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Chapter 22 The Spread of Islam Words, Terms and People to Know


Chapter 22 The Spread of Islam Words, Terms and People to Know Abbasids Alchemists Abu Bakr Muhammad Quran Mosque Islam Allah Avicenna Baghdad Bedouins Damascus – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 22 The Spread of Islam Words, Terms and People to Know

Chapter 22 The Spread of IslamWords, Terms and
People to Know
  • Abbasids
  • Alchemists
  • Abu Bakr
  • Muhammad
  • Quran
  • Mosque
  • Islam
  • Allah
  • Avicenna
  • Baghdad
  • Bedouins
  • Damascus
  • Hajaz
  • Makkah
  • Anno Hijrah
  • Pillars of Faith
  • Omar Khayyam
  • Rubaiyat

  • The Arabian Peninsula is a crossroads of three
    continents. Africa, Europe and Asia. Only a tiny
    strip of fertile land in the south and Oman can
    support agriculture. The rest of the land is
    desert inhabited by nomadic Arab herders. Towns
    were located near the coast or near oasis.

Bedouins Arab-speaking desert herders and
warriors. Nomadic Arabs, recognized by their
nomadic lifestyles, specific dialects, social
structures and culture.
  • (Ahl Bedu, " dwellers in the open land," or Ahl
    el beit, " people of the tent," as they call
  • "I and my brothers against my cousins, I and my
    brothers and my cousins against the world."
  • Needed to defend themselves against constant
    raids by other clans seeking their water, grazing
    territory and food supplies.

Persian battling Ancient Arabian Tribesmen
The Spread of Islam 500A.D.
  • Feudalism and
  • Transitions
  • 3. Describe the conditions that gave rise to
    feudalism, as well as political, economic and
    social characteristics of feudalism, in Asia and
  • 4. Explain the lasting effects of military
    conquests during the
  • Middle Ages including
  • a. Muslim conquests
  • b. The Crusades
  • c. The Mongol invasions.

God is beautiful and loves beauty. (Inn Allaha
jameel wa-yuhibbu l-jamaal) (A hadith of the
Prophet Muhammad (s)in Sahih Muslim 1.9391.
Muslim contributions to art come decorative
designnot painting pictures of people and the
Each Mosque has this niche used to indicate the
direction to Mecca
Section One describes the rise of Islam.
  • I. Islam means the act of submitting to
    the will of God.
  • A. AllahThe God
  • B. Makkah (Mecca)
  • C. Makkah (Mecca)
  • 1. Three major cities in the Hejaz (Mountainous
    area in the western part of Area) Yathrib, Taif
    and Makkah. Even before Islam, the holiest city
    in Araba was Makkah
  • (a.) Mecca largest and richest
  • (b.) Supported by trade and religion
  • (c.) Arab pilgrims visited he Kabah
  • (1.) low, cube-shaped building surrounded by
    idols and containing a black stone (meteorite?)
  • (d.) Kabah build by Adam and later rebuilt by
    Abraham and Ishmael

Defined primarily by its western border on the
Red Sea, it extends from Haql on the Gulf of
Aqaba to Jizan. Its main city is Jeddah, but it
is probably better-known for the Islamic holy
cities of Mecca and Medina. As the site of
Islam's holy places the Hejaz has significance in
the Arab and Islamic historical and political
landscape.Geographically, the region is located
along the Great Rift Valley. The region is also
known for its darker, more volcanic sand.
Depending on the previous definition, Hejaz
includes the high mountains of Sarawat which
topographically separate Najd from Tehamah.
I. cont.
  • C. Muhammad (WSJ on images)
  • Christian Church splits 1054Martin Luther 95
    Theses 1517Protestant Reformation/Counter
    ReformationEnlightenment 1700sDemocratic
    Governments, Separation of Church and State,
    Freedom of Speech etc.

PHILADELPHIA Colleen LaRose, accused of
conspiring with fighters overseas and pledging to
commit murder in the name of a Muslim holy war,
or jihad is accused of trolling the Internet as
Jihad Jane and agreeing to marry a suspected
terrorist and kill a Swedish artist targeted by
radical Muslims cooperated with (arrested 2010)
The controversial cartoons of Muhammad, as they
were first published in Jyllands-Posten in
September 2005. The headline, "Muhammeds ansigt",
means "The face of Muhammad".
Sir Ahmed Salman Rushdie, KBE born 19 June
1947) is a British-Indian novelist and essayist.
In February 1989, the Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini,
Supreme Leader of Iran issued a fatwa calling on
all good Muslims to kill or help kill Rushdie and
his publishers. Following the fatwa, Rushdie was
put under police protection by the British
government. As of early 2010 Rushdie has not been
physically harmed, but 38 others have been killed
in violence against those connected with the
book. Riots in 2005
(No Transcript)
  • 1. born 570 A.D., orphaned at 6
  • 2. in teens worked as a business person
  • 3. at 25 years of age married a 40 year old
  • 4. 610, Muhammad had a revelation that in time
    will make him the founder of the Islamic religion
    and its Allahs prophet.
  • (a.) angel appeared and ordered him to read some
  • (b.) Angel Gabriel told him to preach about God
  • (c.) Holy man tells Khadjuh Muhammad was to be
    a prophet of his people and Arabs should worship
    only Allah.
  • (d.) 613 Muhammad begins preaching to people of
  • (e.) Share with the poor, life preparation for
    the Day of Judgment
  • 5. leaders of Makkah were threatened and were
    afraid visitors would stop coming to Makah

I. cont.
View of the Mosque of the Prophet in Medina
  • 6. 620 Muhammad pilgrims from Yathrib ask him to
    be their leader
  • 7. 622, Anno Hijrah, year of migration, becomes
    first year of Muslim calendar
  • 8. City of Yathrib renamed Madina, City of the
  • 9. People of Makkah invade Madina unsuccessfully
    several times
  • 10. 628 Muhammad signs peace treaty with Makkah
  • 11. By 630 all the people of Arabia declared
    faith in Islam
  • 12. 632 Muhammad dies.
  • Terms to Learn Pillars of Faith
  • Terms to Learn Mosque
  • Terms to Learn Imam
  • Terms to Learn Hajj

2007 OAT QUESTION 10. Which is the sacred book
of the Islamic religion? A. Bible B. Torah C.
Koran D. Vedas
I. more
  • D. The Quran (Muslim scriptures)
  • 1. Muslims believe the Quran is the direct word
    of God as revealed to Muhammad
  • 2. Written in Arabic
  • 3. Pillars of Faith (next slide)

As part of their Islam religion Muslims have 5
duties they must perform, called the Five Pillars
of Faith Shahada (affirmation) The duty to recite
the creed"There is nothing worthy of worship
save Allah, and Muhammad is the Messenger of God"
Salat (prayer) The duty to worship the One God
in prayer five times each day (Friday noon prayer
is usually recited in a mosque, led by an
imam) Zakat (almsgiving) The duty to distribute
alms and to help the needy Siyam (fasting) The
duty to keep the Fast of Ramadan Hajj
(pilgrimage) The duty to make the pilgrimage to
Mecca at least once in a lifetime (all believers
who fulfill these duties will go to Paradise)
2. The Salat
  • The call to prayer by the muezzin in the
  • Pray in the mosque on Friday.

Section Two describes the formation of the Arab
Empire and the spread of Islam
  • II. The Arab Empire
  • Places to Locate Damascus
  • Places to Locate Baghdad
  • A. in 632 Muslim leaders choose a caliph
  • B. The Rightly Guided Caliphs
  • 1. 1st Abu Bakr, Muhammads father-in-law
    elected for life, as were his two successors
  • 2. ruled from Madina and kept in touch with the
    people and trusted advisors
  • 3. sent warriors into Palestine, Syria, Iraq,
    Persia, Egypt and North Africa

II. continued
The term "Jihad" used without any qualifiers is
generally understood in the West to be referring
to holy war on behalf of Islam. In broader usage
and interpretation, the term has accrued both
violent and non-violent meanings. It can simply
mean striving to live a moral and virtuous life,
spreading and defending Islam as well as fighting
injustice and oppression, among other things. The
relative importance of these two forms of jihad
is a matter of controversy.
  • 4. Success came for many reasons
  • (a.) Islam held them together
  • (b.) Arab warriors believed that struggling on
    behalf of Islam earned them an eternal place in
    paradise if they died in battle. (Jihad)
  • (c.) Lenient treatment of conquered people
  • (1.) must pay a tax
  • (2.) could keep their land
  • (3.) those who fought paid tax and lost their
  • (4.) Muslims refer to Jews and Christians
    (sometimes Zoroastrians and even Mandeans) as
    "People of the Book". When these people reside in
    states that practice Sharia law, they are called
    dhimmi ("protected person"). As dhimmi, they are
    subject to various protections and disabilities,
    which are called dhimma. People of other
    religions do not have this protected status.

C. The Umayyads
  • 1. Ali, Muhammads son-in-law was killed in 661
  • 2. Muawiya, MUAWIYA B. ABI SUFYAN (c.602-680)
    new Caliph moved the capital to Damascus and
    founded the Umayyad Dynasty.
  • 3. Title of Caliph becomes hereditary at this
  • 4. Rule as political leaders rather than
    religious leaders.
  • 5. minted first Arab money, created postal
    routes, built mosques (Muslim house of worship)
    and encouraged arts.
  • 6. Conquered people were not treated the same,
    received less money for serving in army and paid
    higher taxes.
  • 7. Muslims divided into 2 groups
  • (a.) Shiahbelieved the office of caliph should
    be held only by descendants of Ali- venerate
  • (b.) Sunnifollowed the Rightly Guided Caliphs
    and all caliphs after them (minor groups-esp.
  • (c.) War breaks out between Abbasids and
    Umayyads in 750 led by Abu Abbas Mussin

Abbasid Caliphate (green) at its greatest extent,
c. 850.
D. The Abbasids
Abbasids based their claim to the Caliphate on
their descent from Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib
(566-652), one of the youngest uncles of the
Prophet Muhammad., by virtue of which descent
they regarded themselves as the rightful heirs of
the Prophet as opposed to the Umayyads.
  • 1. Ruled Arab Empire from 750-1258
  • 2. first 100 years known as Golden Age of Islam
  • 3. built new capital called Baghdad designed by
    a Jewish astronomer and a Persian engineer
  • 4. meaning of Arab changes from person from
    Arabia to any subject of the empire who spoke
  • 5. VizierChief Adviserintermediary between
    people and throne
  • 6. did not conquer new landsBaghdad becomes
    intellectual center
  • 7. Caliph instructs Syrian Christians and Jews
    to translate Greek writings into Arabic
  • 8. Mathematical and scientific achievements
  • 9. Mathematicians adapted a numeric system
    developed by the Guptas of India
  • 10. Empire becomes too large for one caliph
    and breaks into independent kingdoms.
  • 11. 836 caliph moves capital city to
    Samarrathen tries to return to Baghdad
  • 12. 945 Persians take control of Baghdad

Minaret at the Great Mosque of Samarra
E. The Golden Age of Muslim Spain
A room of the palace and a view of the Court of
the Lions. Granada Spain
  • 1. Muslim Arabs who conquered North Africa
    intermarried with Berbers and became knows as
  • 2. 710 Moors invade Spain and defeat the West
  • 3. set up kingdom that allows religious freedom
    and tended to favor not-Arab peoples
  • 4. rule for 400 years and develop a rich culture
  • 5. Schools were built in which Muslims, Jews and
    Christians studied medicine and philosophy
  • 6. Jewish traders travel widely and bring back
    spices and silks to Spain from India and China
  • F. Islamic Life
  • 1. initially, men could have an unlimited number
    of wives
  • 2. killing of female children was common

  • 3. Islam attempted to correct societal evils
    Sharia Law '????? is the body of Islamic
    religious law.
  • 4 Muhammad taught female child guaranteed a
    reward in paradise
  • 5. Islam improves womens rights
  • 6. only four wives in most situations
  • 7. At time of birth of a baby the call to
    prayers is recited into the babys ears
  • 8. memorizing the Quran important requirement in
  • 9. tremendous interest in travel and exploration
  • Terms to Learn Alchemist
  • People to Know al-Idrisi
  • People to Know ar-Razi
  • People to Know Omar Khyyam
  • People to Know Ibn Khaldum

Section Three describes the Arab contributions
to world civilization
  • III. Arab Contributions
  • A. Between 770 and 1300s Arab scholars help
    preserve ancient learning
  • B. Single language contributes to sharing
  • C. Arab alchemists attempt to turn base metals
    into gold
  • D. Arab astronomers describe eclipses of sun,
    prove moon affects tides, determine size of Earth
    and the fact it is round
  • E. Arab mathematicians invent algebra
  • 1. pass numerals 0-9 from Gupta mathematicians
    to Europeans
  • F. Arab doctors discover that blood circulates,
    first to understand that tuberculosis is
  • 1. Avicennas Canon of Medicine used in European
    medical schools for 500 years
  • G. The Arabian Nightscollection of tales put

"Ali Baba" by Maxfield Parrish.
III. Cont.
  • H. Persian poet Omar Khayyams Rubaiyat
    translated into many languages
  • I. Islamic art does not depict living creatures,
    believing to do so is a sin
  • J. Art is made up of geometric designs entwined
    with flowers, leaves and stars
  • K. Historian Ibn Khaldun first to take into
    account the influence of geography and climate on

  • Ibn Khaldun's chief contribution lies in
    philosophy of history and sociology. He sought to
    write a world history preambled by a first volume
    aimed at an analysis of historical events. This
    volume, commonly known as Muqaddimah or
    'Prolegomena', was based on Ibn Khaldun's unique
    approach and original contribution and became a
    masterpiece in literature on philosophy of
    history and sociology. The chief concern of this
    monumental work was to identify psychological,
    economic, environmental and social facts that
    contribute to the advancement of human
    civilization and the currents of history. In this
    context, he analysed the dynamics of group
    relationships and showed how group-feelings,
    al-'Asabiyya, give rise to the ascent of a new
    civilization and political power and how, later
    on, its diffusion into a more general
    civilization invites the advent of a still new
    'Asabiyya in its pristine form. He identified an
    almost rhythmic repetition of rise and fall in
    human civilization, and analyzed factors
    contributing to it. His contribution to history
    is marked by the fact that, unlike most earlier
    writers interpreting history largely in a
    political context, he emphasized environmental,
    sociological, psychological and economic factors
    governing the apparent events. This
    revolutionized the science of history.

Pick one of the following
  • 1. List at least three ways in which the
    development of Islam was similar to that of
    Christianity and one major difference.
  • 2. Explain in an essay how Abbasid rule of the
    Arab Empire was different from that of the
  • 3. Explain the importance of each of the
    following for the devote Muslim the five pillars
    of faith, the Kabba, the black stone and the
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