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Human Geography By James Rubenstein

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Human Geography By James Rubenstein Chapter 1 Key Issue 2 Why Is Each Point on Earth Unique? The interplay between the uniqueness of each place and the similarities ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Human Geography By James Rubenstein


1
Human Geography By James Rubenstein
  • Chapter 1
  • Key Issue 2
  • Why Is Each Point on Earth Unique?

2
  • The interplay between the
  • uniqueness of each place and the
  • similarities among places
  • lies at the heart of geographic inquiry into
  • why things are found where they are.

3
  • Two basic concepts help geographers to explain
    why every point on Earth is in some ways unique
  • Place
  • Region

4
  • The difference between the two concepts is partly
    a matter of scale
  • A place is a point
  • A region is an area

5
Location
  • The position that something occupies on Earths
    surface.

6
4 ways to identify Location
  • Place-name (Toponym)
  • Site
  • Situation (relative location)
  • Mathematical location.

7
Toponym
  • The name given to a place on Earth.

8
Place Names (Toponym)
  • Give us clues about a places founders,
    physical setting, social customs, or political
    changes.
  • Derived from features of the physical
    environment.
  • Tell us about the social customs of its early
    inhabitants.

9
Board of Geographical Names
  • Operated by the U.S. Geological Survey
    established in the late 19th century to be the
    final arbiter of name on U.S. maps.
  • Places can change names, possibly to commemorate
    a particular event.

10
Site
  • The physical character of a place.
  • Climate
  • Water sources
  • Topography
  • Soil
  • Vegetation
  • Latitude
  • Elevation

11
Humans can modify the characteristics of a site.
New York has been expanded by landfills.
12
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13
Situation
  • The location of a place relative to other places
    (also known as relative location).

14
Situation is a good way to indicate location
  • Finding unfamiliar places.
  • Understanding a places importance (many
    locations are important because they are
    accessible to other places).

15
Situation Singapore is located on trade routes
16
Mathematical Location
  • The location of any place on Earth's surface can
    be described precisely by meridians and
    parallels, two sets of imaginary arcs drawn in a
    grid pattern on Earth's surface (a form of
    absolute location).

17
Longitude or Meridian
  • An arc (an imaginary line) drawn between the
    North and South poles.

18
Longitude
Longitude
Longitude
19
Longitude or Meridian
  • Each meridian is identified as a longitude.
  • The prime meridian, 0 longitude, passes through
    the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, England.
  • All other meridians have numbers between 0 and
    180 east or west of Greenwich.

20
Latitude or Parallel
  • A parallel is a circle (an imaginary line) drawn
    around the globe parallel to the equator.

21
Latitude
Latitude
Latitude
22
Latitude or Parallel
  • The numbering system to indicate the location of
    a parallel is called a latitude.
  • The equator is 0 latitude, the North Pole is
    90 north latitude, and the South Pole is 90
    south latitude.

23
Latitude or Longitude
  • The mathematical (or absolute) location of a
    place can be designated more precisely by
    dividing each degree into 60 minutes and each
    minute into 60 seconds.

24
Determining Latitude
  • Latitudes are scientifically derived by Earth's
    shape and its rotation around the Sun.
  • 0 Latitude (Equator) a place where everyday
    has 12 hours of daylight.

25
Determining Longitude
  • 0 longitude (Prime Meridian) runs through
    Greenwich, England.
  • First accurately measured by English clockmaker
    John Harrison in 1736.
  • Determined by time away from the Prime Meridian.

26
Time Zones
  • Earth is divided into 24 standard time zones
    each time zone represents one hour and 15 of
    longitude.
  • The international agreement (in 1884) designated
    the time at the prime meridian as Greenwich Mean
    Time (GMT) or Universal Time (UT).

27
International Date Line
  • Mostly the 180 longitude.
  • When you cross the International Date Line
    eastward, you move the clock back 24 hours (you
    repeat the day).
  • You turn the clock ahead 24 hours if you are
    heading westward toward Asia (you skip a day).

28
Repeat a Day
Skip a Day
29
Regions
  • Areas of Unique Characteristics.
  • An area of Earth defined by one or more
    distinctive characteristics.
  • A region derives its unified character through
    the cultural landscape.

30
Cultural Landscape
  • A combination of
  • cultural features such as language and religion,
  • economic features such as agriculture and
    industry, and
  • physical features such as climate and
    vegetation.

31
Types of Regions
  • Formal (Uniform)
  • Functional (Nodal)
  • Vernacular (Perceptual)

32
Formal Region
  • Also called a uniform region or a homogeneous
    region, is an area within which everyone shares
    in common one or more distinctive
    characteristics.

33
?
Formal Region States won by Bush and Gore in the
2000 U.S. Presidential Election
34
Functional Region
  • Also called a nodal region an area organized
    around a node (focal point).
  • The region is tied to the central point by
    transportation or communications systems or by
    economic or functional associations.

35
Functional RegionsAreas influenced by T.V.
Stations beyond State boundaries
36
Other examples of functional region
  • The circulation area of a newspaper (can be
    international with satellite transmission.
  • Trading area of a department store.
  • Relationship of a central city and its suburbs.

37
Vernacular Region
  • Also known as a perceptual region, is a place
    that people believe exists as part of their
    cultural identity.
  • Emerge from people's informal perceptions of
    place, rather than from scientific models.

38
The South
39
Spatial Association
  • Different conclusions may be reached concerning a
    regions characteristics depending on scale.
  • For example, death rates vary widely among scales
    within the United States.

40
At the national scale, the eastern regions of the
United States have higher levels of cancer than
the western ones.
41
At the scale of the state of Maryland, the city
of Baltimore and counties in the east have higher
levels of cancer than the western and suburban
counties.
42
At the scale of the city of Baltimore, lower
levels of cancer are found in the zip codes on
the north side.
43
  • To explain why regions possess distinctive
    features, such as a high cancer rate, geographers
    try to identify cultural, economic, and
    environmental factors that display similar
    spatial distributions.
  • Geographers conclude that factors with similar
    distributions have spatial association.

44
Culture
  • The body of
  • customary beliefs,
  • material traits, and
  • social forms
  • that together constitute the distinct tradition
    of a group of people.

45
Geographers
  • Distinguish groups of people according to
    important cultural characteristics.
  • Describe where particular cultural groups are
    distributed.
  • Offer reasons to explain the observed
    distribution.

46
Geographers Study
  • What people care about (their ideas, beliefs,
    values, and customs).
  • What people take care of (their ways of earning
    a living and obtaining food, clothing and
    shelter).

47
Geographers Divide the World into Regions based
on Economic Activity
  • Countries with more developed economies MDCs
  • Countries with less developed economies LDCs.

48
Level of Economic Development is based on Shared
Characteristics
  • Per capita income
  • Literacy rates
  • Health care available
  • Distribution of material goods.

49
Cultural Ecology
  • The geographic study of human-environment
    relations
  • (also known by the geographic theme as
    Human-Environment Interaction)

50
Integrating Culture and Environment
  • In constructing regions, geographers consider
    environmental factors as well as cultural.

51
Environmental Views
  • Some 19th century geographers argued that human
    actions were scientifically caused by
    environmental conditions, an approach called
    environmental determinism.
  • Modem geographers reject environmental
    determinism in favor of possibilism.

52
Possibilism
  • The physical environment may limit some human
    actions, but people can adjust to their
    environment.
  • People choose a course of action among
    alternatives in the environment, and endow the
    physical environment with cultural values by
    treating it as substances for use, a collection
    of resources.

53
Example of Possibilism
  • The climate of any location influences human
    activities, especially food production.

54
Human and Physical Factors
  • Human geographers use this cultural ecology to
    explain many global issues.

55
  • People can adjust to the capacity of the physical
    environment by
  • controlling their population growth,
  • adopting new technology,
  • consuming different foods,
  • migrating to new locations,
  • and other actions.

56
Wealth can also influence attitudes toward
modifying the environment
  • A rocky hillside is an obstacle to a farmer with
    a tractor, but an opportunity to a farmer with a
    hoe.
  • Modem technology has altered the historic
    relationship between people and the environment.

57
  • Human geographers need some familiarity with
    global environmental processes to understand the
    distribution of human activities, such as
  • where people live,
  • and how they earn a living.

58
Physical Processes
  • Climate
  • Vegetation
  • Soil
  • Landforms

59
Climate
  • The long-term average weather condition at a
    particular location.

60
Koppen System
  • Developed by German climatologist Vladimir
    Koppen geographers frequently classify climates
    according to this system.
  • The modified Koppen system divides the five main
    climate regions into several subtypes.

61
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62
  • The climate of a particular location influences
    human activities, especially production of the
    food needed to survive.

63
Vegetation
  • Plant life covers nearly the entire land surface
    of Earth.
  • Their location and extent are influenced by both
    climate and human activities.
  • Vegetation and soil, in turn, influence the types
    of agriculture that people practice in a
    particular region.

64
Biomes
  • Plant communities.
  • Four major communities
  • forest,
  • savanna,
  • grassland,
  • and desert.

65
Soil
  • Soil, the material that forms on Earth's surface,
    is the thin interface between the air and the
    rocks. Not merely dirt, soil contains the
    nutrients necessary for successful growth of
    plants, including those useful to humans.

66
Soil
  • The material that forms on Earth's surface, is
    the thin interface between the air and the rocks.
  • Not merely dirt, soil contains the nutrients
    necessary for successful growth of plants,
    including those useful to humans.

67
Soil Classification
  • The U.S. Comprehensive Soil Classification System
    divides global soil types into ten orders.
  • The orders are subdivided into suborders, great
    groups, subgroups, families, and series.
  • More than 12,000 soil types have been identified
    in the United States alone.

68
  • Two basic problems contribute to the destruction
    of soil
  • Erosion
  • Depletion of nutrients

69
Landforms
  • Geographers find that the study of Earth's
    landforms
  • (a science known as geomorphology)
  • helps to explain the distribution of people and
    the choice of economic activities at different
    locations.

70
  • Geographers use topographic maps to study the
    relief and slope of localities.

71
Relief
  • The difference in elevation between any two
    points, and it measures the extent to which an
    area is flat or hilly.

72
Need a Topographic Map Sample
Relief
Relief
73
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74
Relief Drawn on Aerial Photograph
75
Sensitive Environmental Modification
The Netherlands
76
The Netherlands
  • Few regions have been as thoroughly modified by
    humans as the Netherlands.
  • More than half of the country lies below sea
    level.

77
Polder
  • Land created by the Dutch by draining water from
    an area.

78
Polder
79
The Netherlands
  • In 1932, the Dutch turned the Zuider Zee from a
    saltwater sea to a freshwater lake.
  • In 1953, the Dutch began building dams to close
    off most of the water ways in the huge Delta
    formed by the Rhine, the Maas, and the Scheldt
    rivers.

80
The Netherlands
  • Attitudes toward modifying the environment have
    changed in the Netherlands.
  • The Dutch are deliberately breaking some dikes
    to flood fields.
  • But modifying the environment will still be
    essential to the survival of the Dutch.

81
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82
Dike
83
Dikes
84
Dike
85
Dike
86
Not-So-Sensitive Environmental Modification
Florida
87
Florida
  • The fragile landscape of south Florida has been
    altered in insensitive ways, especially
  • the barrier islands,
  • the Everglades wetlands,
  • and the Kissimmee River.

88
Barrier Islands
Kissimmee River
The Everglades
89
The Barrier Islands
  • Essentially large sandbars that shield the
    mainland from flooding and storm damage.

90
The Barrier Islands
  • Attractive locations for constructing homes and
    recreational facilities.
  • People build seawalls and jetties to fight
    erosion.
  • A seawall causes erosion on the down-current
    side of the island, by trapping sand along the
    up-current side.

91
Erosion on the down-current side of jetties,
trapping sand along the up-current side.
Current
92
Down-Side
Up-Side
93
The Everglades
  • During the late 1940s the Army Corp of Engineers
    drained the northern third of the Everglades,
    opening 750,000 acres of land for growing
    sugarcane.
  • The southern 1.4 million acres became a National
    Park.

94
The Everglades
  • The Corps built levees, canals, and pumping
    stations to protect sugarcane fields and cities
    from flooding.
  • Most of the freshwater was pumped out to sea,
    and what water did reach the National Park was
    high in phosphorus, threatening vegetation, birds
    and other animals.

95
The Everglades
  • A 1999 plan called for removing 60,000 acres from
    sugarcane production and pumping fresh water into
    the Park, rather than out to sea,
  • but the survival of plants and animals of the
    Everglades now still depends on sensitive human
    management of the region's water flow.

96
Kissimee River
  • The state of Florida asked the Army Corps of
    Engineers to straighten the course of the
    Kissimee River into a canal, because summer
    flooding rains were an obstacle to cattle grazing
    and urban growth.

97
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98
Kissimee River
  • After the opening of the canal, polluted water
    from grazing cattle flowed into Lake Okeechobee,
    the source of freshwater for half of Florida's
    population.
  • The Corps is now restoring the Kissimmee River to
    its meandering course, which will again be
    subject to flooding.
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