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Vitamins & Minerals Functions in livestock feeding Vitamin B1 (Thiamin) Function: required for the normal metabolism of carbohydrates. Deficiency signs: loss of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Vitamins

Vitamins Minerals
  • Functions in livestock feeding

Related Vocabularies
Nutrients chemical substances in food that are
used by the body to produce energy and
tissues. Vitamins essential organic
nutrients, required in small amounts, that
cannot be synthesized by the body. Required
for growth, maintenance, reproduction and
lactation. Vitamin deficiency decline in health
due to the lack of a vitamin in a ration.
Related Vocabularies
Fat soluble vitamin a vitamin that can be stored
and accumulated in the liver and other fatty
tissues. Water soluble vitamin a vitamin that
cannot be stored in the tissues. Must be
provided regularly as deficiencies can develop
in a short time. Minerals essential inorganic
compounds, required in small amounts. Required
for growth, maintenance, reproduction and
lactation. Macrominerals required in large
amounts. Microminerals required in small amounts.

  • Vitamins are essential organic nutrients,
    required in small amounts.
  • They cannot be synthesized by the body. Must be
    obtained by outside sources like diet, rumen
    bacteria sun.
  • Required for growth, maintenance, reproduction
    and lactation.

Classes of Vitamins
  • Fat Soluble Vitamins stored in tissues
  • Examples
  • A
  • D
  • E
  • K
  • Water Soluble Vitamins
  • not stored in tissues, must have constant supply
  • Examples
  • B, B1, B2, B6 B12
  • Niacin
  • Folic Acid
  • C

Vitamin A
Function, Deficiency Signs Sources
  • The product of the conversion in the animals
    body of carotene which is found in feeds.
  • True vitamin A is not found in feeds.
  • Because vitamin A is converted from carotene, the
    carotene is regarded as a precursor of vitamin A.
  • Beta-carotene is the standard used.

Vitamin A
  • Different animal species covert carotene to
    vitamin A at different rates.
  • When the feed source supplied enough carotene,
    the animal can usually meet its requirements for
    vitamin A from the diet.

Vit A Functions
  • Normal maintenance of the eyes, membrane tissue,
    respiratory, digestive, reproductive, nerve, and
    bone growth.

Vit A Deficiency
  • Night blindness is a symptom of severe vitamin A.
  • Animals may become permanently blind because of a
    vitamin A deficiency.
  • Eye infections and constriction in the optic
    nerves can be less severe symptoms.
  • Excessive watering of eyes. Cornea ulcerations
    are indications of possible vit A deficiency.

Vitamin A Deficiency
  • Keratinization of the epithelial tissue, which
    causes lowered resistance to infections is common
    with vitamin A deficiency.
  • Diarrhea, reduced appetite, poor growth and
    weight loss are also indicators of vit. A
  • Reproductive problems, poor conception, reduced
    fertility in males, shortened gestation, retained
    placenta and still born can also be indicators.

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Vitamin A Sources
  • Carotene is found in good quality, fresh, green
    forages in amounts generally sufficient to supply
    the needs of livestock.
  • Green, leafy hays that have been in storage less
    than one year, legume hays, good qulity grass or
    legume silages.
  • Dried sun-cured forages contain less carotene.
  • Bleached, low quality forages have little
    carotene content.

Vitamin A Sources
  • Carotene content of forages in storage is reduced
    by exposure to the sun and air, high temperature
    and long storage times reduce content.
  • Mixing the feeds with oxidizing agents such as
    some minerals or organic acids will also reduce

Vitamin A storage
  • Stored in the liver and fatty tissues of the
  • The animal can use this stored vitamin A during
    periods of feeding when the diet is deficient in
  • A horse can go for 3-6 months when Vit A is
    deficient, sheep 200 days.

Vitamin A Ration Considerations
  • May need to supplement when
  • Poor quality or low levels of forage are
  • Limited amounts of colostrum .
  • Fed primarily corn silage and low carotene
  • Grazing during drought, rations of cereal grains.

Vitamin A Ration Considerations
  • Vitamin A, in a stabilized form that is resistant
    to oxidation may be added to the ration through
    vitamin premixes.
  • Intramuscular injections of vitamin A may be
  • Stress conditions such as low temperature or
    exposure to infectious bacteria will increase the
    vit A requirements.

Excess Vit A in Diet
  • Feeding excessive amount of vit A to horse over
    along period of time may result in fragile bones,
    thickening of bony tissue, flaking off of the

Vitamin D
  • Important for calcium absorption, Ca and P
  • Fat soluble, stored in the body.
  • Less critical in mature versus younger animals.
  • Most important in animals in the third trimester
    of pregnancy.

Vitamin D Forms
  • Plant forms of vitamin D is ergocalciferol.
  • Animal forms of vitamin D is cholecalciferol.
  • The liver converts cholecalciferol to 25-hydroxy
    D3, which is the main form in which the vitamin
    circulates in the body.

Vitamin D Deficiency
  • Development of rickets, because of reduced Ca and
    P absorption.
  • Indicators are decreased appetite, slower growth,
    digestive disturbances, stiffness in gait,
    labored or fast breathing, irritability weakness
    and sometimes the development of tetany.
  • Symptoms develop more quickly in younger animals.

Vitamin D Deficiency
  • Pregnant animals may give virth to dead, weak or
    deformed young as a result of a vitamin D

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Fig 1. Flared costochondral junction, rachitic
rosary, with irregular and elongated growth
cartilage (arrows).
Fig 2. Multiple distal rib fractures with callus
formation (arrows).
Vitamin D Sources
  • Diets that include sun-cured forages generally
    provide sufficient vitamin D.
  • Animals regularly exposed to sunlight or
    ultrviolet light also will not develop symptoms
    of vitamin D deficiency.
  • Green forages, barn cured hay and silages have
    some vitamin D.
  • Grains and grain by products have practically no
    vitamin D.

Vitamin D Sources
  • Vitamin D is more stable than vitamin A, does
    oxidize, has poor stability when mixed with
    minerals, especially calcium carbonate.
  • Rations with adequate levels of Ca and P will
    require less vitamin D.

Vitamin E
  • Functions as an antioxidant, which helps in the
    abosorption of storage of vitamin A
  • Vitamin E deficiency results in symptoms similar
    to selenium, whitemuscle, muscular dystrophy.
  • Deficiency signs poor growth, "crazy chick"
    disease, Muscular Dystrophy, "white muscle"
    disease in ruminants and swine and "stiff lamb"
    disease (affects the nerves and muscles).

Vit E deficiency Haemorrhage in the small
intestine, between two dark coloured ceca.
These sheep had multifocal health problems
including caseous lymphadenitis, copper and
vitamin E deficiency and severe Sarcocystis spp.
Vitamin E Sources synthetic for poultry and
swine, cereal grains and wheat germ oil, green
forages, protein concentrates, oil seeds (peanut
and soybean oil). Vitamin E rapidly destroyed in
rancid or spoiled fats. That is why these may
cause white muscle disease. Utilization of
Vitamin E is dependent on adequate selenium.
Vitamin K
  • Necessary for the formation of prothrombin,
    (material needed to maintain normal blood
  • Feeding moldy feeds may cause vitamin K
    deficiency leading to a bleeding syndrome.
  • Deficiencies of vitamin K rarely occur because it
    is synthesized in the rumen.
  • Deficiency signs blood loses its power to clot
    or the time needed for clotting is longer and
    serious hemorrhages can result from slight wounds
    or bruises.
  • Green leafy feeds, soybeans, fat soluble, solvent
    process soybean meal are good sources.

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Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) Function has an
effect on the metabolism of calcium in the body
(Not required in rations of farm
animals.). Deficiency signs none demonstrated
in livestock. Human deficiency scurvy (swollen
and painful joints and bleeding gums) and
brittleness of bones. Sources citrus fruits,
tomatoes, leafy vegetables and potatoes.
Vitamin B1 (Thiamin) Function required for the
normal metabolism of carbohydrates. Deficiency
signs loss of appetite, muscular weakness,
severe nervous disorders, general weakness and
wasting (BeriBeri). Sources raw, whole grains
and especially their seed coats and embryos
fresh green forage and yeast, milk and rumen
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) Function necessary
for normal embryo development, important in the
metabolism of amino acids and carbohydrates.
Deficiency signs poor reproduction
characterized by small litters and deformed
young (cleft palate and club-footedness) curly
toe paralysis in chicks, digestive disturbances,
general weakness and eye abnormalities. Sources
milk and dairy by-products, yeast, green
forages, well cured hay (especially alfalfa),
whole grains, wheat bran and synthetic riboflavin
rumen synthesis.
Bleeding gums Scurvy? C
Night blindness? A
Blood wont clot? K
Lameness? D E
Childless/ reproductive dysfunction? B2 A
Poor posture? Ca P
Mineral Facts
  • Essential inorganic nutrients, required in small
  • As many as 20 minerals may be required!
  • Required for growth, maintenance, reproduction
    and lactation.

  • The Macrominerals
  • Calcium Ca
  • Phosphorous P
  • Potassium K
  • Sulfur S
  • Sodium Na
  • Chlorine Cl
  • Magnesium Mg

Calcium (Ca) Function major component of bones
and teeth and essential in blood coagulation,
nerve and muscle function and milk and egg
production. Deficiency signs retarded
growth, deformed bones in young animals
(rickets), and soft shelled eggs and osteoporosis
in older animals. Sources milk, oyster
shells and limestone.
Sodium chloride Considered together because of a
close biochemical relationship and are provided
as common salt (NaCl) Function required for the
formation and retention, concentration and pH of
body fluids, such as protoplasm, blood.
Important in the formation of digestive juices
and functions in nerve and muscle
activity. Deficiency signs poor condition and
depressed appetite. Most farm produced feeds are
deficient in these two minerals. Sources salt
supplements and injectable products.
Phosphorus (P) Function essential for the
formation of bones, teeth, and body fluids.
Required for metabolism, cell respiration and
normal reproduction. Deficiency signs similar
to calcium deficiency, lack of appetite, poor
reproduction and unthrifty appearance. Sources
dicalcium phosphate, bone meal, and low fluorine
Potassium (K) Function retention and formation
of body fluids, pH concentration of body fluid
and rumen digestion. Deficiency signs
nonspecific and unlikely under most conditions
but may have decreased feed consumption and
efficiency. Sources roughages. Grains are
less than roughages .
Manganese (Mn) Function Fetal development,
udder development, milk production and skeleton
development. Deficiency signs Abortions,
reduced fertility, deformed young and poor
growth. Sources Most use trace mineralized
The Microminerals Iodine (I) Copper (Cu) Iron
(Fe) Selenium (Se) Manganese (Mn) Molybedenum
(Mo) Zinc (Zn)
Copper (Cu) Function should be present in
animal tissues for iron to be properly utilized,
hemoglobin formation and synthesis of keratin for
fair and wool growth. Deficiency signs poor
pigmentation of feathers, stringy wool, sway back
lambs, lack of muscle coordination and anemia.
Sources forages and copper salts.
  • Iron (Fe)
  • Function essential for the function of every
    organ and tissue of the body (Hemoglobin).
  • Deficiency signs seldom occurs in older
    animals, nutritional anemia, labored breathing
    and pale eyelids, ears and nose.
  • Sources forages and copper or trace mineral

Cobalt (Co) Function required as a nutrient
for the microorganisms in ruminants and thereby
aids in rumen synthesis of Vitamin B12. Because
swine cannot manufacture B12 from cobalt, the
diets are supplemental with vitamin B12 instead.
Deficiency signs lack of appetite, loss of
weight, rough hair coat, anemia, decreased milk
and wool production and death in extreme cases.
Sources legume forages and salt containing
Magnesium (Mg) Function similar to calcium
and phosphorus. Deficiency signs Animals are
irritable, their heart beat is irregular and
there is severe kidney damage. Sources
mineral supplements and ordinary feeds.
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