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An Integrated English Course Book 4


An Integrated English Course Book 4 Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5 Unit 6 Unit 7 Unit 8 Unit 9 Unit 10 Unit 11 Unit 12 Unit 13 Unit 14 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: An Integrated English Course Book 4

An Integrated English Course Book 4
  • Unit 1
  • Unit 2
  • Unit 3
  • Unit 4
  • Unit 5
  • Unit 6
  • Unit 7
  • Unit 8
  • Unit 9
  • Unit 10
  • Unit 11
  • Unit 12
  • Unit 13
  • Unit 14
  • Unit 15
  • Unit 16

Unit 1
Text INever Give In, Never, Never
  • Background information
  • 1. About the text
  • This text is a speech made by Churchill when
    he visited Harrow School on Oct. 29,1941. In
    1888, Churchill entered this school, which was
    founded in 1572 under a Royal Charter from Queen
    Elizabeth. In 1940 he came to this school for a
    short visit and he came again a year later to
    hear the traditional songs of this school.

  • 2. about the author
  • Sir Winston Churchill (1874-1965) was a
    combination of soldier, writer, artist, and
    statesman, renowned for his courage, imagination,
    oratory and intellect. In world war II he served
    as Prime Minister of UK from 1940 to 1945 and
    played a leading role in the resistance against
    German domination of Europe.

(No Transcript)
  • This text is an inspiring speech made by Winston
    Churchill, when he visited Harrow School. The
    whole speech can be divided into three parts.
  • 1.Part I is the opening remarks
  • 2.Part II is the body of the speech
  • 3.Part III is the closing remarks

Part I paragraph 1
  • The following questions may be asked
  • What was Churchills intention of singing some of
    their songs?
  • Why did Churchill use ill-favoured words such as
    ups and downs and misfortunes when talking about
    the menace of the enemy?
  • What lesson had they learnt?
  • Why did Churchill say the mood was different?

Part II paragraph 2-5
  • Questions to be considered
  • What did Churchill mean by saying we must learn
    to be equally good at what is short and sharp and
    what is long and tough?
  • Why did Churchill quote Kipling as saying

Part III paragraph 6-8
  • The following question could be asked
  • 1. Why did Churchill replace the word darker
    with sterner?

Language Work
  • Ups and downs a mixture of good things and bad
  • The organization has experienced its ups and
    downs since it was founded in 1999.
  • Sitting beside the window, he recalled the
    ups and downs of his parenthood.
  • Position situation at a particular time

  • It is time those companies revealed more
    about their financial position.
  • Their soccer team is going to be in a very
    difficult position if nothing particular shows
  • What is short and sharp and what is long and
    tough difficulties and hardships of any kind,
    imminent or distant, temporary or long-lasting.

  • Noble chance of war impressive opportunities of
  • Throwing our minds back to our meeting here 10
    months ago recollecting our meeting at Harrow
    School 10 months ago.
  • Please throw your mind back to 1945, when
    people all over the world were engaged in a great
  • and cruel war against the Fascists.

  • Convictions of honour and good sense strong
    beliefs in honour and good judgement of duty and
  • Very different is the mood today how other
    nations view Britain and how the Britain people
    think and feel about the war is quite different
    today from ten months ago.
  • Our country stood in the gap our country
    shouldered the responsibility in isolation.
  • At the critical moment of world economic
    recession, a powerful government is needed to
    stand in the gap.

Structural Analysis
  • Part I is the opening remarks in which Churchill
    summarized the great events that had happened in
    the past ten months and the purpose of his second
    visit to Harrow School.
  • Part II is the body of the speech in which he
    analyzed the world situation and how other
    nations looked at Britain and then called on the
    people not to give in.
  • Part III is the closing remarks in which he told
    the audience that he wanted to change a word in
    the song and explained why he wanted to do so.

Rhetorical Features
  • The following antonyms are used in the speech
  • ups/downs, short/long,
  • darker days/great days.
  • some of these antonyms are used to describe
    the terrible nature of the war, some of them are
    used to express the determination of the British
    people to fight on for the final victory, and
    some are used to encourage the audience not to
    lose hope.

Text II Winston Churchill
  • Reference for questions
  • Churchill stepped onto the world stage at the
    outbreak of World War I in the capacity of the
    First Lord of the Admiralty of Great Britain.
  • Because he knew very well that his country alone
    was not demographically strong enough to win the
    victory of the war, and the intervention of the
    USA would bring the war to its end much sooner.

  • 3. In order to get the USA involved in the war,
    he established a personal relationship with
    Roosevelt, and he was optimistic and believed
    that things would work his way. The later
    development of the world situation proved that he
    was right.

Unit 2
Text ISpace Invaders
  • Background information
  • 1. About the text
  • This text was originally published in New
    Yorker on July 24, 1993. later in 2001 it
    appeared again in The Princeton Anthology of
    Writing Favorite Pieces by the Ferries Writers
    at Princeton University.
  • About the author Richard Stengel is a senior
    writer working for Time magazine.

  • 3. malthusian logic the theories of the British
    economist Thomas Robert Malthus(1766-1843), which
    state that population increases faster than the
    means of subsistence unless war, famine, or
    disease intervenes or efforts are made to limit
  • 4. long island an island in southeastern New
    York. The New York city boroughs of Brooklyn and
    Queens are at its west end.

(No Transcript)
  • The writer points out that nowadays people
    are more and more concerned about themselves and
    want to have a larger personal space than decades
    ago, and then he analyses the cause of space
  • It can be divided into three parts

Part I paragraph 1-2
  • The following question may be asked
  • How did the author describe the violation of
    personal space that happened in a bank?

Part II paragraph 3-7
  • The following questions could be asked
  • Is personal space a phrase of the seventies? Is
    it out of date nowadays? Why or why not?
  • Do you agree with the author about the reasons of
    space invasion given in Paragraph 4? What other
    factor have caused it?
  • What does the author mean by saying personal
    space is mostly a public matter?
  • Do space invaders respect other peoples personal

Part III paragraph 8-9
  • Questions to be asked
  • Do you agree with the writers view that the
    contraction of the outer, personal space is
    proportion to the expansion of the inner space of
    modern man?
  • Do you think we Chinese people have comparatively
    more personal space or less? Is Chinese personal
    space now the same as it was decades ago?
  • Why does the author decide to expand his
    contracting boundaries of personal space?

Language Work
  • snake move in a twisting way
  • the train was snaking its way through the
  • Some tired velvet ropes some slackened velvet
  • inch move very slowly and carefully
  • Howard inched the van forward.

  • Shuffle walk by dragging ones feet along or
    without lifting them fully from the ground
  • He slipped on his shoes and shuffled out of
    the room.
  • shuffle sth. off avoid talking or thinking
    about sth. because it is not considered important
  • He shuffled the question off and changed the
  • shuffle out of sth. Try to avoid some
    unpleasant task by acting dishonestly
  • I mistrust the way in which they shuffle out
  • sustained efforts.

  • Ring a quality, or an impression of having the
    quality that is mentioned
  • Her story has a ring of truth about it.
  • The books he mentioned had a familiar ring
    about them.
  • Penetrate succeed in forcing through sth.
  • They penetrated into the territory where no
    man had ever been before.

  • Wedge force into a narrow space
  • Open the door wide and wedge it with a pad of
  • dont tread on me could have been coined only
    by someone with a spread dont step into my
    space. This could have been said only by a
    person who has a large personal space.

  • Personal space is psychological, not physical it
    has less to do with the space outside us than our
    inner space personal space is more a
    psychological matter than a physical one.
  • Be proportional to increase or decrease at the
    same rate as the other thing
  • The output should be proportional to the
  • As a rule the suicide rates are proportional
    to the size of the city.

Structural Analysis
  • The author looks at the causes of space invasion
    in Paragraph 4. He attributes this phenomenon to
    population explosion first, then to the hot
    weather and the stimulation of caffeine.
  • He examines the nature of space invasion and
    thinks that space invasion is a public matter. It
    is more psychological than physical.

Rhetorical Features
  • Listed below are the verbs used by the author to
    give a vivid and accurate description of the
    behavior of the space invaders
  • 1) Verbs used to described the behavior of
    space invaders
  • inch, wedge, zigzag, jostle, refuse, press,
    bump, etc.
  • 2) Verbs used to describe the reaction of
    those whose space is being invaded
  • advanced, sidle, shuffle

Text II space and distance
  • Reference for questions
  • no. the distance we keep from other people
    depends on our interpersonal relationship.
  • Tell your classmates whether you prefer to sit in
    the front, in the middle, or at the back of a
    room. There can be different reasons for
    different people to make the same choice.
  • In any cases we will turn off the TV before the
    conversation starts.

Unit 3
Text ? Alienation and the Internet
  • Background information
  • About the author Will Baker is an essayist in
    Vermont of the United States.
  • mantra (Paragraph 4) Originally it is a word or
    sound in Hinduism and Buddhism repeated to aid
    concentration in meditation. Here it means a
    statement or slogan repeated frequently.
  • Utopia ((Paragraph 7) Originally it refers to an
    imaginary island described in Sir Thomas Mores
    Utopia (1516) as enjoying perfection in law,
    politics, etc. Here it is used for an ideal state.

  • This piece of argumentative writing falls into
    three parts.
  • The first two paras serve as an opening part.
  • The following four paras constitute the body
    of argumentation.
  • In the final para, the writer reiterates his
    main idea.

Part I paragraph 1-1
  • 1. What is the authors long cherished position
    about the strong points of the Internet?
  • 2. How did the author start his argumentation?
  • 3. When and how did the fragmentation of society

Part II paragraph 3-6
  • 1. Whats the cruel irony concerning the use of
    the internet mentioned in para4?
  • 2. In para 5, why does the author narate his own
  • 3. why does the author discuss the question
    whether the internet is a real place?

Part III paragraph 7
  • 1. According to the author, what underlies the
    trend of overusing the Internet in our society?
  • 2. Does the author believe it is within human
    capacity to reap the benefit of the Internet
    without being penalized?

Language work
  • further help forward
  • Additional training is probably the best way
    to further your career these days.
  • The interests of an organization will never
    be furthered through acts of terrorism.
  • alienate cause (someone) to feel very distant
    from or not welcome to someone else
  • She was alienated from her brother by her
    foolish behavior.
  • All these changes to the newspaper have
    alienated its traditional readers.

  • addicted being dependent on something and
    wanting to spend as much time doing it as
  • Some youngsters are hopelessly addicted to
    video games.
  • Shes become addicted to love stories.
  • skew cause to be not straight or exact twist
  • The companys results for this year are
    skewed because not all our customers have paid
    their bills.
  • Todays election will skew the results in
    favour of the northern end of country.

  • lament express sadness and regret about
  • He lamented the death of his friend.
  • She lamented that she had never been to
  • at the expense of at the sacrifice of
  • According to this study, women have made
    notable gains at the expense of men.
  • The orchestra has more discipline now, but
    at the expense of spirit.

  • confront meet face to face set face to face
  • He challenged his accusers to confront him
  • The lawyer confronted the accused man with
    the forged check.
  • value regard highly esteem
  • We value your cooperation and would like to
    expand business with you.
  • I value your comments on the report.

Structural Analysis
  • This text falls into the genre of argumentation,
    which is typically composed of three parts, i.e.
    the opening part or the thesis part, the argument
    part, and the summary part or conclusion part.
  • The first two paragraphs serve as an opening
    part, in which the writer presents his thesis.
  • The following four paragraphs constitute the body
    of argumentation, where the author supports his
    point with evidences and reasons.

  • The final paragraph is the conclusion of the
    text, where the writer reiterates his main idea.
  • Topic sentence However I am also troubled by the
    possible unintended negative consequences.
  • Concluding statement All this being said, I
    believe that the key to realizing the potential
    of the Internet is in achieving balance in our

Rhetorical Features
  • The author of this text seems to believe that the
    Internet has both advantages and disadvantages.
    This self-contradiction is partly illustrated by
    the use of antonyms such as globalization and
    alienation. Some other pairs of antonyms
    (including words and expressions) are used for
    the same purpose.

Text ? American Online Losing the Battles, but
Winning the War
  • Reference for questions
  • 1. He imagined a world in which computers
    would be connected so that they could work much
    faster and everybody could use them.
  • 2. Because it was by no means easy to get
    a large number of subscribers, especially at the
    very beginning. AOL had to start with this unique
    marketing approach to make its product known to
    the general public. As a matter of fact, it took
    five years for this company to attract a million

  • 3. It did not expect the fast increase of
    subscribers and failed to satisfy the needs of
    its customers. As a result, it lost a lot of
    money and consumer confidence.
  • 4. It got a large amount of revenue from
    advertising on the Internet and selling products

Unit 4
Text I A View of Mountains
  • background information
  • 1. about the text
  • This text is the epilogue from Jonathan
    Schells book The Gift of Time The Cause for
    Abolishing Nuclear weapons Now published by Henry
    Holt Co. in 1998.
  • 2. about the author
  • Jonathan Schell is the author of The Village
    of Ben Sue and The Fate of the Earth. He was a
    writer for the New Yorker from 1967 to 1987 and a
    columnist for Newsday from 1990 to 1996. He
    teaches at Wesleyan University and the New
    School, and is the Harold Willens Peace Fellow at
    The Nation Institute.

  • 3. The Nagasaki is a city which is the seaport in
    southwest Japan(??) and is one the two cities
    that got nuclear bombing in the War II.
  • 4. The Hiroshima is a city which is the seaport
    in southwest Japan(??) and is the other city that
    got nuclear bombing in the War II.
  • 5. The Kokura refers to the city which is the
    seaport in Kitakyushu(??),Japan(??).

  • This argumentative essay comprises three
  • In the first part, i.e. Paragraphs 1, the
    writer puts forward his thesis a view of
    mountains in the background suggests the real
    extent to which the city was destroyed by the
    atomic bombing
  • In the second part , the author argues that
    the bombing of Nagasaki is more representative of
    the nuclear peril threatening the world than that
    of Hiroshima and that we need to take actions to
    dispel nuclear threat from the Earth.
  • In the last part, i.e. Paragraph 4, he
    restates his main idea, i.e. we should not just
    worry about the nuclear peril but take the
    actions to eliminate it to create a safer

Part I paragraph 1
  • In paragraph 1 the writer describes what
    Yamahatas pictures display the effects of a
    nuclear weapon on human beings. And then he
    repents the main point of his argument the true
    measure lies not in the wreckage but in the gone
    city, and this is where the significance of a
    view of mountains in the background of one of the
    pictures lies.

  • 1. why does the author think that Yamahatas
    pictures compose the fullest record of nuclear
    destruction in existence?
  • 2. Why were the bodies often branded with the
    patterns of their clothes?
  • 3. why does author particularly mention a view
    of mountains in one of the pictures?

Part I paragraph 2-3
  • The following questions can be considered
  • 1. Why is the meaning of Yamahatas picture
  • 2. Why has Nagasaki always been in the shadow
    of Hiroshima?

  • 3. Do you agree with the author when he says the
    bombing of Nagasaki is the fitter symbol of the
    nuclear peril? Why or why not?
  • 4. What should we do in addition to apprehending
    the nuclear peril?
  • 5. What do we need to meet the more important
    challenge of eliminating nuclear weaponry?

Part I paragraph 4
  • In this part the writer calls on us to take the
    responsibility of creating a safer world for new
  • what should we do to ensure a safer world for
    the future generations?

Language work
  • constitute 1) compose form. e,.g. Nitrogen
    constitutes 78 of the earths atmostphere.2) be
    equal to ,
  • it is up to the teacher to decide what
    constitutes satisfactory work.
  • char make or decide what constitutes
    satisfactory work.
  • Halve the peppers and char the skins under a
    hot grill.

  • . their bodies are often branded with the
    patterns of their clothes their bodies are
    often marked with the patterns of their clothes
  • Hang over menace overshadow
  • The threat of nuclear war hangs over us, we
    couldnt enjoy our vacation.

  • spare refrain from harming, punishing or killing
  • It will spare him embarrassment if you speak
    to him about it in private.
  • depel cause to vanish
  • In his latest novel he aims to dispel the
    myth that real men dont cry.
  • we ensure their right to exist we guarantee a
    safe living environment for them.

Structural analysis
  • What makes clear the author's opinion about the
    meaning of Yamahatas pictures is the sentence
    that appears at the end of the first para.
  • What makes clear the author's opinion on what
    should be done about the existing nuclear peril
    is the sentence that appears in the middle of the
    last paragraph Performing that act is the
    greatest of the responsibilities of the
    generations now alive.

Rhetorical features
  • Apart from the two sentences that have been
    already mentioned, we can find the following
    sentences with the A but B structure in the
  • The true measure of the event lies not in
    what remains but in all that has disappeared.(
    Para 1)
  • the challenge is not just to apprehend the
    nuclear peril but to seize a God-given
    opportunity to dispel it once and for all(para3)
  • Apart from the A but Bsentence structure, we
    can also find the A yet B type
  • Nagasaki has always been in shadow of
    Hiroshima ye t the bombing of Nagasaki is in
    certain respects the fitter symbol of the nuclear
    danger that still hangs over us. (para2)

  • Yamahatas pictures afford a glimpse of the
    end of the world. Yet in our day(para3)
  • And we can find a sentence that organizes
    information in a similar way without the use of
    the conjunction but or yet
  • Arriving a half-century late, they are still
    news. (para2)
  • By admitting something is correct first and then
    saying something else is even more correct, or
    admitting something is urgent first and then
    saying something else is more urgent with the
    help or the above-mentioned sentence structures,
    the author succeeds in making his sentences well
    balanced and his argumentation forceful and

Text II Statement of the 2003 Session of United
Nations Disarmament Commission
  • Question refence for discussion
  • 1. it is uncertain and unpredictable because
    military confrontation caused by disputes over
    territory, resource, religion and interest
    continues and non-traditional security threats
    characterized by terrorism and proliferation of
    weapons of mass destruction have become more

  • 2. The speaker proposes nine measures for
    nuclear disarmament. . Refer to para9-17.
  • 3. In para22-25, the speaker talks about the
    concrete and practical measures taken by China in
    recent years to build up confidence between China
    and its neighboring countries.

  • 4. The multilateral approach is necessary
    because more than one country possess nuclear
    weapons and these weapons cannot be reduced and
    destroyed without willing cooperation between the
    nuclear states, especially the nuclear powers
    like the United States.

(No Transcript)
Unit 5
Text I The Tapestry of Friendship
  • Background information
  • 1. About the text
  • This text is taken from Close to Home, which
    was published by The Boston Globe Company /
    Washington Post Writers Group in 1979.

  • 2. about the author
  • Ellen Goodman, is a Boston Globe Online
    columnist and a stylish writer with a humanizing
    touch on any issue, public or personal. She is
    widely acclaimed as a voice of sanity, and
    readers depend on her to help them make sense of
    their changing lives and relationships.

  • This text distinguishes two kinds of friendship
    that between men and that between women. It can
    be divided into four parts.

Part I paragraph 1-2
  • In this part the author reveals what kind of film
    the woman had just seen and what attitude she had
    to it.
  • What kind of film did the woman see?
  • What did she think of it?

Part II paragraph 3-6
  • This part describes the womans observation of
    the shift of focus of the cinema and advances the
    argument for the distinction between the two
    types of friendship that between men and that
    between women.

  1. Why does the author list the movies the woman had
  2. What led the woman to think that the cinema has
    drastically shifted its focus?
  3. What was the shift?
  4. Do you agree on the point of the distinction
    between the two types of friendship? Give your
    own reasons.

Part III paragraph 7-18
  • This part discusses in detail the distinctions
    between the Male Buddiness and the Female
  • Generally speaking, the former is action-oriented
    while the latter is emotion-oriented, i. e., the
    Male Buddiness is based on the need for
    co-operation in the activities that men are
    engaged in or in the adverse situations they are
    confronted with. In contrast, the Female
    Friendship borders on love, the need for mutual
    emotional support.

  1. Whats the fundamental difference between buddies
    and friends?
  2. What are the conditions of men becoming buddies
    and of women becoming friends?
  3. Why was the woman shocked by mens description of

Part IV paragraph 19
  • This part is the Conclusion of the text, which
    restates the distinction between the two types of
    friendship. The teacher can ask the students to
    tell in what ways buddies and friends differ.
    Buddies are those you can do things together with
    in your lifetime, but friends are those with whom
    you can share roses and thorns in your life.

Language Work
  • It was, in many ways, a slight movie. In many
    aspects it was a simple, ordinary movie.
  • big-budget chase scene a car-chase scene that
    costs a lot of money
  • cosmic
  • 1) very great
  • This earthquake was a disaster of cosmic scale.
  • 2) relating to the universe
  • The other great cosmic reality is time

  • Slowly, it panned across the tapestry of
    friendship Step by step it gave an all-sided
    view of the complex structure of friendship
  • across millions of miles of celluloid . in large
    numbers of movies
  • Cull choose from various sources
  • Here are a few facts and figures Ive culled
    from the weeks papers.
  • Its a collection of fascinating stories
    culled from a lifetime of experience.

  • only men inherited a primal capacity for
    friendship only when were born with the
    instinctive capacity of making friends.
  • inherit
  • 1)   receive (money, a house etc.) from someone
    after they have died
  • When I took on the job of manager, I inherited
    certain financial problems.
  • 2)  be born with (a physical or mental quality
    that a parent, grandparent or other relative has)
  • Rosie inherited her red hair from her mother.
  • The child has an inherited disease which
    attacks the immune system.

  • through the wars together corporate or
    athletic or military through the commercial,
    athletic or military strives together.
  • They had to soldier together had to struggle

  • The only relationship that gave meaning to the
    claustrophobic life of George Babbitt had been
    with Paul Riesling.
  • What made the claustrophobic life of George
    Babbitt meaningful had been his relationship with
    Paul Riesling without his relationship with Paul
    Riesling George Babbitt would have found his
    claustrophobic life meaningless.

Structural Analysis
  • In the text the author discusses the differences
    between a buddy and a friend in a forceful way.
    We can summarize the authors viewpoint with the
    following sentence A buddy is a fine
    life-companion but a friend is that part the race
    with which you can be human.
  • The more specific differences between a buddy and
    a friend are
  • 1.   Buddies bonded, but friends loved.
  • 2. Buddies faced adversity together, but
    friends faced each other.
  • 3. Buddies seemed to do things together
    friends simply were together.

Rhetorical Features
  • To show the differences between buddiness and
    friendship effectively, the author of the text
    coordinates sentences in various ways. Sometimes
    he uses conjunctions such as but, yet and while.
    And sometimes he simply puts two clauses together
    without using any conjunction at all.

  • For example
  • 1) Buddies bonded, but friends loved.
  • 2) Buddies faced adversity together, but
    friends faced each other.
  • 3)  Men affect each other in the reflection of
    noble or friendly acts, whilst women ask fewer
    proofs and more signs and expressions of
  • 4)  Men often keep their buddies in these
    categories while women keep a special category
    for friends.

Text II My Daughter, My Friend
  • Reference for questions
  • Through note writing the daughter told her mother
    how she felt and what growing pains she had
    experienced as an adolescent and the mother told
    her daughter how she felt as a middle aged woman.
  • Mom, your letter make me feel great no matter
    what kind of mood Im in. sometimes they even
    make me cry because they touch me so deeply. Im
    really glad we have the kind of relationship that
    we do, even though we have our arguments.
  • I love you, Mom!

  • Here are a couple of hints for your discussion
  • 1) what is the usual way of communication
    between members of your family?
  • 2) Do you think your family climate is
  • 3) Do you think note writing between family
    members living under the same roof can lead to
    some undesirable consequence?

Unit 6
Text IA French Fourth
  • Background information
  • Globalization make people can touch their own
    cultures more easily and children abroad can
    learn the history of their motherland from
    school. The culture divide between different
    countries is less jarring. However, on the other
    hand, people are less than fully immersed in a
    truly foreign world.

  • This text talks about the influence of a foreign
    culture on expatriated families. It can be
    divided into three parts. In part I, the author
    starts with a way of celebrating his home
    countrys National Day In part II he makes a
    contrastive analysis of the costs and benefits of
    the expatriated people In part III, he talks
    about the effect of globalization.

Part I paragraph 1-3
  • The following question may be asked
  • Why does the author hang the American flag from
    his fourth-floor balcony in Paris?
  • The author has kept the old flag for a long time.
    Why didnt he get a new one?
  • Why do the author and his family go back home
    for the summer?

Part II paragraph 4-9
  • The following questions could be asked
  • What are the costs and benefits of raising
    children in a foreign culture?
  • What is the authors purpose of telling the story
    of his own children in Paragraph 4 and 5? How is
    the story related to his argument?
  • Did the author achieve the purpose of his summer
    travel in the U.S.?

Part III paragraph 10-12
  • Questions to be asked
  • Why does the author recall his own experience as
    a child in Paragraph 10?
  • What are the differences between the author and
    his children as expatriates at about the same
    time in their lives? What causes the differences?
  • Why does the author say the development is sad?

Language Work
  • Fold away
  • 1) make something into a smaller, neater shape
    by folding it, usually several times
  • These camping chairs can be folded away and
    put in the trunk.
  • The piece of paper was folded away carefully
    and trucked into her purse.

  • 2) the date and the occasion that prompt its
  • The event of the thirteen sates of British
    colonies declaring their independence on July 4,
    1776 brought about the appearance of this flag.
    3) suppress such outward signs of their heritage
  • do not give manifestations of their
    traditional culture handed down from their

  • Refuel Its original meaning is to fill with more
    fuel for a vehicle but here it means to fill
    someones mind with more knowledge of their
    native culture.
  • Oil tankers will accompany the containers for
    trans-ocean refuelling.
  • In a society of intense competition, people
    have to refuel every year to catch up with the
    rapid renewal of knowledge.

  • The American in me the feeling of being American
    which is deeply rooted in my mind.
  • Frame of reference a particular set of beliefs,
    ideas, or observations on which one bases his
  • Please see to it that you are dealing with
    someone with a different frame of reference.
  • The observer interprets what he sees in terms
    of his own cultural frame of reference.

  • Square dancing a traditional American dance in
    which sets of four couples dance together in a
    square formation
  • Surveys with fringe on top old fashioned
    horse-drawn carriages with fancy decorations on

  • A much less jarring cultural divide a much less
    unsuitable cultural divergence The output.
  • Re-entry is likely to be smoother. It seems to
    be easier for the children to restart the
    acquisition of their native culture

Structural Analysis
  • In this text there are both general and specific
    discussions about how to keep the cultural
    identity of the expatriated people.
  • The author of this text follows a
    specific-general pattern in his discussion.

Rhetorical Features
  • Generally speaking, the author of this text has
    adopted a plain language style
  • concessive words and expressions like but are
    frequently used.

Text II Stuck in the Middle
  • Reference for questions
  • He was faced with racial discrimination. The
    American law prohibited him from owning any
    property or becoming a naturalized citizen, to
    name only a few examples.
  • No. Although she inherited some rituals from her
    Chinese ancestors such as being thrifty and
    polite, she is also influenced by the Caucasian
    culture and the American culture.

  • It is good for people like her because it is
    easier for them to merge themselves with the
    local people and get equal opportunities in
    education, employment and other things.
  • It depends on how you define a Chinese. If we
    look at the blood relationship, no matter whether
    they are 1/2,1/4,1/8, or 1/32 Chinese, they are
    unquestionably Chinese in origin. But they need
    to have much more to be a Chinese in a broader
    sense. Language is one of the many things they
    must possess. Without being able to speak or read
    the Chinese language, it is simply impossible for
    them to know, to feel or t sense what a Chinese
    really is or what the Chinese culture really

Unit 7
Text IThe Selling of the President
  • Background information
  • 1. PR public relations
  • 2. IQ an abbreviation of Intelligence Quotient.
    A General Intelligence Quotive Score (IQ score)
    is a statistically derived number which indicates
    relative and comparative abilities that can be
    used to obtain academic skills and knowledge.

  • The Associated Press ???
  • Watergate some republicans broke into the
    Democratic Partys National Committee offices in
    this building but were discovered and arrested.
    This political scandal led to Nixons resignation
    in 1974. the word Watergate has become synonymous
    with corruption and scandal.

(No Transcript)
(No Transcript)
  • This text can be divided into three parts.
  • 1.Part I is the thesis of the author
  • 2.Part II is the discussion of the impact of
    television on American presidential election
  • 3.Part III is the conclusion drawn by the author

Part I paragraph 1
  • The following question may be asked
  • Why does the campaign strategist say I can elect
    any person to office if he has 60,000, an IQ of
    at least 120, and can keep his mouth shut?

Part II paragraph 2-11
  • Questions to be considered
  • What is the most influential medium in an
    election campaign and why? Does it work in all
  • How does the author start his argumentation?
  • What is the function of the two questions in
    Paragraph 4?
  • Why does the author mention the four presidents
    in Paragraph 5?

  • Why does the author say since the 1960
    presidential debates we have elected people, not
  • What is the difference between print information
    and television information?
  • What is the main idea of Paragraph 8?
  • What is the authors opinion on the power of

Part III paragraph 12
  • The following question could be asked
  • What does the author mean by todays burning
    issue is tomorrows historical footnote?

Language Work
  • Generate cause to arise or come about
  • The Employment Minister said the reforms
    would generate new jobs.
  • John is recalling the excitement generated by
    the visit to the pyramids in Egypt.
  • Quote repeat what is said or written by someone

  • The premier was quoted as saying that he
    would resist all attempts to disintegrated his
  • Heavy teaching loads are often quoted as a
    bad influence on research.
  • Versus against
  • Brazil versus Argentina is turning out to be
    a surprisingly well-matched competition.

  • Stage organize and participate in
  • At the end of this year, the government
    staged a huge military parade.
  • The workers have staged a number of strikes
    in protest at the republics declaration of
  • Stand for support
  • the party is trying to give the public the
    impression that it alone stands for democracy.

  • People are not taken in by advertising hyperbole
    and imagery people are not deceived by
    advertising exaggeration and descriptions of the
  • Develop a sense of what kind of person we are
    electing to the nations highest office become
    aware of what kind of person we are choosing as
    our new president.

Structural Analysis
  • In recent years that publicity has been
    supplanted by heavy spot buying on electronic
    media.( para. 1)
  • The most talked-about medium in American politics
    is television. (para. 2)
  • Television assords us that opportunity in a way
    no other medium can. (para.12)

Rhetorical Features
  • Positive examples
  • Kennedy, Nixon, Carter, Reagan
  • the purpose is to show the effectiveness of
    television in getting more publicity for
    presidential candidates.
  • Negative examples
  • Adlai Stevenson, Hubert Humphrey, Richard
  • the purpose is to prove the importance of the
    candidates public image on TV.

Text II What Makes a Leader
  • Reference for questions
  • He must have bigger-than-life, commanding
    features for people to remember. He must appear
    on the scene at a moment when people are looking
    for leadership. He must be able to offer a
    solution everybody can understand and remember
    and able to do something other people cant. H
    must know how to use power.

  • Enjoy strong health. Have a strong will in time
    of difficulties. Charisma.
  • Honest. Active. Creative. High scores in studies.
    Willing to work for his classmates. Know how to
    organize class activities.
  • You can certainly add more.

Unit 8
Text IThe Monster
  • Background information
  • 1. About the text
  • This text first appeared as a radio talk,
    entitled A Monster. Later it was published with
    the title Of Men and Music in the United States
    in 1937.
  • 2. about the author
  • Deems Taylor, American musician and critic

  • 3. Richard Wagner German composer, born in
    Leipzig on 22 May 1813 and died in Venice on 13
    February 1883. he did more than any other
    composer to change music, and indeed to change
    the art and thinking about it. His works are
    hated as much as they are worshipped, but no one
    denies their greatness.

  • This text can be divided into three parts.
  • 1.Part I describe a man who seems to have rolled
    all kinds of demerits into one, a real monster.
  • 2.Part II clarifies who this monster really is,
    i.e. a famous musician by the name of Richard
  • 3.Part III justify all the peculiar behaviors of
    Richard Wagner. He, as one of the worlds
    greatest dramatists a great thinker one of
    the most stupendous musical geniuses, has every
    reason to be a monster

Part I paragraph 1-9
  • The following questions may be asked
  • Does the mans appearance, described in the first
    paragraph, give one any impression of grandeur?
  • What are the further evidences of the monsters
  • What kinds of grammatical devices are used to
    emphasize the extreme extent of his pecultiar

  1. What kind of versatile man is he?
  2. How does the writer describe him as an emotional
  3. How was he financially supported? Did he earn
    himself a good living with his great talents?
  4. What is his attitude toward love?
  5. Why do you think Wagner made so many enemies?

Part II paragraph 10
  • The following questions could be asked
  • Why do you think the writer postpones the
    presentation of the monsters name till the 10th
  • Has your attitude towards this monster changed a
    little when you finally find out who this monster

Part III paragraph 11-13
  • questions to be asked
  • How does the writer justify every piece of
    evidence of the monster, which he has presented
  • What is the writers real intention of writing
    this article?
  • What is your final conclusion about Richard

Language Work
  • And he had delusions of grandeur and he had a
    false belief that he was a man of importance.
  • delusion a false belief or opinion.
  • That sick man is under the delusion that he
    is Napoleon.
  • Volubility the characteristic of always being
    ready to produce a continuous flow of words, or
    being talkative

  • Voluble characterized by a ready and continuous
    flow of words fluent talkative
  • Teds a voluble speaker at meetings he
    doesnt give much chance to others to say
  • For the sake of
  • For the good or advantage of
  • For the purpose of

  • Rave
  • Talk wildly as if mad
  • Put into the stated condition by talking wildly
  • Darkly in a vaguely threatening or menacing
  • He spoke darkly of trouble to come
  • hint darkly hidden dangers

  • Testimony a formal statement that sth. is true,
    as made by a witness in a court of law.
  • Between the lines hidden meanings
  • some kinds of poetry make you read between
    the lines.
  • And the curious thing about this record is that
    it doesnt matter in the least although the
    monsters peculiar personality and behavior
    described previously are all facts on record,
    people just care nothing about them at all.

  • Downright thoroughly
  • It makes me downright angry to see food
    thrown away.
  • Is it any wonder he had no time to be a man? It
    is reasonable for him to act like a monster in
    other respects when he was wholly engaged in
    composing music.

Structural Analysis
  • In the first 10 paras, we can find the following
    words and expressions used by the author to
    describe Richard Wagner as a monster of conceit
  • delusions of grandeur/ monster of conceit/
    believed himself to be one of the greatest
    dramatist/one of the greatest thinkers

  • In the remaining paras, we can find the following
    words and expressions used to describe him as a
    great genius
  • right all the time/ one of the worlds
    greatest dramatists/ a great thinker/ one of the
    most stupendous musical geniuses

Rhetorical Features
  • The repetitious use of the third person pronoun
    he creates suspense in the readers mind. This is
    one of the effective ways to hold the readers
    attention and make him move on. To use the
    terminology of functional linguistics and
    discourse analysis, this use of he is cataphoric
    in nature. The anaphoric use of he can be found
    in sentences such as I have a friend and he is
    working in New York, in which he refers back to
    my friend.

Text II Simple Habits, Deep Thoughts
  • Reference for questions
  • He is simple in his habits. He does not pay much
    attention to his personal appearance. His clothes
    are baggy and he wears bedroom slippers when
    walking on the streets.
  • Basically the theory proposed, among other
    things, that the greatest speed possible is the
    speed of light that the rate of a clock moving
    through space will decrease as its speed
    increases and the energy and mass are equal and

  1. To illustrate his profound idea, Einstein
    compares it to the ways one feels when he is
    sitting with a nice girl and when he is sitting
    on a hot stove.
  2. Wagner was arrogant, aggressive, and
    self-centered whereas Einstein was modest,
    amiable and easy-going. Wagner was monster but
    Einstein was absolutely a gentleman.

Unit 9
  • Learning Objectives
  • After learning this unit, you are supposed to
  • grasp the authors purpose of writing and get
    familiar with the structure of Text 1 by an
    intensive reading.
  • paraphrase all the difficult sentences in Text 1.
  • master all the news words or sentence patterns
    and be able to use them freely in oral or written
  • be aware that the doctor-patient conflict is a
    common phenomenon in different cultures and try
    to investigate that in China and try to offer
    some suggestions on how to solve this problem.

Text 1 The Discus Thrower
  • What do you think this text is about after you
    know its title?
  • How do you think a dying man will most probably
  • What attitude do you think that we should take
    towards financial or physical problems?

  • This passage can be divided into three parts.
  • Part One (Paragraph 1) Spying on Patientsa
    Habit of Mine
  • This part serves as an introduction to the
    background of the story. The narrator tells about
    one of his unique habits of spying on the
    patient and justifies himself for the sake of
    better medical treatment.

  • Part Two (Paragraphs 2-13) Encounters with a
    Particular Patient
  • This part talks about the narrators contact with
    the discuss thrower. The miserable condition of
    the patient is compared to a bonsai. The reason
    for his discuss throwing is that his plight
    throws him into despair and he hopes for nothing,
    only waiting for death.

  • Part Three (Paragraphs 14-15) The Death of the
  • This part tells about how the man is found dead
    and the doctor discovered the secret that the man
    starved himself to death as is suggested by the
    doctors attention to the repeatedly washed place
    where the scrambled eggs dropped to the floor.

  • Language Work
  • he might the more fully assemble evidence?
  • he might gather evidence more fully than
    without spying?
  • The structure the more fully is the elliptical
    form of all the more fully. In English the
    structure all/ so much/ none the the
    comparative degree of adjectives or adverbs is
    used without thanfollowing it to express
    emphasis. Sometimes all can be omitted.

  • e.g. 1) She was waiting for the spring. She felt
    the younger for it.
  • 2) I walked around for two hours yesterday,
    and the doctor said I was none the worse for it.
  • 3) I know theres danger ahead, but I am
    all the more set on driving forward.

  • furtive attempting to avoid notice or attention
  • e.g. 1) I saw him cast a furtive glance at the
    woman at the table to his right.
  • 2) There was something furtive about his
    behavior and I immediately felt suspicious.

  • It is rusted, rather, in the last stage of
    containing the vile repose within.
  • Rather, his skin gets dark brown because he was
    approaching the last stage of his life, that is,
    he was dying. Here vile repose is a metaphor,
    and it means death.

  • And the blue eyes are frosted, looking inward
    like the windows of a snowbound cottage.
  • And (under scrutiny) the blue eyes are not clear
    but covered with a gray frost-like layer, without
    looking outside at the external world like the
    windows of a snow-surrounded cottage.

  • he cups his right thigh in both hands.
  • he holds his right thigh with his hands curved
    like a dish.
  • cup support or hold something with the hands
    that are curved like a dish
  • e.g. 1) He cupped his chin in the palm of his
  • 2) David knelt, cupped his hands and
    splashed river water onto his face.

  • swing move something from one side to the other
  • e.g. 1) A large pendulum swung back and forth
    inside the big clock.
  • 2) The truck driver swung himself up into
    the drivers seat.

  • probe physically explore or examine (something)
    with the hands or an instrument investigate
  • e.g. 1) They probed in/into the mud with a
    special drill, looking for a shipwreck.
  • 2) Detectives questioned him for hours,
    probing for any inconsistencies in his story.

  • heft lift or hold (something) in order to test
    its weight
  • e.g. I hefted a suitcase.
  • I see that we are to be accomplices.
  • I see that I have to help the aide feed the
  • make ones rounds make ones usual visits, esp.
    of inspection
  • e.g. The production manage makes his rounds to
    check whether everything goes well.

  • dignified having or showing a composed or
    serious manner that is worthy of respect
  • e.g. 1)He has maintained a dignified silence
    about the rumours.
  • 2) The defeated candidate in the election
    gave a dignified speech in which he congratulated
    his rival.

  • sweep glide swiftly speed along
  • e.g. 1) A 1970s fashion revival is sweeping
  • 2) Her gaze swept across the assembled
  • 3) The National Party swept into power
    with a majority of almost 200.

  • Questions
  • Who is more responsible and considerate, the
    doctor or the medical aide? Find some clues in
    the text to support your opinion.
  • Since doctor-patient conflict is unavoidable, can
    you give some suggestions to improve this

Main Ideas of Text 2
  • Sian Evens was caught in a fire and suffered
    third-degree burns. Her father spared no effort
    to help her regain consciousness during his
    visits in the hospital. As well as Sians great
    efforts, her fathers deep love and great
    patience contributed immensely to her physical
    and mental recovery.

Unit 10
  • Learning Objectives
  • By the end of this unit, you are required to
  • grasp the authors purpose of writing and make
    clear the structure of the whole passage by an
    intensive reading of Text 1.
  • understand all the difficult sentences in Text 1
    and be able to paraphrase them.
  • get a list of new words and structures and try to
    use them freely in conversation and writing.
  • get familiar with the style of Text 1
  • autobiography.
  • try to get a general understanding of the famous
    literary figures mentioned in Text 1.

Text 1 How I Found My Voice
  • Have you ever spoken to a large audience? How
    did you feel?
  • Do you think voice is important to personal
  • Suppose a friend of yours, who has accidentally
    broken his leg, is going to have an operation in
    a few days and now he is feeling nervous. Say
    something to calm him down and give him some

  • This autobiographical narration comprises three
  • Part One (Paragraphs 1-2) The writer presents a
    striking contrast between his successful career
    as an actor and television announcer and his
    severe stutter in his early childhood.

  • Part Two (Paragraphs 3-22)This part mainly
    describes the authors stuttering problem when he
    was a child and the process of how Prof. Crouch
    helped the boy tackle the problem by way of the
    forced public speaking.

  • Part Three (Paragraphs 23-29) The concluding
    part shows various honors and successes the
    writer has obtained, which further emphasizes the
    great effect the teacher has brought about on the
    writers career as well as his whole life.

  • Language Work
  • the voice-over announcer an announcer who makes
    a commentary or gives an explanation which is
    heard as part of a film or television program,
    but he himself is not actually seen.
  • the New Testament the second part of the Bible,
    concerned with the teachings of Christ and his
    earliest followers
  • the Old Testament the first part of the Bible,
    telling the history of the Jews and their beliefs

  • I always sat down, my face burning with shame.
  • I always sat down, and blushed because I felt
  • More examples of absolute structure
  • A number of officials followed the emperor, some
    to hold his robe, others to adjust his girdle,
    and so on. (infinitive clause)
  • His voice drowned by the noise, the speaker
    stopped in the middle of his lecture.(-ed
    participle clause)
  • He went off, gun in hand. (prepositional phrase)
  • The floor wet and slippery, we stayed outside.
    (adjective phrase)

  • It was traumatic moving from the warm, easy ways
    of catfish country to the harsh climate of the
    north, where people seemed so different.
  • We moved from the familiar and pleasant country
    to the north where I felt cold both in body and
    in heart. That was really an upsetting experience
    in my life.

  • in a nondenominational fellowship in a close
    relationship without caring about the different
  • Granddads Irish heritage came out in his love
    for language
  • Granddad had a love for language, which might
    have been inherited from his Irish ancestors

  • come close to become almost the same as
  • e.g. The language learner tries to make his
    speech come close to perfection.
  • round up gather together animals or people,
    often when they do not want to be gathered
  • e.g. The teacher rounded up all the students and
    led them to the classroom.

  • That awful feeling of voice being trapped got
    worse as I grew older.
  • As I grew older, I became more self-conscious of
    my stuttering.
  • savor enjoy and appreciate something like food,
    or drink, or an experience, as much as one can
  • e.g. 1) I savored every mouthful of breakfast,
    reluctant to let it end.
  • 2) He savored the words as he said it.

  • labor work with difficulty, for example because
    one is not strong enough or clever enough
  • e.g. 1) He was laboring under the strain of a
    worsening political crisis.
  • 2) His classmates were laboring with
    elementary algebra.
  • I started, anger flooding me
  • I started, overwhelmed with anger

  • because the lyrics rhythmic pattern flows by
  • most stutterers can sing along with the rhythm
    pattern which just flows by itself.
  • He never pushed anything at me again he just
    wanted all his students to wake up.
  • From then on he never gave me pressure, and what
    he tried to do was to help students realize and
    tap their potential.

  • Isupported myself between roles by sweeping
    floors of off-Broadway stages.
  • Before acting any new role, I supported myself
    by sweeping the floors of off-Broadway stages.
  • Can I fly you in from Michigan to see it?
  • Can I offer you a flight to Michigan to see my

  • he was still living in a world vibrant with all
    of the beautiful treasures had stored.
  • he had stored many poems by memorizing them so
    he could enjoy his life with the rhythms
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