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Managing Biodiversity


Managing Biodiversity The key players in management? Brainstorm ALL the players you think are involved Players in ecosystem management Scientists and researchers ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Managing Biodiversity

Managing Biodiversity
The key players in management?
  • Brainstorm ALL the players you think are involved

Artists and poets
Transnational and private enterprise
Indigenous people
Local and regional governments
Scientists and researchers
Players in ecosystem management
International organisations
Special interest groups
Local farmers
National governments
Global Players
  • There are 150 wildlife treaties in place
  • Such things require a number of nations to sign
    before becoming law
  • Most involve funding conservation work,
    designating protected areas, or regulating
    endangered species
  • The 5 most important treaties in place today are
  • RAMSAR Convention- wetland conservation signed
    1971- adopted by 147 countries
  • World Heritage Convention- to designate and
    protect outstanding cultural and natural sites-
    signed 1972, by over 180 countries
  • The Convention on International trade in
    Endangered Species- signed in 1973, adopted by
    166 countries
  • The convention on the conservation of Migratory
    Species of Wild Animals was signed in 1979 and by
    2005 adopted by 90 countries to prevent shooting
    of birds in passage
  • The UN Convention on the Law of the sea- ratified
    by 148 countries

Other global players
  • Transnational cooperation's are involved, have
    say in which goods/ services are mostly
    exploited- increasingly they are moving to
    greener strategies for long term benefit and to
    improve public image
  • They also drive innovation and technology,
    sometimes for the common good, but sometimes to
    the detriment of the ecosystem involved
  • Other international institutions which are
    involved- UN agencies, World Bank, World Trade
    Organisation and the International Tropical
    Timber Organisation
  • Non government Organisations- such as Greenpeace
    and WWF provide vital biodiversity conservation
  • WWF works in over 100 countries- its mission is
    to stop the degradation of the planets natural
    environment and build an environment where people
    live in harmony with nature
  • Others are smaller such as FAN (A small NGO
    working in Eastern Bolivia to conserve
    biodiversity by using natural resources in a
    sustainable way).

National Players
  • Government- regulate and facilitate
  • Regulation- establish and enforce laws to
    conserve genetic biodiversity, protect various
    areas and species and regulate damaging
    activities such as using polluting agro chemicals
    or releasing invasive species
  • They also manage natural resources providing
    clean air water or open space
  • They fund preservation conservation and
    development, often through taxes and subsidies
  • Positive incentives to conserve are increasingly
    used, e.g. paying farmers to be stewards of the
    landscape and to farm in environmentally friendly

Local players
  • Indigenous people are often dependant on
    biodiversity for basic survival
  • For many local biodiversity has spiritual
  • significance
  • Locals have good knowledge of local plants
  • and their uses, e.g. traditional medicine
  • Local fishers/ farmers can conflict with
    conservationists because they live a subsistence
    lifestyle relying on the ecosystem for survival
  • Ecosystem management issues are increasingly in
    previously remote areas like the Amazon and
    Antarctica- as more people visit pressures arise
  • Some individuals can join together to form
    special interest groups- they can degrade
    delicate areas
  • Conflict can arise from scientists hunting for
    new drugs, species with indigenous people who
    just want to continue their existence

Individual players
  • Most diverse group of all
  • All having individual morals, beliefs and needs
    on each ecosystem
  • In OECD countries ethical consumerism is
    increasing people buying dolphin friendly tuna.
  • Spiritual and recreational demands for new
    tourist destinations means areas like the
    Galapagos and Arctic are experiencing mass

Strategies and policies
Tolerant forest management
Scientific Reserve
Community wildlife management
Economic development integrated into conservation
Exploitation with token protection
Wildlife Reserves and parks
Extractive reserves
total protection
total exploitation
How best to protect?
  • Total protection?
  • Biosphere reserves
  • Leave to exploit
  • Conserve certain areas
  • In the 60s total protection was favoured, in 80s
    local voices were heard and biosphere reserves
    were created leaving some land to locals and
    fencing off the rest.
  • In more recent times economic and social aspects
    of biodiversity more taken into account- ie

What problems with this approach?
What is the spectrum of conservation strategies?
There is a spectrum of conservation strategies
available, from complete protection through
various types of sustainable development to
commercially exploited areas where limited parts
are protected often for publicity!
The total area of land and number of protected
sites is increasing. Poland, Ecuador and New
Zealand now have 25 of their land protected.
What sort of protection?
In the 1960s total protection was the only
method of conservation!
In the 1980s biosphere reserves were established
with buffer zonesfor use by local people
21ST Century conservation now means species
protection, scientific reserves, as well as
incorporating economic development with
What factors is successful conservation
influenced by?
Demonstrate What are the problems with the
total protection strategy?
WALT To understand the strategies and polices in
place for management Success Criteria A Examine
the success/ failure of the polices and
strategies at a range of scales C Describe and
explain the strategies and their success rate
In LEDCs conflict between conservation and
cutting people off from biodiversity
Totally protected reserves can be focussed on for
scientific purposes and fail to see that
conservation is influence by social, economic,
Many schemes were based on political and economic
boundaries where as ecosystems are defined by
natural borders!!
Coordination from outside agencies which do not
always know about needs of local people
Activate What are biosphere reserves?
WALT To understand the strategies and polices in
place for management Success Criteria A Examine
the success/ failure of the polices and
strategies at a range of scales C Describe and
explain the strategies and their success rate
Reserves are a popular strategy. Many are in
favour of corridor like reserves running
north-south. Global warming drives species from
the poles will still be protected!
Many people feel that conservation should target
WWF favours a broad approach to save larger areas
and more species.
Some others feel we should concentrate in LEDCs
where it would cost less and get better value for
Sustainable Yield key part of sustainable
ecosystem management. It represents the safe
level of harvest that can be hunted/ caught/
utilised without harming the individual ecosystem.
  • How do they measure the sustainable level?
  • Maximum sustainable yield- greatest harvest that
    can be taken indefinitely while leaving the
    ecosystem intact. Harvesting wild plants,
    animals or fish is part of the subsistence
    lifestyle of indigenous people and is usually
  • Over harvesting or overexploitation are usually
    the result of commercial rather than subsistence
    activity. When activities such as shooting
    elephants for ivory or harvesting shellfish and
    logging in natural forests- the targets and their
    habitats are under threat
  • Optimum sustainable yield- best compromise
    achievable in the light of all the economic and
    social considerations. This will not destroy the
    aesthetic or recreational value of the ecosystem
    and will therefore allow multiple use for the
    maximum benefit to the community.
  • In order to manage fish/ wildlife mathematical
    models have been developed to estimate the
    CARRYING CAPACITY (CC). This is maximum human
    population that can exist in equilibrium with the
    available resources (food, nutrients, etc).
  • The major problem is that the CC varies
    seasonally and over time can be reduced by
    Climate Change

Intense competition for food
Carrying capacity
Mortality high, population reproduction low
Population begins to be threatened by over
No cover against predators
MSY in practice
Population declines for natural reasons, more
rapidly if over harvesting occurs
Maximum sustained yield halfway between 0 and the
OSY lower than MSY, so ecosystem still has high
aesthetic value
Carefully controlled harvesting allows population
Sustainable Yields in the Southern Ocean
  • Managed since 1961 since the Antarctic treaty
    came into force. Before this they were exhausted
    and overfished. Several fin fish became extinct.
    A model was used to calculate the fishing yield.
  • Whaling is banned
  • No culling of fur or elephant seals
  • Limits placed on krill taking
  • Protection of penguins and other Antarctic sea
    birds, as they being in food web have an impact
    on sea stocks
  • Environmental protection in place- no military
    action or waste dumping, so air pollution kept to
  • Few visitors, mainly scientists and some seasonal
    tourists, but little noise pollution

Southern ocean SYM A 3 prong approach!
Single species approach sets limits for
harvesting individual species that are
indefinitely sustainable.
Ecosystem approach involves considering
harvested species both on their own and in
relation to dependant species and whole
Precautionary principle aims to model
consequences of any planned expansion of catches
before it is permitted.
Case study CAMPFIRE approach Why did it
Under British colonial rule large sections of
indigenous population in Zimbabwe were forced to
live in communal areas - tribal trust lands.
Communal Areas Management Programme for
indigenous resources (CAMPFIRE) project was set
up in the late 1980s. It was aimed at long-term
development, management and sustainable use of
natural resources in each communal area.
Case study CAMPFIRE approach
The responsibility was placed with local people,
whilst allowing them to benefit directly from the
exploitation of resources.
Bottom Up Approach varies and advice is given
by the Zimbabwe Department of National Parks and
Wildlife Management.
Case study CAMPFIRE approach
Many of the schemes made money from big-game
hunting at sustainable yield levelsthis money
was then fed back into the community.
The economic collapse of Zimbabwe undermined the
whole scheme. Loss of staff, lack of funding,
poaching, hunger saw it collapse.
Demonstrate Questions
Describe what sustainable yield means (5) Explain
how the Southern Oceans and CAMPIRE are examples
of sustainable management. (10)
Conservation priorities?
  • Some want to target HOTSPOTS as they are areas of
    maximum diversity and are under greatest threat
  • WWF favours a broader approach in which
    representative areas of land and sea known as
    eco-regions are targeted to save a max of variety
    of habitats and species
  • Some say focus should be a poorer regions of
    world as costs are lower.
  • Some question focus of conservation on high
    interest animals like Pandas and tigers

Restoring degraded areas
  • The ultimate conservation challenge
  • i.e. Recreating wetlands
  • Or linking fragmented reserve areas to make
    larger reserves easier to manage and more
  • These schemes rely on how degraded land is the
    more degraded and polluted the harder it is
  • An example of this is the Great Fens recreation
    project in East Anglia, UK.

  • Other approaches to conservation, ex situ
    conservation, e.g. captive breeding of endangered
    animals in zoos.
  • Zoos also contain biodiversity banks such as seed
    banks for plants
  • Several species have been saved in this way such
    as Scimitar horned Oryx, bred at Marwell Zoo and
    re released into Arabia
  • Giant pandas are also being bred in captivity to
    increase numbers
  • Some people do not like zoos feeling sorry for
    captive animals, but they play a vital role in
    education of people and allowing people to see
    animals they otherwise may not see

  • 1) Produce short fact files on each of the
    varying management strategies
  • Buffer zones
  • Biosphere reserves
  • Global agreements like CITES
  • Gene banks
  • Restoration
  • Captive breeding
  • 2) Assess the relative advantages and
    disadvantages of each method of management

Alternate approaches to conservation steer away
from the protectionist approach and instead
favour a more sustainable approach which
considers the needs of local people as well as
the environment.
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
  • IUCN Red List of Threatened Species is considered
    the most comprehensive record of the conservation
    status of plants and animals.
  • Essentially precise criteria is utilised by
    different countries and organisations to evaluate
    the extinction risk of thousands of species and
  • These criteria are relevant to all species and
    all regions of the world.
  • Records are continually being updated.
  • The IUCN aim to convey the urgency of
    conservation issues to the public and policy
    makers, as well as help the international
    community try and reduce species extinction.

  • The Living Planet Index (LPI) is an indicator of
    the state of global biological diversity, based
    on trends in vertebrate species- fish,
    amphibians, reptiles, birds mammals- from all
    around the world.
  • By tracking wild species, the Living Planet
    Index is also monitoring the health of
  • The information can be used to define the impact
    humans are having on the planet and for guiding
    actions to address biodiversity loss.

  • The WWF developed a system of eco-regions.
  • 200 Eco-regions were identified.
  • They are deemed the most biologically distinct
    terrestrial, freshwater, and marine ecosystems on
    the planet and subsequently are to be protected
    and conserved to ensure species, habitats and
    ecological processes continue.
  • The eco-regions identified are to be
    representative of all ecosystems of that type.

  • World Resource Institute Earthtrends
  • Millennium Assessment
  • Find out how they conserve biodiversity. Write
    a short paragraph about each.

  1. Explain the distribution of the worlds
    terrestrial and marine hotspots in Figure 3. (10)
  2. Evaluate the relative advantages and
    disadvantages of the hotspot approach to
    biodiversity management (compared with other
    strategies) (15)

  1. Explain the distribution of the worlds
    terrestrial and marine hotspots in Figure 3.

b) Evaluate the relative advantages and
disadvantages of the hotspot approach to
biodiversity management (compared with other
strategies) (15)
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