Panel 3: Strategies For Managing Water Resources Wednesday, April 19th (11:45am-12:45pm) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Panel 3: Strategies For Managing Water Resources Wednesday, April 19th (11:45am-12:45pm)


13th Symposium on Development and Social Transformation Panel 3: Strategies For Managing Water Resources Wednesday, April 19th (11:45am-12:45pm) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Panel 3: Strategies For Managing Water Resources Wednesday, April 19th (11:45am-12:45pm)

Panel 3 Strategies For Managing Water
Resources Wednesday, April 19th
13th Symposium on Development and Social
13th Symposium on Development and Social
Panel 3 Strategies For Managing Water
Rural Water Sector Decentralization In
IndiaAtheeq Khan
Rural Water Supply Sector Reforms in India An
Assessment Atheeq Khan
Current Status
  • 96 rural habitations have access
  • Yet, Investment in the sector is increasing
  • 1996-2001 US 1911 millions
  • 2002-2007 US 5511 millions
  • Indicating unsustainability
  • Access does not translate to quality of service
    (WB, 2006)

Traditional RWS Policy Supply driven Top down
  • Government to provide adequate water to all
  • State Agencies to plan and build and maintain
  • Joint Central State Govt. financing
  • Projects based on supply side calculations
  • Water rate not collected
  • Non - participative

Sector Reforms
  • Decentralization
  • Demand driven
  • Bottoms up
  • Participative

Decentralization A Theoretical Perspective
  • Efficiency through decentralization
  • Information
  • Heterogeneity of services
  • Local supervision
  • Accountability to local citizens

Decentralization A theoretical perspective
  • Equity through Decentralization
  • Local information on poor
  • Local Governments in better position to target
  • Local decisions favor pro-poor decisions

Conditions for Decentralization to succeed -
  • Local Decisions fully transparent
  • Cost of local decision fully borne locally
  • Benefits do not spill over jurisdictions
  • R. M. Bird (1994)
  • Empowerment of local actors
  • Accountability Mechanisms
  • Bardhan (2002) Agarwal Ribot (2002)

Accountability Mechanisms
  • Institutions
  • Fiscal autonomy at local level
  • Dependence on Hierarchical relationship with
    higher level of Government

Sector Reforms Policy Analysis
  • Direction
  • Step in right direction?
  • Adequacy
  • Not adequate
  • Success so far
  • Poor

Inadequacy of decentralization
  • Local Governments PRIs in India
  • Relatively young institutions
  • Developments of PRIs not uniform among states
  • Capacity building of local Governments
  • Local Governments have poor capacities
  • Fiscal autonomy poor

Inadequacy of decentralization
  • Empowerment
  • Poor fiscal and administrative decentralization
  • Accountability
  • Citizen participation by way of fiscal
    contribution poor
  • PRIs accountable to distant central Government
  • Elite capture and poor local accountability

Policy Alternatives
  • Create incentives for local actors to respond to
  • Empower local Governments and hold them
  • Participative processes for information gather
    and use from local citizens
  • Institutional mechanisms for stakeholder

Policy Alternatives - Continued
  • Adequate fiscal and administrative
  • Techno-managerial capacities for Village
  • Monitoring, evaluation, policy advice and
    technical supervision capacities for intermediate
    and state level Governments
  • Local fiscal Autonomy

  • Reform is in right direction, but not adequate
  • Decentralization not effective without adequate
    fiscal and administrative decentralization

Conclusions Contd
  • Downward accountability mechanisms need
  • Greater attention to institutional strengthening
    and community participation

End Note
  • Invest in local Governments for Better Governance
  • Thank you
  • Atheeq Khan

13th Symposium on Development and Social
Panel 3 Strategies For Managing Water
Urban Water Resource Management In IndonesiaDan
Urban Water Resource Management in Indonesia
  • Dan Wilder

  • Background
  • Water Needs
  • Sanitation
  • Decentralization
  • Challenges
  • Recommendations

Tanah Air Kita
  • Worlds largest archipelago
  • 13,000 islands,
  • 6,000 inhabited
  • Worlds 4th most populous country after China,
    India, the U.S.
  • 242 million people
  • 2/3rds live on the island of Java
  • Jakarta 9.5 million

Water Needs
  • Largely rural, agriculture plays an important
    role, but.
  • 45 of Indonesias population currently lives in
    urban areas (109 million)
  • Expected to increase to 60 by 2025, an estimated
    160 million people
  • Growth in manufacturing
  • Over-pumping leads to shrinking aquifers and
    saltwater intrusion

  • Affects wealthy and poor alike
  • Public health problems
  • 30 of Indonesians suffer from
  • waterborne illnesses each year
  • Diarrhea the 2nd largest killer of children
  • 100,000 children under age 5 each year
  • Highest incidence of typhoid fever in Asia
  • Urban sewerage coverage 3

Context Decentralization
  • 1980s District level responsible for providing
    water services
  • Control still highly centralized
  • Asian financial crisis fall of Suharto
  • Central government lacks capacity
  • 1999 regional autonomy laws

Structural Challenges
  • Infrastructure
  • Aging systems
  • Financing
  • PDAMs in debt from Financial Crisis
  • Tariffs set too low

Structural Challenges (Contd)
  • Administrative Capacity
  • Illegal pumping ? loss of 40 of revenues
  • Ambiguous pollution oversight responsibilities
  • Governors responsible for prosecution
  • Adverse Incentives
  • Over-consumption
  • Illegal markets
  • Creative revenue schemes

  • Give local governments the power to prosecute
  • Monitor wastewater instead of the amount of water

13th Symposium on Development and Social
Panel 3 Strategies For Managing Water
Water And Healthcare In Urban ChinaXiaodong
  • Water policy development in urban
  • Xiaodong Chen

  • 2006-4-19

  • Water is a prime natural resource, a basic human
    need and a precious asset for human being . Most
    of the developing countries face a serious
    problem not only to meet the rapidly growing
    demand for water resources but also to sustain
    water quality .
  • Since the adoption of the reform and opening up
    policy in China , Chinese national economy has
    gained rapid development and people's living
    standard enhanced quickly. However, with the
    economic development, the environment of water is
    faced with much pressure .
  • The magnitude of Chinas water problems is under
    increasingly stressful conditions of water
    shortages, and temporal variations in water
    surplus and deficit, the rapid deterioration of
    surface and groundwater quality.

  • For China , rapid economic growth is imperative
    to alleviate poverty ,raise income levels and
    improve the citizensquality life . Water
    pollution in urban China did not receive much
    official attention until the mid-1970s . Economic
    growth has always had higher priority than
    environmental pollution control issues on China's
    development agenda .
  • Most water pollution in urban China is caused by
    inadequate treatment of municipal sewage , only 5
    of the total sewage discharged annually
    treated. Water sources in 50 percent of the major
    cities and towns cannot meet drinking water
    standards .
  • Great efforts should be made to further promote
    the water environmental protection work in China

Water issue and health
  • Water is a prime natural resource, a basic human
    need and a precious asset for human being .
    Water sources include surface water ,ground water
    and rainwater.
  • Water related disease is devided by four types .
  • Keeping the environment clean from pollution is
    not only good for the environment, but also good
    for our health . In other words, health is best
    protected by the provision of an environmental
    service and benefits from having a clean water

Water sources pollution
  • The sources of drinking water include rivers,
    lakes, streams, ponds, reservoirs, springs, and
    wells. As water travels over the surface of the
    land or through the ground, it dissolves
    naturally occurring minerals and can pick up
    substances resulting from the presence of animals
    or from human activity .
  • Water pollution is determined by mainly two
    factors the number of people and the amount of
    consumption and production by human activities.
  • Population growth brings environment
    deterioration through development, such as large
    scale farming, urbanization and

Water quality effect factors
  • The effectiveness of pollution control mechanisms
    mostly depends on government actions. The
    efficiency of implemented wastewater treatment
    management is the key to improve water quality .
  • Population and human activities affect water
    quality however, appropriate treatment can help
    to avoid the deterioration of water quality .
  • Whether countries try to improve environmental
    quality depends on their income level .
    Furthermore, investment into the projects to
    control wastewater is also an important factor to
    control water pollution.
  • Water quality is affected by other factors, such
    as government efforts for water treatment and the
    social and economic environment .

The current situation in urban China---Challenge
  • Environment-related public health problems are
    yet another challenge Chinas leaders must
    address . The most serious problem is unsafe
    drinking water.
  • More than three-quarters of the water flowing
    through Chinas urban areas is considered
    unsuitable for drinking or fishing.
  • Overall, Chinas capacity to address
    environmental challenges need to be enhanced .
    Now, The State Environmental Protection
    Administration (SEPA) has only 300 full time
    professional staff in Beijing, and China devotes
    only 1.3 of its GDP to environmental protection.

Tha analysis of the water pollution control in
urban China
  • China promotes the idea of sustainable water
    use as a key policy goal. The emission of wastes
    from the industrial pollution sources of the
    whole country should meet the standards at
    national and local levels.
  • Boiling water is effective in destroying all
    kinds of waterborne pathogens, and can be applied
    to all waters .
  • Solar Radiation is an accessible, low cost method
    of household water treatment that is also
    technologically feasible. Chlorine is the most
    common and the most affordable of the chemical
    disinfectants .
  • Conclusion


13th Symposium on Development and Social
Panel 3 Strategies For Managing Water
Resources Wednesday, April 19th (1145am-1245pm)
Atheeq Khan Rural Water Sector Decentralization In India
Dan Wilder Urban Water Resource Management In Indonesia
Xiadong Chen Water And Healthcare In Urban China
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