more immediate
    constraints, local priorities and agendas

Did new institutionalism work?
  • Although in its purest form it does not pay
    attention to power and how it flows through
    policy networks and governance
  • It can be viewed as a heuristic device an
    abstract concept or model useful for thinking
    about the social phenomena that exist in
    institutional settings
  • Enabled the research to consider the gaps that
    exist between top down policy and everyday
    practice (Newman 2006)
  • Using NI meant that I could look at more informal
    aspects of institutional and political behaviour
    of stakeholder institutions
  • It does not assume ordered responses to top down
    policy and positivist approaches to understanding
    housing markets
  • The research was able to add considerable
    empirical weight to theoretical contributions
    regarding the role of the state (Clarke 2004 and
    Jessop 2000) that it continues to dictate
    systems of understanding housing markets as well
    as continuing to reshape and remake institutions
    through rescaling.

Some Key References
  • Cole, I., Hickman, P. and Reeve, K. (2003) Leeds
    Housing Market Perceptions of Change, Sheffield
    CRESR, Sheffield Hallam University.
  • Clarke, J. (2004) Changing welfare changing
    states new directions in social policy. London
  • Kooiman, J (2004) Interactive Governance and
    Governability An Introduction. The Journal of
    Transdisciplinary Environmental Studies. 7(1), pp
  • Mullins, D and Murie, A. (2006) Housing Policy in
    the UK (Hampshire Palgrave Macmillan).
  • ODPM (2003) Sustainable Communities Building for
    the Future. LondonODPM. Jessop, B. (2000)
    Governance Failure. In G. Stoker (ed) The New
    Politics of British Local Government.
    Basingstoke Macmillan.
  • Lowndes, V. (2001) Rescuing Aunt Sally Taking
    Institutional Theory Seriously in Urban Politics,
    Urban Studies 38 (11) pp.1953-1971.
  • Newman, J. (2001) Modernising Governance New
    Labour, Policy and Society. Sage London.
  • Pierre, J. (1999) Models of Urban Governance The
    Institutional Dimension of Urban Politics. Urban
    Affairs Review. 34, pp. 372 396.
  • Robson, B., Barr, R., Lymperopoulou, K and Rees,
    J. (2006) A framework for City Regions Working
    Paper 1, Mapping City-Regions. London ODPM.
  • Sprigings. N (2007) National Evaluation of
    Housing Market Renewal Pathfinders Thematic
    Paper. Buy-to-let Housing Market in the HMR
    pathfinders. The experience of pathfinders in the
    early stages of the programme. Norwich Office
    of Public Sector Information.

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