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BIBL 7553 The Dead Sea Scrolls and the New Testament


BIBL 7553 The Dead Sea Scrolls and the New Testament The Scrolls and John The Scrolls and Paul The Scrolls and James The Scrolls and Hebrews Dualism in John and in ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: BIBL 7553 The Dead Sea Scrolls and the New Testament

BIBL 7553 The Dead Sea Scrolls and the New
  • The Scrolls and John
  • The Scrolls and Paul
  • The Scrolls and James
  • The Scrolls and Hebrews

Dualism in John and in 1QS
There are several significant parallels between
the Fourth Gospel and the writings discovered
near Qumran. Probably the most important
parallels are those that express or presuppose
dualism. The dualism found in the Manual of
Discipline has especially drawn scholarly
attention. Contrasts between light/darkness, good
deeds/evil deeds, truth/falsehood are found in
1QS 313426. A sample of the passage reads as
follows God allotted unto humanity two
spirits that he should walk in them until the
time of His visitation they are the spirits of
truth and perversity. The origin of truth is in a
fountain of light, and the origin of perversity
is from a fountain of darkness. Dominion over all
the sons of righteousness is in the hand of the
Prince of light they walk in the ways of light.
All dominion over the sons of perversity is in
the hand of the Angel of darkness they walk in
the ways of darkness (1QS 31821).
Examples of Dualism
Although Johannine and Qumranian dualism is not
identical, there is significant similarity. Some
of the most important parallels have been
presented by James Charlesworth Spirit of
truth (John 1417 1526 1613 1 John 46 cf.
1QS 31819 421, 23) Holy Spirit (John
1426 2022 cf. 1QS 421) sons of light
(John 1236 cf. 1QS 313, 24, 25) eternal
life (John 315, 16, 36 414, 36 524, etc.
cf. 1QS 47) the light of life (John 812 cf.
1QS 37) walk in darkness (John 812 1235
cf. 1QS 321 411) wrath of God (John 336
cf. 1QS 412) eyes of the blind (John 93941
1021 cf. 1QS 411) full of grace (John 114
cf. 1QS 44, 5) the works of God (John 628
93 cf. 1QS 44) men . . . for their works
were evil (John 319 cf. 1QS 410, 20). To
these a few others might be added witness of
the truth (John 533 1837 cf. 1QS 86) do
or practice the truth (John 321 1 John 16
cf. 1QS 15 53 82) walking in truth (2
John 4 3 John 3 cf. 1QS 46, 15) living
water (John 414 cf. CD 193334) darkness
overcome by light (John 15 1 John 28 cf.
1QMyst 1Q27 156). Parallels such as these
have led Herbert Braun to conclude that Johannine
dualism can be understood as having derived from
Palestine (as opposed to Syria or some other
place where Gnostic dualism might have existed).
Dictional and Conceptual Parallels
Several other parallels between Johannine and
Qumranian diction and conceptuality have been
observed (1) The relationship between water and
spirit (35 73738) may reflect Qumrans great
interest in baptism and the Spirit He will
cleanse him of all wicked deeds by means of a
Holy Spirit like purifying waters He will
sprinkle upon the Spirit of truth (1QS 41921
cf. Isa 444). (2) The respective manners in
which Jesus and the Teacher of Righteousness
(esp. in 1QH) refer to themselves and to their
distinctive missions have have certain features
in common. (3) Otto Betz and others have pointed
out the similarities between the Johannine
Paraclete and Qumrans Holy Spirit (1QS 421),
which is also called the Spirit of truth (1QS
318 421, 23). (4) Johnannine interpretation of
Jesus body as the Temple (John 21921)
resembles Qumrans concept of a spiritual temple
He has commanded a sanctuary of men to be built
for Himself (4QFlorilegium 4Q174 36).
Qumran Dualism and Bultmann
  • The Dualism of the Dead Sea Scrolls seriously
    undermined Rudolf Bultmanns thesis that the
    Gospel of John was a product of Gnosticism.

Ecclesiastical Terminology in Paul and in Qumran
(a) 2 Cor 256 . . . punishment by the many
uJpo tw'n pleiovnwn is sufficient cp. 1QS
611b12 During the session of the general
membership Mybrh no man should say anything
except by the permission of the general
membership Mybrh . . . This (Greek and Hebrew)
phrase basically means the majority. (b) Phil
11 . . . to those in Philippi with Bishops
ejpivskopo" and deacons cp. 1QS 612 . . .
who is the overseer rqbmh of the general
membership Mybrh . . . The Hebrews rqbm
appears to be the equivalent of Pauls
Theological Terminology in Paul and Qumran
(c) righteousness of GodRom 117 321
(dikaiosu/nh qeouv) cp. 1QS 121 1023 (la
twqdx) 1QS 1025 1112 (la tqdx). (d) grace of
GodRom 515 1 Cor 310 (hJ cariß touv qeouv)
cp. 1QS 1112 (la ydsj). (e) works of the
lawRom 320, 28 Gal 216 32, 5, 10 (ergoi
no/mou) cp. 1QS 618 (hrwtb wyCom) 4Q398 1417
ii 3 4Q399 1 i 11 (yCom txqm hrwt). More on
this phrase below. (f) church of God1 Cor 12
1032 1116 159 2 Cor 11 Gal 113 1 Thess
214 2 Thess 14 (hJ e?kklhsia touv qeouv) cp.
1QM 410 (la lhq). In the LXX lhq is translated
either sunagwgh/ or e?kklhsia. The phrase
e?kklhsia qeouv occurs but once in the LXX (cf.
Neh 131). In the MT it is Myhwla lhq. (g) new
covenant2 Cor 36 (kainh\ diaqh/kh) cp. CD (B)
1933 (hCdjh tyrb) 2012 (hCdjh tyrb) 1QpHab
23 (hCdjh tyrbb).
The Works of the Law
Pauls argument yet we know that a person is
justified not by the works of the law e?x ergwn
no/mou ouj dikaiwqh/setai but through faith in
Jesus Christ. And we have come to believe in
Christ Jesus, so that we might be justified by
faith in Christ, and not by doing the works of
the law, because no one will be justified by the
works of the law (Gal 216). Just as Abraham
believed God, and it was reckoned to him as
righteousness kai e?logisqh aujtwˆ? ei?ß
dikaiosu/nhn Gen 156 (Gal 36 cf. Romans
4). And he believed the LORD and he reckoned it
to him as righteousness hqFdFc wøl
DhRbVvVjÅyÅw (Gen 156). The verb is bvj (qal
waw-consecutive 3rd singular). Then Phinehas
stood up and interceded, and the plague was
stopped. 31 And that has been reckoned to him as
righteousness hqFdFcIl wøl bRvDjEtÅw from
generation to generation forever (Ps 1063031).
The verb is bvj (niphal waw-consecutive 3rd
Priestly Zeal for the Law
Now the days drew near for Mattathias to die,
and he said to his sons Arrogance and reproach
have now become strong it is a time of ruin and
furious anger. Now, my children, show zeal for
the law zhlwsate tw nomw, and give your
lives for the covenant of our fathers. Remember
the deeds of the fathers, which they did ta_
e1rga twn pate/rwn a e0poi/hsan in their
generations and receive great honor and an
everlasting name. Was not Abraham found faithful
when tested Gen 22?, and it was reckoned to him
as righteousness Gen 156 e0logi/sqh au)tw
ei0j dikaiosunhn? Joseph in the time of his
distress kept the commandment, and became lord of
Egypt. Phinehas our father, because he was deeply
zealous Num 2569, received the covenant of
everlasting priesthood Num 251013 Ps
1063031 (1 Macc 24954). Further
clarification from James Was not Abraham our
father justified by works e0c e1rgwn
e0dikaiwqh, when he offered his son Isaac upon
the altar Gen 22? You see that faith was active
along with his works, and faith was completed by
works e0k twn e1rgwn h( pi/stij e0teleiwqh,
and the scripture was fulfilled which says,
Abraham believed God, and it was reckoned to him
as righteousness e0pi/steusen de\ 0Abraa_m tw
qew, kai\ e0logi/sqh au)tw ei0j
dikaiosunhn and he was called the friend of
God. You see that a man is justified by works and
not by faith alone e0c e1rgwn dikaioutai
a!nqrwpoj kai\ ou)k e0k pi/stewj monon (James
What Qumran has to Say
Now, we have written to you 27some of the works
of the Law hrwt yCom txqm, those which we
determined would be beneficial for you and your
people, because we have seen that 28you possess
insight and knowledge of the Law. Understand all
these things and beseech Him to set 29your
counsel straight and so keep you away from evil
thoughts and the counsel of Belial. 30Then you
shall rejoice at the end time when you find the
essence of our words to be true. 31And it will be
reckoned to you as righteousness hqdxl    Kl
hbCjnw, in that you have done what is right and
good before Him, to your own benefit 32and to
that of Israel (4QMMT C2632). The verb is bvj
(niphal perfect 3rd singular).
The Smoking Gun
  • 4Q398 frags. 1417

gt hqdxl    Kl hbCjnw and it will be reckoned to
you as righteousness
Saved by Works?
  • The Getting In vs. Staying In Debate
  • Simon Gathercole and salvation by works.
    Gathercole rightly questions aspects of the new
    perspective on Paul.

New Perspective Scholars
My Thoughts
In Rom 117 Paul cites Hab 24 For in it the
righteousness of God is revealed through faith
for faith as it is written, The one who is
righteous will live by faith (cf. Gal 311 Heb
1038). One should compare 1QpHab 813a (1This
refers to all those who obey the Law among the
Jews whom 2God will rescue from among those
doomed to judgment, because of their suffering
and their loyalty 3to the Teacher of
Righteousness), where the emphasis seems to fall
on obedience to the Law, not on faith. Remember,
the word faith (pistiß or hÎnwmTa) can mean
either faith or faithfulness. The former was
Pauls point in his appeal to Gen 156, the
latter was the point made by the author of 4QMMT,
in his appeal to Ps 1063031. See also CD
2027b34 But all who hold fast to these rules,
going out 28and coming in according to the Law,
always obeying the Teacher and confessing to God
as follows We have wickedly sinned, 29we and
our ancestors by living contrary to the covenant
laws just 30and true are your judgments against
us and do not act arrogantly against His holy
laws and 31His righteous ordinances and His
reliable declarations and who discipline
themselves by the old laws 32by which the members
of the Yahad were governed and listen attentively
to the Teacher of Righteousness, not abandoning
33the correct laws when they hear them they will
rejoice and be happy and exultant. They will rule
over 34all the inhabitants of the earth. Then God
will make atonement for them and they will
experience His deliverance because they have
trusted in His holy name. Paul and the Essenes
appear to have different understandings of gospel.
Hab 24 at Nahal Hever
MT hyexyI wOtnFwm)vb_at_e qyd_at_Icaw OG o( de\
di/kaioj e0k pi/stewj mou zhsetai Rom 117 o(
de\ di/kaioj e0k pi/stewj zhsetai 8HevXIIgr
17.30 kai\ di/kaioj e0n pi/stei au)tou
Human Sinfulness
In Rom 11832 Paul describes the sinful decline
of humanity cp. 1QS 313426 13A text
belonging to the Instructor, who is to enlighten
and teach all the Sons of Light about the
character and fate of humankind 14all their
spiritual varieties with accompanying signs, all
their deeds generation by generation, and their
visitation for afflictions together with 15eras
of peace . . . The judgment 12of all who walk in
such ways will be multiple afflictions at the
hand of all the angels of perdition, everlasting
damnation in the wrath of Gods furious
vengeance, never-ending terror and reproach 13for
all eternity, with a shameful extinction in the
fire of Hells outer darkness. For all their
eras, generation by generation, they will know
doleful sorrow, bitter evil and dark
happenstance, until 14their utter destruction
with neither remnant nor rescue.
Spiritual Dualism in Paul In Rom 7725 Paul
describes the dualistic struggle within the
believermind attempting to yield to the Spirit,
the carnal members yielding to the flesh cp. 1QS
423b25a (Until now the spirits of truth and
perversity have contended within the human heart.
24All people walk in both wisdom and foolishness.
As is a persons endowment of truth and
righteousness, so shall he hate perversity
conversely, in proportion to bequest in the lot
of evil, one will act wickedly and 25abominate
truth.) 11915 (As for me, to evil humanity
and the counsel of perverse flesh do I belong. My
transgressions, evils, sins and corrupt heart
10belong to the counsel of wormy rot and them who
walk in darkness. Surely a mans way is not his
own neither can any person firm his own step.
Surely justification is of God by His power 11is
the way made perfect. All that shall be, He
foreknows, all that is, His plans establish
apart from Him is nothing done. As for me, if 12I
stumble, Gods mercy forever shall save me. If
through sin of the flesh I fall, my justification
will be by the righteousness of God which endures
for all time. 13Though my affliction break out,
He shall draw my soul back from the Pit, and firm
my steps on the way. Through His love He has
brought me near by His mercy shall he provide
14my justification. By His righteous truth has He
justified me and through His exceeding goodness
shall He atone for all my sins. By His
righteousness shall He cleanse me of human
15defilement.) 1QH 122931a (What is mortal
man in comparison with this? And where is the
vessel of clay that is able to carry out wondrous
deeds? For he is sinful 30from the womb and in
the guilt of unfaithfulness until old age. I know
that man has no righteousness, nor does the son
of man walk in the perfect 31way.).
Moulded Clay
In Rom 91921 Paul likens a human to a lump of
clay that God has moulded for his own purposes
You will say to me then, Why then does he still
find fault? For who can resist his will? 20 But
who indeed are you, a human being, to argue with
God? Will what is moulded say to the one who
moulds it, Why have you made me like this? 21
Has the potter no right over the clay, to make
out of the same lump one object for special use
and another for ordinary use? Cp. 1QS 112124a
21You created from the dust for the eternal
council. The perverse spirit You have cleansed
from great transgression, that he might take his
stand with 22the host of the holy ones, and enter
into community with the congregation of the sons
of heaven. And for man, You have allotted an
eternal destiny with the spirits 23of knowledge,
to praise Your name together with shouts of joy,
and to recount Your wonders before all Your
creatures. But I, a creature of 24clay, what am
I? Kneaded with water, for whom am I to be
reckoned, and what is my strength?
Stumbling Stone
In Rom 933 Paul quotes Isa 2816 as it is
written, See, I am laying in Zion a stone that
will make people stumble, a rock that will make
them fall, and whoever believes in him will not
be put to shame. In Rom 1212 he describes the
Christian as a living sacrifice, holy and
acceptable to God, which is your spiritual
worship (cf. Phil 217 418) cp. 1QS 8410
When such men as these come to be in Israel,
5then shall the Council of the Yahad truly be
established, an eternal planting (Jub. 1626),
a temple for Israel, andmystery!a Holy 6of
Holies for Aaron true witnesses to justice,
chosen by Gods will to atone for the land and to
recompense 7the wicked their due. They will be
the tested wall, the precious cornerstone (Isa
2816) whose 8foundations shall neither be shaken
nor swayed, a fortress, a Holy of Holies 9for
Aaron, all of them knowing the Covenant of
Justice and thereby offering a sweet savor. They
shall be a blameless and true house in Israel,
10upholding the covenant of eternal statutes.
They shall be an acceptable sacrifice, atoning
for the land and ringing in the verdict against
evil, so that perversity ceases to exist.
Sons of Light
for you are all sons of light uioi fwto/ß
and sons of the day we are not of the night or
of darkness sko/toß (1 Thess 55) For once
you were darkness, but now in the Lord you are
light. Live as children of light tekna fwto/ß
(Eph 58). A text belonging to the Instructor,
who is to enlighten and teach all the Sons of
Light rwa ynb about the character and fate of
humankind (1QS 313). See also 1QS 19 216
32425 1QM 11, 3 etc. For the Instructor,
the Rule of the War. The first attack of the
Sons of Light rwa ynb shall be undertaken
against the forces of the Sons of Darkness KCwj
ynb, the army of Belial loylb the troops of
Edom, Moab, the sons of Ammon . . . (1QM 11
cf. 2 Cor 615 What agreement does Christ have
with Beliar Beliar? Or what does a believer
share with an unbeliever?).
Mystery and Revelations
Now to God who is able to strengthen you
according to my gospel and the proclamation of
Jesus Christ, according to the revelation of the
mystery kata aÓpokaluyin musthriou that was
kept secret for long ages (Rom 1625). When I
came to you, brothers and sisters, I did not come
proclaiming the mystery of God to\ musth/rion
touv qeouv to you in lofty words or wisdom (1
Cor 21). Think of us in this way, as servants
of Christ and stewards of Gods mysteries
musthriwn qeouv (1 Cor 41). . . . the
design of Your holiness, penetrate the depth of
Your mysteries hkyzr, or apprehend Your wonders
. . . (1QS 1119). Mysteries of God la yzr
to wipe out wickedness. On the trumpets of
pursuit they shall write, God has struck all
Sons of Darkness, He shall not abate His anger
until they are annihilated (1QM 39).
Flesh and Spirit
By His truth God shall then purify all human
deeds, and refine some of humanity so as to
extinguish every perverse spirit from the inward
parts of his flesh wrCb, cleansing from every
wicked deed by a holy spirit Cdwq jwrb. Like
purifying waters, He shall sprinkle each with a
spirit of truth, effectual against all the
abominations of lying . . . (1QS 42021). For
those who live according to the flesh sarx set
their minds on the things of the flesh, but those
who live according to the Spirit pneuvma set
their minds on the things of the Spirit (Rom
Covered Heads and Angels
In 1 Cor 1110 Paul says a woman ought to have a
symbol of authority on her head, because of the
angels. The statement has baffled interpreters
for centuries. The Scrolls may help. According to
1QM 76 and 1QSa 289 angels are present during
holy war and during the assembly of the Yahad.
The implication seems to be that every aspect of
human appearance and conduct must be holy when in
the context of worship or service of God. The
uncovered female head was viewed in the same
category as a physical defect or at least as
inappropriate decorum. Paul is not talking about
angels lusting after women (therefore, women veil
yourselves), as in some traditions growing out of
Genesis 6. See J. A. Fitzmyer, A Feature of
Qumran Angelology and the Angels of 1 Cor.
11.10, NTS 4 (1957) 4858.
Order in the Assembly
According to Paul in 1 Cor 142633, 40 26What
should be done then, my friends? When you come
together, each one has a hymn, a lesson, a
revelation, a tongue, or an interpretation. Let
all things be done for building up . . . 27each
in turn . . . 28if there is no one to interpret,
let them be silent in the assembly . . . 40all
things should be done decently and in order.
Pauls recommendations are similar to those found
in the Rule of the Community This is the rule
for the session of the general membership, each
man being in his proper place . . . each man may
state his opinion 10to the Council of the Yahad.
None should interrupt the words of his comrade,
speaking before his brother finishes what he has
to say. Neither should anyone speak before
another of 11higher rank. Only the man being
questioned shall speak in his turn. During the
session of the general membership no man should
say anything except by the permission of the
general membership, or more particularly, of the
man 12who is the Overseer of the general
membership. If any man has something to say to
the general membership, yet is of a lower rank
than whoever is guiding the deliberations of the
Council of the 13Community, let him stand up. He
should then say, I have something to say to the
general membership. If they permit, he may
speak (1QS 6813).
James and Doing the Law
In 1QpHab 71011 81 we read of those who do
the Law (hrwth yCwo). In 124 the poor ones
are the simple of Judah, doer(s) of the Torah
(hrwth hCwo). In 4Q185 3 i 3 we have a fragment
with a reference to doing the words of the
covenant (tyrb yrbd hco). The parallel with Jas
122 is suggestive be doers of the word
(poihtai lo/gou), and not hearers only, deluding
your own selves. The Hebrew MyIcOo, which
probably underlies the Greek poihtai/, may lie
behind the transliteration Essene. Essenes and
early Christians apparently regarded themselves
as doers of the Law/word. hCo appears
twenty-six times in 1QSerek, five times in col. 1
alone. In favor of this understanding is Stephen
Goranson, Others and Intra-Jewish Polemic in
Qumran Texts, in Peter W. Flint and James C.
VanderKam (eds.), The Dead Sea Scrolls after
Fifty Years A Comprehensive Assessment, vol. II
(Leiden Brill, 1999) 53451, esp. 539
Melchizedek in Hebrews
In 11QMelchizedek, Melchizedek appears as a
divine being (indeed, even takes the place of
Yahweh in a quotation of Isa 612 the year of
Melchizedeks favor). In some of the fragments
of the Songs of the Sabbath Sacrifice Melchizedek
appears in the role of a heavenly high priest.
These magnified presentations of Melchizedek in
Jewish traditions that antedate Christianity
probably help explain why the author of Hebrews
(see esp. chap. 7) presents Jesus as a heavenly
high priest according to the order of
Melchizedek. (See also Ps 1104 You are a
priest forever after the order of Melchizedek.)
Spiritual Sacrifice in Hebrews
According to Heb 1315 Through him then let us
continually offer up a sacrifice of praise to
God, that is, the fruit of lips that give thanks
to his name. This language is similar to ideas
found in the Rule of the Community Then indeed
will he be accepted by God, offering the sweet
savor of atoning sacrifice (1QS 311) They
shall be an acceptable sacrifice, atoning for the
land and ringing in the verdict against evil, so
that perversity ceases to exist (810) They
shall atone for the guilt of transgression and
the rebellion of sin, becoming an acceptable
sacrifice for the land through the flesh of burnt
offerings, the fat of sacrificial portions and
prayer, becomingas it werejustice itself, a
sweet savor of righteousness and blameless
behavior, a pleasing free-will offering (945).
The Use of the Scrolls for New Testament
  • Linguistic
  • Contextual (religious, political, social,
  • Hermeneutical and exegetical
  • Ecclesiastical
  • Theological
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