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Title: The

The How To Grants Manual
  • David G. Bauer
  • 5th Edition

Setting Yourself Up for Grants Success
  • Chapter One

Setting Yourself Up for Grants Success
  • Developing Your Career Grants Plan
  • Developing a Proactive System
  • Festingers Theory of Cognitive Dissonance
  • Values-Based Grantseeking

Developing and Documenting the Need for Your
  • Chapter Two

Creating Urgency and a Compelling Proposal
  • Document the need
  • What is the problem that requires a solution?
  • What will happen if this needs area is not
  • What is the gap between what exists now and what
    ought to be or would be if the knowledge existed
    to solve the problem?
  • Why should grant funds be used now to solve the
    problem and reduce the gap?

Creating a Gap Between What Exists Now and What
Could or Should Be
  • The statement of the problem must be
  • Clear,
  • Concise, and
  • Possess a futuristic reference to why the problem
    needs to be addressed now!
  • Grantors fund proposals that show the greatest
    impact in moving to close the gap in a particular

Needs Assessment ApproachesThe Six Basic
  • Key informant Quotations from people who know
    about the problem or are experts in the field.
  • Community Forum Public meetings to get
    testimony on the problem.
  • Case Studies Examples of clients in a need
  • Statistical analysis Use of data from public
  • Survey Random selection of population to answer
    questions related to the need.
  • Studies Literature search of published
    documents on the subject.

Finding Time to Write Grant Proposals
  • Chapter Three

Organizing a Proposal Development Workbook
  • There are two (2) major obstacles to
  • Finding the time to get involved
  • Developing a proactive approach
  • The Swiss Cheese Concept
  • Create manageable tasks for the process
  • Time-efficient and cost effective
  • Keeps proposal information more organized

Suggested Proposal Development Tabs
  • Introduction
  • Documenting Need
  • Organizing the Process
  • Developing Ideas
  • Redefining Ideas
  • Uniqueness
  • Advisory Committees and Advocacy
  • Choosing the Marketplace

Tabs for governmental funding sources
  • Researching Government Marketplace
  • Characteristics Government Grants
  • Contracting Government Sources
  • Planning Federal Proposals
  • Improving Federal Proposals
  • Submission Public Sources
  • Decision Public Sources
  • Follow-up Government Sources

Tabs for private funding sources
  • Differences Public versus Private Sources
  • Recording Research
  • Foundation Research Tools
  • Researching Corporate Grants
  • Contracting Private Sources
  • Letter Proposal
  • Submission Private Sources
  • Decision Private Sources
  • Follow-up Private Sources

Developing Grant-Winning Ideas
  • Chapter Four

From Research to Model Projects
  • Look at your organization and grant request from
    the the grantors point-of-view.
  • Try and determine the grantors values, their
    likes and dislikes, and avoid those that are
    negative and highlighting those that appeal to
    the grantor
  • Develop several approaches to solving your
    problem and discuss them with the prospective
    funding source before submittal.

Worksheets can help you
  • Generate more fundable ideas through
    brainstorming sessions
  • Develop a system to summarize best ideas and
    access organizational commitment to the project
  • Conduct a cost-benefit analysis of your best
  • Develop institutional support for your proposal
    early in the process

Brainstorming More Fundable Proposal Ideas
  • Break your participants into groups of five to
  • Appoint a neutral group leader to facilitate the
  • Appoint a recorder
  • Set a time limit
  • State one question or problem
  • Ask group members to generate and present as many
    possible solutions to the problem as they can
    within the time limit.

Brainstorming More Fundable Proposal Ideas
  • Encourage group members to piggyback on each
    others ideas
  • Record all answers, combining those that are
  • Avoid any evaluation or discussion of ideas until
    the process is over this rule is critical for
    productive brainstorming

Cost-Benefit Analysis Worksheet
Summary of Idea and Methodology Cost No. of Persons Served Cost per person served Positive Points Negative Points

Preproposal Summary and Approval Form
  • This is like your Insurance Policy
  • You fill out the form and then solicit review and
    a critique by those who will be involved and must
    sign off on the proposal
  • This form provides a way to test the acceptance
    of your idea
  • Helps summarize all needed resources staff,
    capital, match and other items that will be
    required to implement the project.

Redefining Proposal Ideas
  • Chapter Five

Improving Your Database Research and Finding More
Funding Sources
  • Dont become overly self-focused (a case of the
    we-we disease)
  • Develop different key search terms to uncover
    different types of funding sources
  • Learning to develop Corporate Key Search Terms
  • Remember corporations like to support projects
    where they live and like to fund projects that
    can be related to their profits.

Why Grant Funds to You and Your Organization?
  • Chapter Six

Capitalizing on Your Capabilities
  • Why should the funder choose you?
  • When to use similarity as a uniqueness
  • Conduct a uniqueness exercise
  • Using your organizations case/mission statement
    to support your proposal
  • Using your existing case/mission statement
  • Elements of a case/mission statement

Creating Grant-Winning Teams and Consortia
  • Chapter Seven

Involving Volunteers through Advisory Committees
and Advocacy Groups
  • Recognizing the roles that comprise an effective
  • Involving volunteers
  • Grants Advisory Committees

Grant Resources
  • Preparing your proposal
  • Making pre-proposal contact
  • Developing consortia or cooperative relationships
    and subcontracts

How To Incorporate Advocates To Increase Grants
  • Endorsement Letters
  • Contacts
  • Community Support
  • Involving Existing Boards, Advisory Groups,
    Volunteers, and Staff
  • Using Webbing and Linkage Information

Choosing the Correct Grants Marketplace
  • Chapter Eight

General Grants Marketplace Information
  • The two main sources of support for nonprofit
    organizations and their grant requests are
  • Government
  • Private philanthropy
  • The grants area is one that does not have a
    political action committee or strong lobby

Understanding the Government Marketplace
  • Chapter Nine

Types of Grants
  • Block Grants
  • Formula Grants
  • Categorical Grants
  • Contracts
  • State Government Grants

Block Grants
  • Under this program states would set their
    priorities and grant the federal funds to the
    high-priority areas and projects as they saw fit
  • Example Small Cities CDBG (Community Development
    Block Grant)

Formula Grants
  • Funds are allocated according to a set of
  • Generally specific to a problem area or
    geographic region
  • Must pass through an intermediary, such as a
    state, city or county government or a commission,
    before reaching the grantee.
  • While the general guidelines are developed at the
    federal level, the rules are open to
    interpretation, and local input can significantly
    alter the intent of the original federal program.
  • Formula and block grants are also easy target for
    elimination because it is difficult to
    substantiate results.

Categorical Grants
  • Designed to promote proposals within a very
    specific, well-defined area of interest
  • Use peer panel reviews to evaluate proposals
  • Each federal agency has its own grant system
  • Detailed, time consuming grant applications
  • Most agencies are now going to on-line submissions

  • The basic difference between a grant and a
    contract is that a contract outlines precisely
    what the government wants done.
  • Advertised differently from grants
  • GrantsCFDA
  • ContractsFedBizOpps
  • The contract game requires a successful track
    record and documentable expertise

State Government Grants
  • While all federal funding must be listed in a
    database, most states do not have a database and
    grant seeking is much more difficult
  • Look at the state agency websites and talk with
    state officials
  • Advantages are that you dont have to travel as
    far and it allows you to use your state and local
    politicians to make your case heard.
  • Disadvantages are states set their own priorities
    and they may add additional restrictions.

Researching the Government Marketplace
  • Chapter Ten

The Federal Grants System
  • Requests for Proposals (RFP)
  • Matching Requirements
  • Other Requirements
  • Federal Grants Research Form

Federal Research Tools
  • Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA)
  • http//
  • Federal Register
  • http//
  • Federal Business Opportunities
  • http//

Grant Databases
  • GrantSelect
  • Sponsored Programs Information Network (SPIN)
  • Illinois Researcher Information Service (IRIS)
  • Community of Science (COS)
  • Federal Agency Internet Mailing Lists

How to Contact Government Grant Sources
  • Chapter Eleven

When To Make Prepropsal Contact
  • Step 1 dissemination of and comment on the rules
    and regulations governing each program and
    comments from any interested party. The comments
    are published, the finalrules are printed, and
    the announcements of deadlines are made in such
    publications as the Federal Register, NIH Guide,
    and National Science Foundation E-Bulletin.

When To Make Prepropsal Contact
  • Step 2 The federal Program officer then develops
    the actual application package and places it on
    the agencys Web site for public access. (RFP or
  • Step 3 The deadline for submission occurs.
  • Step 4 Once proposals are submitted, they are
    reviewed, peer reviewed and evaluated and scored
    according to the evaluation criteria of the
  • Step 5 The notices of award and rejection are
    made and the cycle starts again.

Getting The Most From Past Grantees
  • Who received funding in the past?
  • Contacting a Past Grantee (what questions to ask)
  • Did you call or go see the funding source before
    writing the proposal?
  • Whom did you find most helpful on the funding
    sources staff?
  • Did you use you advocates or congressperson?
  • Did the funding source review your idea or
    proposal before submission?

Getting The Most From Past Grantees
  • Did you use consultants to help you on the
  • Was there a hidden agenda to the programs
  • When did you begin the process of developing your
  • When did you first contact the funding source?
  • What materials did you find most helpful in
    developing your proposal?

Getting The Most From Past Grantees
  • Did the funding source come to see you (site
    visit) before or after the proposal was awarded?
    Who came? What did they wear? How old were
    they? Would you characterize them as
    conservative, moderate, or liberal? Did anything
    surprise you during their visit?
  • How close was your initial budget to the awarded
  • Who on the funding sources staff negotiated the
  • How did you handle matching or in-kind
  • What would you do differently next time?

Understanding The Proposal Review Process
  • Who was on the last review team?
  • What were their credentials?
  • What organizations were the reviewers affiliated
  • How were proposals reviewed?

Contacting a Past Reviewer
  • How did you get to be a reviewer?
  • What training did you receive?
  • Where did you review proposals?
  • What evaluation system did you follow?
  • What were the most common mistakes you saw?
  • Did you meet other reviewers?
  • How many proposals did you review?
  • How long did you have to review the proposals?
  • How did the funding source handle discrepancies
    in the point assignment?
  • Did a staff review follow your review?

Telephoning, Faxing, and E-Mailing Federal and
State Funding Sources
  • Do your homework
  • Review all available information that you have on
    the grant announcement
  • Ask specific questions
  • Dont ask questions where the answer is already
    in the grant announcement
  • Follow up

Making an Appointment with a Public Funding
Source Official
  • This is not always possible due to geographic
    location, but can beneficial
  • Call first an try to set an appointment
  • Try a cold call and it might result in someone
    seeing you right away
  • Avoid using politicians to set a meeting up or
    going with you on the appointment

Visiting Public Funding Sources
  • Plan for your visit
  • What to Take
  • Questions to ask a program Officer
  • Making a decision to develop a proposal

Planning the Successful Federal Proposal
  • Chapter Twelve

Documentation of Need
  • Creating a sense of urgency depends on how well
    you document the need
  • Document a real need (perceived as important)
  • Demonstrating what ought to be (for clients) or
    the field of interest
  • Creating the urgent need to close the gap by
    demonstrating that each day the need is not
    addressed the problem grows worse or that there
    is unnecessary suffering, confusion, and/or
    wasted efforts

What You Propose To Study Or Change
  • Objectives outline the steps you propose to take
    or narrow or close the gap created in the needs
    statement. They follow the needs statement
    because they cannot be written until the needs
    has been documented.
  • Remember that objectives must be measurable and
    you must be able to evaluate them.

Objectives Versus Methods
  • Objectives tell the grantseeker and the funding
    source what will be accomplished by the
    expenditure of funds and how the change will be
  • Methods state the means to the end or change.

How to Write Objectives
  • Determine result areas.
  • Determine measurement indicators
  • Determine performance standards
  • Determine the time frame
  • Determine the cost frame
  • Write the objective
  • Evaluate the objective

Methods Identify
  • What will be done
  • Who will do it
  • How long it will take
  • The materials and equipment needed

Methods Section Should
  • Describe your program activities in detail and
    demonstrate how they will fulfill your objectives
    or research study
  • Describe the sequence, flow, and
    interrelationship of the activities
  • Describe the planned staffing for your program
    and designate who is responsible for which
  • Describe your client population and method for
    determining client selection
  • State a specific time frame
  • Present a reasonable scope of activities that can
    be accomplished within that stated time frame
    with your organizations resources
  • Refer to the cost-benefit ratio of your project
  • Include a discussion of risk (why success is
  • Describe the uniqueness of your methods and
    overall project design

The Project Planner
  • Develop your budget by having you clearly define
    which project personnel will perform each
    activity for a given time frame, with the
    corresponding consultant services, supplies,
    materials, and equipment
  • Defend you budget on an activity-by-activity
    basis so that you can successfully negotiate your
    final award
  • Project a monthly and quarterly cash forecast for
    year 1, year 2 and year 3 of your proposed
  • Identify matching or in-kind contributions

Indirect Costs
  • These are difficult to break down individually
    but are indirectly attributable to the
    performance of federal grants.
  • Includes such items as
  • Heating and light
  • Building maintenance
  • Payroll personnel
  • Purchasing
  • And others
  • These are negotiated yearly with the cognizant
    agency and are based on a formula

  • The project planner contains all the information
    needed to construct the budget.
  • SF-424A (Budget forms for non-construction
  • Budget Narrative is also usually required

  • Federal and state funding sources generally place
    a much heavier emphasis on evaluation than most
    private sources do.
  • Enlist your local college or university (they
    have staff and students who can often provide
    services that can be mutually beneficial

Summary or Abstract
  • Written after the proposal is completed
  • The second most often read part of a proposal
  • Serves a dual purpose
  • Provide the peer reviewer with a clear idea of
    what the proposed research or project entails
  • Provide grantseekers with an example of the type
    of research or project the federal agency funds
  • An abbreviated version of your proposal

Title Page
  • The title of a proposal is very important. It is
    the first part read by reviewers, and, if its
    not good it may be the only part read
  • The title of your proposal should
  • Describe your project
  • Express your projects end results, not methods
  • Describe your projects benefits to clients
  • Be short and easy to remember
  • Dont use jargon or acronyms

Future Funding
  • Funding sources want to see their investment
  • Ways you could continue your project
  • Service fees
  • Membership fees
  • Support from agencies such as the United Way
  • Big gift campaigns aimed at wealthy individuals
  • An endowment program
  • Foundation and corporate grants
  • A direct-mail campaign
  • Other fundraising mechanisms

  • Let others know what you and the funding source
    have accomplished
  • Consider establishing consortia
  • You can disseminate the results of your grant by
  • Mailing a final report, quarterly journal, or a
    newsletter to others in your field
  • Sponsoring a seminar or conference on the topic
  • Attending a national or international conference
    to deliver the results of the project
  • Produce a CD or video of the project

Attachments for Proposals
  • Studies or research, tables, and graphs
  • Vitae of key personnel
  • Minutes of advisory committee meetings
  • List of board members
  • Auditors report or statement
  • Letters of recommendation or endorsement
  • Copy of your IRS tax-exempt designation
  • Pictures or architects drawings
  • Copies of your agencys publications
  • List of other funding sources you will approach
    for support

Writing Your Federal or State Proposal
  • To create a winning proposal
  • Follow the guidelines exactly
  • Fill in all the blanks
  • Double-check all computations
  • Include anything the funding source asks for,
    even if you think you already provided the
    information under another section of your proposal

  • Make sure that your proposal uses language
    appropriate to the reviewers.
  • Shorter words are generally better than long
    complex ones
  • Avoid buzzwords unless you are sure the reviewer
    expects them
  • Define all acronyms

Writing Style
  • Peer reviews are typically short on time so
    follow these tips
  • Use simple sentences and short paragraphs
  • Begin each section with a strong motivating lead
  • Make sure your writing style cannot be construed
    as cute or offensive to the reader, Avoid
    stating the obvious and talking down to the
  • Develop a user-friendly proposal

Visual Attractiveness
  • To enhance the readability of your proposal and
    make your points stand out, use (unless stated
  • Underlining
  • Bullets
  • Different fonts
  • Various margins and spacing
  • Bold headings
  • Pictures and graphics
  • Charts and tables
  • handwriting

Online Proposal Presentation
  • The federal government is moving towards
    paperless applications
  • E-grants is being used by many federal agencies

Improving Your Federal Proposal
  • Chapter Thirteen

The Grants Quality Circle
  • The secret to improving your federal proposal is
    to conduct a mock review that emulates the actual
    review system as closely as possible
  • Role play the review team and pass judgment on
    your proposal
  • Have review team spend the same amount of time
    that the real reviewers will spend evaluating the
  • Can help increase the amount of quality proposal
    being generated from your organization

  • Chapter Fourteen

What To Do
  • Submit a day or two before the deadline (avoid
    the last minute)
  • Follow all instructions and every rule
  • Review submittal requirements
  • Complete assurance and certifications early
  • Receive the appropriate authority to apply

What Not To Do
  • Limit the use of elected officials in the grants
  • Do not ask for extra time beyond the submittal
  • Do not contact federal bureaucrats after

Other Submission Techniques
  • Hand deliver the proposal if permissible and
    thank staff members for their assistance
  • Electronic submission is where most applications
    are headed (requirement to have in place by 2003)
  • Send a copy to your congresspersons office (tell
    that you do not want or expect any intervention
    at this point)

Federal Grant Requirements
  • Chapter Fifteen

Federal Grants Requirement Worksheet
  • See page 158 in Bauer book

Raising and Documenting Matching Funds
  • An organization can be asked to supply either
    cash, services, or facilities to match a
    percentage of the grant.
  • This requirement may change over the years that
    federal support is provided for the project.
  • Worksheet on page 160

Federal Grants Management Circulars
  • http//
  • There are different circulars for different
  • Government A-102
  • Education, Non-profits and Hospitals A-110

Dealing with the Decision of Public Funding
  • Chapter Sixteen

Streamlining the Process
  • Accepted
  • Accepted with modifications
  • rejected

  • Thank the grantor
  • Request the reviewers comments, nd include a
    self-addressed label for the funding sources
  • Ask the federal official for insight into what
    you could have done better
  • Invite the program or project officer for a site
  • Ask the official what mistakes successful
    grantees often make in carrying out their funded
    grant so that you can avoid these errors.

Accepted With Budget Modifications
  • Send the funding source a thank you letter
  • Call the funding source and suggest that the
    program officer refer to your project planner to
    negotiate budget terms
  • Discuss the option fo eliminating some of the
    projects methods or activities.
  • If several activities must be eliminated,
    consider dropping the accomplishment of an
    objective or reducing the expected degree of
  • If you are forced to negotiate away the
    supporting structure necessary to achieve your
    objectives, be prepared to turn down the funds.

  • Send the funding official a thank you letter in
    appreciation for his or her time and effort as
    well as that of the reviewers and staff. Tell
    them you would appreciate any assistance in
  • Request reviewers comments. Enclose a
    self-addressed label for their convenience
  • Ask the funding official for his or her
  • Find out whether your proposal could possibly be
    funded as a pilot project, as a needs assessment,
    or in some other way
  • Ask whether there are any ways the funding source
    could assist you in getting ready for the next
    submission cycle, such as conducting a
    preliminary review.
  • Ask whether it would be wise for you to reapply
  • Ask whether you could become a reviewer to learn
    more about the review process.

Follow-Up with Government Funding Sources
  • Chapter Seventeen

  • To position yourself as an asset to funding
    sources and not as a pest
  • To develop relationships and maintain contacts
    throughout the grants process
  • Also consider
  • Forwarding them notes on special articles or
  • Invite them to visit your organization
  • Asking them to speak at your professional group
  • Asking them what meeting or conferences they will
    be attending so that you can look them up
  • Requesting information about what you can do to
    have an impact on legislation affecting their
    funding levels or allocations

Developing Continued Grant Support
  • Repeat the steps that have brought you to this
  • Maintain a systematic approach to recording
    research on funding sources and contact

Understanding the Private Foundation Marketplace
  • Chapter Eighteen

  • There are approximately 60,000 private
  • Of the 60,000 foundations, it is estimated that
    2,000 or less have a dedicated office, and that
    the total number of foundation employees is less
    than 2,000.
  • Less than 2,000 foundations have Web sites and,
    of these, only a few accept online transmittal of
  • Foundations granted 26.9 billion in 2002.
  • The largest 1,000 foundations made 12 billion in
    grantsalmost one-half of the 26 billion.
  • Of the 26 billion in foundation grants, there
    were approximately 125,000 grant awards for over
    10,000. Grants of lesser amounts were too
    numerous to count.

Types of Foundations
  • National General Purpose Foundations
  • Special Purpose Foundations
  • Community Foundations
  • Family Foundations
  • Nonprofit Organizations, Membership Groups,
    Professional Societies, and Service Clubs

National General Purpose Foundations
  • Refers to the foundations scope and type of
    granting pattern
  • Have a philanthropic interest in several subject
    areas and make grants for proposals that will
    have a broad-scale impact across the United
    States and the world
  • Prefer model projects that can be replicated
  • They usually have longer applications and more
    rules and regulations
  • There are approximately 200 in existence
  • Examples include Rockefeller and Ford Foundations

Special Purpose Foundations
  • Define their area of concern quite specifically
  • Grant sizes can be considerable and these
    foundations put the applicants likelihood of
    making a contribution in their area of concern
  • They key to success here is to match your project
    with the foundations specific area of interest
    and to demonstrate how your project will impact

Community Foundations
  • In 1999, there were 582 community foundations in
    the United States.
  • They are easy to describe because their name
    denotes the area that they serve
  • They fund projects and programs that no other
    type of foundation would consider supporting
  • They exist to deal with community needs
  • They are more interested in supporting the
    replication of successful projects than in taking
    chances with experimental approaches

Family Foundations
  • Account for approximately one-half of the 60,000
  • Represent the values of family members whose
    interests have been memorialized by the creation
    of the foundation
  • Granting patterns vary widely from foundation to
    foundation and change frequently
  • Three-fifths of all family foundations have
    assets of 1 million or less and most fund
    locally and in small amounts

Nonprofit Organizations, Membership Groups,
Professional Societies, and Service Clubs
  • Awards are usually small and limited to a special
    field of interest
  • Typically short and easy to complete applications
  • They often provide funding for things that the
    other four types of foundations would not
    consider supporting
  • Most interested in funding things that will
    improve their image and the image of their
    members in their community

Types of Investments Made by Private Foundations
  • Cash grant or award
  • Do not make grants to individuals except in the
    form of scholarships and even those may be made
    through institutions
  • Prefer to deal with the 501 c 3
  • Program Related Investment (PRIs) a new and
    growing alternative to cash grants and awards
  • Used to support affordable housing and community
  • Preserving historical buildings
  • Protecting and preserving open space and wildlife

Grantseekers Private Foundation Decision Matrix
  • Table page 174
  • Break project into fundable parts
  • Look at your proposal from the grantors point of

Who and What Private Foundations Fund
Recipient Category Percent of Foundation Grants
Education 25.3
Human Services 17.2
Health 16.2
Arts/Culture 12.1
Public/Society Benefit 12.1
Environment/Animals 6.1
Science/Technology 3.0
International 3.0
Religion 3.0
Social Science 2.0
Researching Potential Private Foundations Grantors
  • Chapter Nineteen

How to Find the Foundation That Is Best Suited to
Fund Your Project
  • Complete the Foundation Research Form
  • It will allow you to determine, in advance,
    likely preferences and biases you will encounter
    if you are lucky enough to arrange an in-person
  • It will make it easier to locate links between
    your organization and a funding source

Foundation Funding Source Research Tools
  • The Foundation Directory
  • The Foundation Grants Index
  • Internal Revenue Service Tax Returns
  • The Foundation Center
  • Electronic Retrieval and Database Searches
  • Foundation Web Sites and the Internet
  • http//

Contracting a Private Foundation Before Submission
  • Chapter Twenty

How To Contact Private Foundation Grantors
  • Contacting the private foundation before you
    write your proposal will help you validate your
    research and gather additional information about
    the grantors priorities and interests.
  • Contact can be made by
  • Contact by Letter
  • Contact by Telephone
  • The Visit

Sample Questions
  • Would you advise us which one of our approaches
    looks most interesting to you?
  • Last year you funded our type of project at the
    ___ level. Will this remain consistent?
  • Will the deadlines remain the same as last year?
  • Does and early submittal of a proposal help?
  • How are proposals reviewed by your foundation?
  • Are there more current granting priorities?
  • What do you think of submitting more than one
    proposal in a funding cycle?
  • Is the amount we are requesting realistic in
    light of your current goals?
  • Have you ever provided grant support jointly with
    another funding source and, if so, is that
    approach appropriate here?
  • Would you look over our proposal before formal
  • May I see a proposal you have funded that you
    think is well written?

Applying for Private Foundation Funds
  • Chapter Twenty-One

Constructing A Letter Proposal
  • An introductory paragraph stating the reason for
  • A paragraph explaining why the grantor was
  • A needs paragraph
  • A solution paragraph
  • A uniqueness paragraph
  • A request for funds paragraph
  • A closing paragraph
  • Signatures
  • Attachments, if allowed

Introductory Paragraph
  • State your reason for writing to the funding
  • Mention your link to the grantor

Why the Grantor Was Selected
  • You want to demonstrate in this paragraph that
    you have taken the time to research the funding
    sources interests and that your proposal will
    address an issue that has been a concern of the

Needs Paragraph
  • Select the components of the need that will most
    likely convince the grantor that the gap between
    what is and what ought to be must be closed
  • The need must be more compelling than you
    competition to keep the reader interested

Solution Paragraph
  • A brief description of the approach you propose
    to use to solve the problem.
  • Ask yourself the following questions
  • How much does the reader really need to know?
  • Will the reader understand my plan?
  • Will the words used in the description of my
    solution be familiar to the reader?
  • Is all the information included critical to
    convincing the funder that I have a sound,
    worthwhile plan, or am I including some of it
    just for myself?

Uniqueness Paragraph
  • You want to assure the grantor that your
    organization is the best choice for implementing
    the solution
  • Choose credibility builders that will convince
    the grantor that you have the commitment, staff,
    skill, buildings, and equipment to do the job.

Request for Funds Paragraph
  • Show you have done your homework by requesting
    funds that are or are close to the grantors
    average size award for your area of interest.
  • Mention other support is the grantors funds will
    not cover all the project costs.
  • Consider the effect of your project over several
    years and calculate a cost per person served or
    affected by the project.

Closing Paragraph
  • Use this as a tool to show your willingness to
    provide any further documentation or information
    the funding source may desire.
  • Provide your contact information to the grantor
    to answer any questions they might have.
  • Include your organizations 501 c 3 designation

  • Since this represents an agreement between your
    organization and the grantor, the individual who
    hold rank and authority should sign it.
  • Include a board members signature as well.
  • The purpose of these signatures is to provide the
    proposal with legal commitment and credibility.

Attachments, if Allowed
  • Most foundations do not allow any kind of
    attachments to accompany proposals.
  • Give the impression in you proposal that you do
    have additional information to provide if asked.
  • Dont include too much material because it may
    reduce the likelihood that your proposal will be

Proposal Submission, the Decision, and Follow-up
  • Chapter Twenty-one

Private Foundation Funding Sources
  • Deadline dates for Private foundation funding
    must be taken just as seriously as those of
    government sources.
  • Send proposals certified mail and be sure to
    obtain a signed receipt.
  • Some foundations have on-line submission
  • After submitting your proposal, minimize personal
    contact so as to avoid being pushy.

The decision and Follow-up
  • Private foundations are generally more prompt
    than government funders at letting you know their
    decision regarding your proposal.

If you are funded
  • Send a thank you letter to the funding source.
  • Find out the payment procedures.
  • Check on what reporting procedures the funding
    source may have.
  • Ask if they will conduct a site visit.
  • Ask for feedback on you proposal.

If your proposal is turned down
  • Send a thank you letter to the funding source
    thanking them for reviewing your proposal.
  • Remind the funder how important their funds are.
  • Ask for helpful comments on your proposal and
    whether the funding source would look favorably
    on resubmission with certain changes.
  • Ask the funder if they have any other suggestions
    on other sources that might be interested in your

Understanding the Corporate Marketplace
  • Chapter Twenty-three

Corporate Investment Mechanisms
  • Corporate Contributions Program
  • Corporate Foundations
  • Marketing
  • Research Program

Researching Potential Corporate Grantors
  • Chapter Twenty-four

How to Find the Corporate Funding Source That is
Best Suited to Fund Your Project
  • What major corporations could be affected by your
  • Are there any major industry specific
    associations or membership groups that fund
    research or projects in your field?
  • Check with your grant office and development for

Sources of Information on Corporate Support
  • The Foundation Center
  • National Directory of Corporate Giving
  • Corporate Foundation Profiles
  • Corporate Giving Directory
  • Dun Bradstreets Million Dollar Directory
  • Standard Poors Register of Corporations,
    Directors, and Executives
  • Whos Who in America

Contacting a Corporate Grantor Before Submission
  • Chapter Twenty-five

Methods of Contact
  • Contact by Telephone
  • The Visit
  • Corporate Grantor Report Form

Applying for Corporate Funds
  • Chapter Twenty-six

What to include
  • Introductory Paragraph
  • Why the grantor was selected
  • Needs Paragraph
  • Solution Paragraph
  • Uniqueness Paragraph
  • Request for Funds Paragraph
  • Closing Paragraph
  • Signatures
  • Attachments, if allowed

Proposal Submission, the Decision, and Follow-up
  • Chapter Twenty-seven

Corporate Grantors
  • Submission
  • The decision
  • Rejected
  • Awarded
  • Follow-up

List of Resources
  • Government Grant Research Aids
  • Foundation Grant Research Aids
  • Corporate Grant Research Aids
  • Government, Foundation, and Corporate Grant
  • Electronic Resources
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