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Wall Finishes pages 245-257 in "Interior Construction and Detailing"


Ceramic tile may be applied directly over drywall if the room is likely to be damp, special moisture-resistant drywall should be used. Or tile may be applied to a ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Wall Finishes pages 245-257 in "Interior Construction and Detailing"

Wall Finishespages 245-257 in "Interior
Construction and Detailing"
  • Wall finishes include
  • those applied as a single, thin decorative
    covering, such as paint, wallpaper, and vinyl
  • and those composed of several construction
    elements that can add substantial thickness to a
    wall, such as ceramic tile or stone panels.

  • Brendan Clarke of Maharam, presented a good
    variety of wall coverings, including fabrics,
    vinyls, and some metallic based sheet products.

Acoustical panels
  • when a high degree of sound absorption is
    desired, acoustical panels can be a good choice.
  • Two primary decisions regarding acoustical
  • fabric type
  • core material

  • fabric for acoustical panels must be permeable,
    to allow for sound energy to pass through.
  • this also means that the fabric should not have a
  • fabrics for acoustical panels should be
    'hydrophobic' which means that they do not hold
    and absorb moisture.

Acoustical panels expanded polypropylene
moisture resistant, impact resistant, tackable,
lightweight, indoor-outdoor
High impact fabric covered panelscompressed
figerglass core, class A fire rated, chemically
hardened edges
glass reinforced gypsum ceiling panelssometimes
used for acoustical purposes
For acoustical panel covering, it is important to
use fabric that does not absorb and retain
  • Hydrophobic fabrics do not absorb and retain
  • These include polyester, acetates, nylon.
  • Hydrophillic fabrics absorb and retain moisture.
  • These include cotton, wool, and silk.

Stone used as a wall finish
  • typical stone used for wall finishes include
  • granite, marble, limestone, slate, sandstone.
  • manmade products, such as cast stone, can mimic
    the visual and material qualities of natural

Stone tiles and panels
  • stone tiles, and panels, used as wall finish
    materials have definite size constraints.
  • the term tile means a small, (generally no
    larger than 12x12) thin, modular piece of
    material. tiles can be made of metal, glass,
    wood, leather, plastic, ceramics, cork, and
    nearly any other material.
  • tile does not always mean ceramic.
  • the table on page 252 of "Interior Construction
    and Detailing" lists a variety of stone types and
    size limitations or requirements.

details in stone wall finish installation
  • stone used as a finished wall surface can be
    achieved using two different approaches
  • tiles thin, small, modular, pieces, typically
    no larger than 12" x 12".
  • panels/slabs 3/4" up to 4" thick.

Stone tiles granite, quartzite, multi colored
slate, black slate, green slate, multi-colored
Stone wall panels marble panels attached to a
sub-surface wall
Olivetti showroom, Venice, Italydesigned by
Carlo Scarpamarble stairs, bench, balcony low
stone tiles
stone panels
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marble floor tiles, wall tiles
granite wall panels
marble floor tiles
pattern making using tiles
slate flooring
Ceramic tiles with LED lights embedded in each
Finnish designer Maija Puoskari has taken
inspiration from nature to create this concept of
snow print tiles. Each tile looks like a silver
patch of snow which is adorned with footprints of
an animal.
Studio JSPRs Cover-Tiles collection is a series
of tiles that cover pipes, connections and water
taps which are normally enclosed in the wall.
With Cover-Tiles, these elements are all visible
on the outside.
Wood tiles from DeckTiles.org at ICFF These
tiles snap together.
MIO's modular 3D Wallpaper Create pattern
variation by rotating the tiles or painting them.
The lightweight recycled paper modules can be
installed temporarily with double stick tape or
permanently with wallpaper paste. A box of 12
tiles (12 x 12 x 2 1/4) sell for about 32.
Mio Culture - Ripple Paper Forms
Acoustic Weave 3D Wallpaper Designed to diffuse
sound, reduce acoustic glare and eliminate
standing waves add to that it's green
credentials (100 recycled and recyclable paper
made in closed-loop manufacturing from locally
sourced materials)
wall flats Designers Mike Jennifer Tuttle
  • Wall Flats are Inhabit's take on a modern,
    eco-friendly wallpaper.
  • A modern embossed three-dimensional wallcovering
    that is good for the environment.
  • Wall Flats are made from 100 bamboo pulp, one of
    the worlds most renewable resources. No trees
    were harmed in the making of this product) They
    are a sustainable wallcovering that is free of
    chemicals and will not be a burden to the
    environment at the end of it's lifecycle, since
    the tiles are 100 bio-degradable.
  • Wall Flats are designed to expand in any
    direction with an automatic pattern repeat and
    can be painted to coordinate with decor. You can
    cover a existing wall with Wall Flats, help
    disguise a not-so-smooth wall or add a modern,
    green wallpaper to any room setting through

wall flats Designers Mike Jennifer Tuttle
ceramic tile
ceramic tile
  • Ceramic tile is especially useful in kitchens and
    bathrooms because it is water-resistant and easy
    to clean and extremely durable.
  • Made from a mixture of clays and fired at high
    temperatures, tile is used for wall coverings,
    floors, showers, countertops, bath surrounds, and
  • Tiles used on walls and counters are generally

  • Grout, a kind of mortar, is spread between tiles
    to lock them in place and fill the joints between
    them. Grout may be white or colored with pigment.

  • Ceramic tile may be applied directly over
    drywallif the room is likely to be damp, special
    moisture-resistant drywall should be used. Or
    tile may be applied to a mortar bed or a backer
    board made of a ceramic aggregate core that is
    coated with a thin fiberglass mesh.

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mosaic tiles are typically joined into a sheet
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Ceramic tile pattern making
Mosaic tiles
Paints and Coatings
  • What is paint?
  • Paints are made up of four components pigment,
    binder, solvent/liquid carrier, and additives.
  • Varnishes, which form transparent or
    semi-transparent films, are made up of the last
    three components, with colored varnishes
    containing small amounts of pigment.

Paint is manufactured to meet specific needs
Types of Paint
  • water base paint
  • solvent base paint
  • these are the two basic types of paint generally
  • paint may have physical or chemical
    characteristics such as
  • matte surface, semi gloss surface, high gloss
  • non-drip paint, primer, undercoats,
  • fire retardant paint (intumescent), metallic,
    concrete floor
  • paint, porch paint, anti-fungus paint, heat
    resistant paint

  • Pigments, which give color and opacity/covering
    power, are finely dispersed solid particles. In
    some cases they can be used to impart certain
    protective properties, eg rust prevention, and to
    control gloss levels

  • The binder is the material that forms the film,
    giving protection to the substrate and keeping
    the pigment in place and evenly dispersed. It may
    be made up of a single, or a combination of
    polymers. The binder may be dissolved in a
    solvent, or in the form of an emulsion or
    colloidal dispersion in water. This results in
    solvent-borne and water-borne paints,

  • The solvent/liquid carrier is used to effect
    application of the coating. It may be water or an
    organic solvent, or a mixture of both, and thins
    the paint or varnish, allowing it to be brushed,
    sprayed, dipped or rolled.
  • Once on the substrate, the solvent evaporates,
    leaving the dry film coating. The term 'liquid
    carrier' is preferable because the liquid may not
    be a true solvent for the binder.

  • Additives are used, in small amounts, to modify
    the film or paint. Examples are driers, which
    promote the drying time of some coatings
    flow-control agents, which give a smooth surface
    defoamers, which prevent the formation of bubbles
    that could dry in the film and anti-skinning
    agents to prevent the paint from forming a 'skin'
    in the can

Water Base Vs. Solvent Base
  • Water-based non-flammable, clean up with water,
    quick drying in good conditions, low VOC content,
    low odor, non-yellowing
  • Solvent-based better drying in cold, damp
    conditions, better low-temperature storage, no
    can corrosion problems, less wood-grain raising,
    higher gloss

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Fire retardant and fire resistant coatings
  • flame retardant paints slow the rate of flame
  • intumescent coatings bubble up, or expand, when
    exposed to extremely high heat
  • fire resistant paints are not as effective at
    controlling the
  • spread of flames as intumescent, or fire
    retardant paints.
  • fire resistant paint does not burn, but it also
    does not help control the spread of the flames

  • Washing machine manufacturers do not need to buy
    cans of paint to give color to their products.
  • Instead, they buy huge rolls of sheet steel
    already treated and coated with flexible and
    durable paints that allow the appliance casings
    to be cut and formed into shape without damage.

  • This technique, known as 'coil coating', used to
    make this 'bendable' paint. A thin coil of the
    metal to be painted is cleaned and pretreated
    before being fed along a coating line whereby the
    primer, top and back paint layers are applied in
    two stages. After each paint application, the
    coil is oven cured and allowed to cool before the
    painted coil emerges at the end of the process.
    The coating is formulated to have great
    flexibility, allowing the coated metal to be
    manipulated without the paint cracking.

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  • Wallcoverings offer improved durability over
    typical paint finishes while providing texture
    and pattern to the wall surface.
  • The most widely used wallcoverings for commercial
    use are vinyls.
  • There is a classification system used to compare
    all types of commercial wallcovering.
  • This is the ASTM F793 Standard Classification of
    Wallcoverings by Durability Characteristics.

Wallcovering Classification
  • Category 1 decorative only
  • Category 2 decorative with medium
  • Category 3 decorative with high serviceability
  • Category 4 Type I Commercial serviceability
  • Category 5 Type II Commercial serviceability
  • Category 6 Type III Commercial serviceability

Vinyl Wallcoverings
  • There is a special standard that describes vinyl
    wallcovering as
  • Type I light duty, with a minimum weight of 7
    oz/sq. yard
  • Type II medium duty, with a minimum weight of 13
    oz/sq. yard
  • Type III heavy duty, with a minimum weight of 22
    oz/sq. yard

Materials Backings
  • Vinyl
  • scrim, a loosely woven fabric backing used on
    Type I vinyls
  • Osnaburg, a loose open weave fabric used on Type
    II vinyls
  • Drill, a dense woven fabric with good dimensional
    stability used on Type II and Type III vinyls
  • Nonwoven, a paperlike backing used on Type I

Surface Materials for Walls
  • Wood Veneer bonding wood veneer (about 1/64"
    thick) to a woven backing material.
  • Textiles paper backing or a latex coating
  • Fiberglass a fiberglass fabric that is applied
    to a backing. Fiberglass wallcoverings must be
    painted after they are installed.
  • Wallpaper paper wallcoverings are generally
    restricted to residential use because of
    fragility and poor wear resistance.

Wall Preparation
  • Four traditional ways to prepare a wall surface
    to receive a wallcovering
  • Seal usually oil based
  • Size reduces the absorbency of the surface
  • Prime assure proper adhesion
  • Wall liner nonwoven sheets cover cracks or
    holes in preparation for a finished wallcovering

Upholstered Wall Systems
  • site constructed coverings that stretch fabric
    taut over a frame and infill material. the frame
    material is typically either a plastic extrusion,
    or a wood frame.

Upholstered Panels
Ceiling Finishes
  • Ceilings are central in defining the volume of a
    space and shape the diffusion of sound and light
    within a space.
  • Ceilings also typically conceal an array of
    systems components, in a plenum space.
  • Ceilings in a space can be
  • suspended
  • exposed
  • tightly attached

Ceiling Components Manufactured by Armstrong
GRG glass reinforced gypsum
  • glass reinforced gypsum (GRG) is used to make
    shapes that used to be made of plaster column
    covers, domes, and molded to nearly any shape.
  • GRG is much stronger than standard gypsum board.
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