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Instructional Design Process and


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Title: Instructional Design Process and

Instructional Design Process and Curriculum
Development Prepared by - Dr. Atef Jaber
Yousef Ibrahim Aljeesh Assistant professor in
public health
Assistant professor in Medical-surgical
Nursing Islamic University
First Edition September
Page Contents Contents
5 Instructional design process Chapter 1
12 learning need assessment Chapter 2
15 Selecting a title and setting instructional goals Chapter 3
20 learner characteristics Chapter 4
24 learning objectives Chapter 5
31 Subject contents and task analysis Chapter 6
36 Teaching learning activities Chapter 7
44 Instructional resources Chapter 8
49 Support services Chapter 9
53 Evaluating learning Chapter 10
58 An overview of curriculum development. Chapter 11
151 Reference. Chapter 12
Chapter 1 Instructional Design Process
Introduction Learning begins at
birth and ends at death, learning is an
intervening variable between something that
happens in the world and the subsequent behavior
of the learner. The concept of instructional
design started during and immediately following
the World War II by the military training
command, The psychologists was revealing
important new information about how human
learning takes place, including the importance of
specifying details of a task to be learned or
In the early 1950 much interest was being shown
in educational applications of the learning
theory known as behaviorism. B.F. skinner, the
psychologist, developed a stimulus response
(S-R) model based on the principle that learning
takes place through a series of small steps in
which the learner must actively participate. The
theoretical view of learning proposed by skinner
and it is applications through programmed
instruction have most influential for the
emergence of the instructional design process.
Definition of instructional design process-
Its a procedure for identifying the
instructional process to increase learning and
improve performance (kemp, 1985).
  • Key elements of the instructional design process.
  • On planning instructional design process. There
    are four fundamental elements.
  • For whom is the program being developed learners
  • What do you want the learners to Learn
  • How is the subject content best learned Teaching
  • How do you know if the learning has been achieved
    or not Evaluation


Figure I Key elements of the instructional
design process.

There are additional components which require
attention to make a complete instructional design
  • Goal
  • learning needs assessment priorities
  • select topic Constraints
  • Purpose
  • learner characteristics
  • learning objectives according to the goals
  • State your subject content according to your
  • teaching method according to your objectives
  • Instructional resources.
  • Support services
  • learning evaluation.
  • Pre-testing.

Instructional Design Plan

(figure3) Note - the elements are not connected
with lines. Each person can start with any
?Rationale of using Kemp model- - An oval does
not have a specific starting point. - These
elements are interrelated to each other. The
elements are not connected with lines or
arrows. Decisions relating to one may affect
others and encourages flexibility in the
selection of elements and in the order of their
treatment. - The indication of revision around
the elements illustrates the feedback
feature which allows for change in the content or
treatment of element at any time during
  • Definition of learning
  • learning- Is a change in behavior (kemp,1985).
  • General principles which enhance learning.
  • Relating instruction to student experience .
  • Relating instruction to student interest.
  • Relating instruction to student future.

  • Learning barrier
  • student are bored
  • student are frustrated
  • student are hurt emotionally
  • Students are subjected to unpleasant physical

Chapter 2 Learning Need Assessment We learned in
school that human beings to have a number of
basic needs which must be satisfied. These are
food, water, clothing, shelter, and economic
security. Most daily activities are devoted to
satisfying these needs. Beyond the basic needs,
the motivation for action in various aspects of
life is based on a desire to satisfy interests
and needs at a higher level.
Need Assessment - its the process of planning,
obtaining, and applying information (kemp, 1985).
  • Gathering information
  • Need Assessment can be done by two ways-
  • Internal assessment procedure.
  • Giving a test and analyzing student result.
  • Interviewing instructor's about student
  • Talking with the students and their impression
    about the value and success of the program.

  • external assessment
  • Interviewing person from other institute.
  • Comparing between instructional program at other
    institution to our local program.
  • Distribution of questionnaire or survey to
    recognized needs in the field.

  • The process of need assessment.
  • Preparing to do a need assessment.
  • Gathering information, data collection should be
    done through-
  • Interviews.
  • Questionnaire.
  • Observation.
  • Analyzing the need assessment information.
  • Prorating needs assessment information

Once a need assessment is completed and there is
a need, give your project a title or name, then
goal should be set.
Chapter 3 Selecting a title and setting
instructional goals Once a needs assessment is
completed, give your project a title or name.
Goal is abroad statement about the learning that will take place. (Kemp, 1985).
Types of Learning
  • 1- Cognitive Learning deals with information and
    mental processes as remembering sign and symptoms
    of a disease.
  • 2- Psychomotor Learning involves some form of
    physical activity and coordination between the
    brain and the muscles.
  • Affective Learning emphasizes feeling, emotions,
    attitudes and values.

Examples of the verbs that used in writing the
To interest, To help, To provide, To present, To gain, To acquire, To know, To understand, To become, To be familiar.
Example Topic Diabetes Mellitus Goal to acquire
knowledge and understanding of the anatomy and
physiology of the disease process, and proper
nursing care for the diabetic patients.
Topics and job tasks Topic - is a heading for a
unit or component of the course that treats
subject content knowledge to be learned. (Marger,
1972) Job task - is a heading that relates to a
physical skill that is to be performed. (Marger,
  • The topics and tasks should be listed in a
    logical sequence
  • A- By chronological, numerical.
  • By proceeding from treatment of simple to more
    complex content.
  • From an overall view to a detailed consideration
    of the components.
  • By proceeding from the concrete to the abstract.

Examples - Goal To acquire knowledge and
understanding the physiology of the digestive
system and management of patients with digestive
Topic The digestive system The cardiovascular system Metabolic and endocrine function Urinary and renal function
  • Example -
  • Tasks
  • Catheterization of the urinary bladder.
  • Irrigating an indwelling catheter.
  • Inserting a naso-gastric tube.
  • Obtaining the blood pressure.
  • Administration of subcutaneous insulin injection.
  • Goal -
  • To present essential information and skills
    required for obtaining the blood pressure.

Differences between a topic and task. (table I)
Topic Task
- Related to subject content knowledge. - Emphasis on accomplishing of physical actions.
- The learner learn certain facts, concepts and principles, - Performing skills correctly.
- Use the information to make problem solving, - Required physical activity.
- Knowledge based. - Physical skill based.
Chapter 4 Learner Characteristics When plans are
to be made for lecture or group instruction, we
should obtain general indications of the academic
and asocial characteristics of potential and
actual learners. The instructional planner must
obtain information a bout the abilities, needs,
and interests of the learners to know the level
at which topics are introduced.
  • Characteristics of the student
  • Academic information
  • The most easily obtainable
    information about individual learners.
  • School grade or training level completed.
  • Grade- point average for academic studies.
  • Score of intelligence test and basic skills such
    as reading, writing and mathematics
  • Special courses relating to major area of
  • Note Also we can obtain knowledge and skills
    information through pre-testing.

  • 2- personal and social characteristics
  • Age and maturity level.
  • Motivation and attitude toward the subject.
  • Vocational aspirations.
  • Work experience
  • These information can be obtained by observation,
    interviews and informational questionnaires.

Disabled learners The category of disabled
learners includes physically handicapped
individuals and others with learning disabilities
such as hearing and vision loss, speech
impairment and mild mental retardation. Each type
of handicapped requires special consideration.
Instructional program may require extensive
modification in order to serve handicapped
learners appropriately.
Characteristics of no conventional learners Non
conventional learners are those learners whose
preparation, behavior and expectations may not be
conventional. These group include individuals
from ethnic minorities, and learners with special
  • Characteristics of adult learners
  • Adult enters the program with a high level of
    motivation and readiness to learn, they clearly
    know what goal they want to reach.
  • Adults brings to the course extensive background
    experience from both their personal and
    professional lives.
  • Adult may be less flexible than younger learner,
    before they accept change, they must see an
    advantage in doing so.
  • Adult want to be treated as adults, they want to
    participate in decision making.
  • Most mature adult are largely self- directed and
  • Adult time is important consideration because
    they may have outside responsibilities.

  • Learning styles
  • There are two aspects of learning styles
  • Human brain hemisphere functions
  • Left Hemisphere- suited to the functions of
    language such as reading, speaking, and writing.
  • Right. hemisphere this side focus attention to
    the synthesis of information and problem solving.

  • Learning conditions
  • physical Environment- sound, light,
    temperature levels.
  • Emotionality- motivation, and taking

Chapter 5 Learning Objectives We are considering
a procedure for systematically planning
instruction in which the specification of
learning objectives plays a key role . The
objectives indicate what a learner should be able
to do after completing a unit of instruction and
are expressed in precise.
  • Objectives can be grouped into (3) major
  • Cognitive Domain.
  • Psychomotor Domain.
  • Affective Domain
  • Bloom developed a taxonomy for the cognitive
    domain that is widely used and classified into
    (6) categories.

  • Level of cognitive Domain
  • Knowledge - recall of information.
  • Verbs applicable to
  • knowledge level are - arrange, define, label,
    test, name, order, repeat.

  • Comprehension - interpret information.
  • Verbs Applicable
  • classify, describe. discuss, explain, report,
    tell, translate, and review.

  • Application (apply knowledge)
  • Verbs applicable to Application level are
  • Apply, choose, illustrate, prepare, practice,
    solve, use.

  • Analyses - break down knowledge into parts and
    show relationship among parts.
  • Verbs Applicable to analyses level are-
  • Arrange, collect, construct, formulate, manage,
    prepare, synthesize.

  • Synthesis - Bring together parts of knowledge to
    form a whole and build relationships for a new
  • Verbs applicable to evaluation level are-
  • Arrange, collect, construct, formulate, manage,
    prepare, synthesize

  • Evaluation - make judgments
  • Verbs applicable to evaluation level are-
  • Appraise, estimate, support, select, evaluate,
    predict, assess.

Advantages of objectives
  • 1- Provide a guide for the instructor and lets
    the students know clearly what the teacher
  • 2- Guide the teacher on what is to be taught, and
    how to design a logical sequence for learning.
  • 3- Provide a guide to the selection of
    appropriate methods of instruction.
  • 4- Provide an exact guide to construction of
  • 5- Acts as criteria for evaluation of

Writing cognitive objectives A learning objective
is a statement that answer the question or what
should the learner be able to do.
  • Essential parts in writing the objectives
  • Action verbs -
  • To manage, operate, arrange, compare.
  • Subject content reference -
  • That describe the content being treated.
  • Example to define congestive heart failure.
  • Performance standards - indicates the minimum
    level of acceptance.

Example At least 8 out of 10 correct within 3 minutes in proper order meeting the criteria stated in the manual
  • Examples of learning objectives
  • To arrange the six steps or level of cognitive
    domains in proper order.
  • To List at least (3) Sings and symptoms of
    Myocardial Infarction according to medical
    surgical nursing book

Note Objectives derived from the goal and not
from the purpose. Differences between goal and
Goals Objectives
- Verbs can be used in the goal are broad such as to know, understand, become, and familiar - Derived from philosophy. - Not measurable - Verb can be used in objectives are not broad, (specific) such as to solve, apply, and choose - Derived from goal - Measurable
levels in The cognitive Domain
knowledge Recall of information knowledge Recall of information
Arrange Name
Define Order
Duplicate Recognize
Label Relate
List Recall
Match Repeat
Memorize reproduce
2. comprehension Interpret information in ones own words 2. comprehension Interpret information in ones own words
Classify Recognize
Describe Report
Discuss Restate
Explain Review
Express Select
Identify Sort
Indicate Tell
Locate Translate
3.Application Apply knowledge or generalization
to new situation
Apply Operate
Choose Prepare
Demonstrate Practice
Dramatize Schedule
Employ Search
Illustrate Solve
Interpret Use
4. Analysis break down knowledge into parts and
show relationship among parts
Analyze Differentiate
Appraise Discriminate
Calculate Distinguish
Categorize Examine
Compare Question
Contrast Test
5. synthesis bring together parts of knowledge to
form a whole and build relationships for new
Arrange Manage
Assemble Organize
Collect Plan
Compose Prepare
Construct Propose
Create Set up
Design Synthesize
Formulate Write
6. Evaluation make judgments on basis of given
Appraise Evaluate
Argue Judge
Assess Predict
Attack Score
Choose Select
Compare Support
Defend Value
  • Chapter 6
  • Subject Content and Task Analysis
  • Organizing Subject Content
  • In organizing Subject Content, Gagne depends on
    the Level of learning -
  • Verbal information The lowest Level of
    Learning, requires recall and memorization. Exampl
    e to name, define, describe .
  • Intellectual Skills Concepts (relating together
    more than two facts) or objects

apple watermelon peach Fruit (concept)
apple watermelon peach Fruit (concept)
  • Cognitive Strategy The highest level of learning
    . (Problem Solving)
  • If subject content is carefully organized the
    learners can become capable of solving Problem.

Diagramming Subject Content Usually subject
content is outlined from facts to
generalization. Example Topic - The
circulatory system
. Arteries blood plasma

Veins Lt. Atrium Rt. Atrium

Heart Lt. Ventricle
Valves Rt. Ventricle
  • Two ways of Diagramming Subject Content
  • Inductive method Starting from simple to
    complex (fact, concept, problem solving).
  • Deductive method Starting from complex
    (general) to simple (fact)

1 ) Task analysis by using detailing Task Task
analysis A detailed inventory (list of things)
of the knowing and doing components of the skill.
(kemp, 1985)
  • Example of task analysis by using detailing task
  • Task- Correct technique for insulin
  • A. Equipment
  • Insulin syringe
  • Alcohol swab
  • Tray.

  • B. preparatory steps -
  • Wash your hands
  • Inspect the bottle for the type of insulin
  • wipe the top of the bottle with an alcohol swab.
  • Turn the bottle and syringe upside down in one
    hand and draw up the insulin dose into the
    syringe .
  • C. Administration procedure -
  • Select the site of injection
  • Clean the site with alcohol swab
  • Push needle and inject the insulin
  • Pull the needle straight out quickly.
  • Dispose of the syringe and needle without
    recapping in the container

2) Task analysis by using flow charting When
elements or steps within a task may follow
different paths, based on choices or decisions
that must be made, it is useful to prepare a flow
chart. Visually the chart shows the sequence for
performing the task.
Beginning or end of a task
Information function
Action or operation function
decision point based on a question leads to alternative paths, including recycle to earlier step
Connector , leading to another point in the flow chart
Teaching / Learning Activities Introduction The
purpose is to select and plan learning activities
based on the content associated with the learning
objectives in order to achieve maximum learner
success. We need to provide some basis on which
satisfactory decisions can be made about teaching
methods and affective learning activities. This
is necessary to enable the largest possible
number of learners to master the learning
objectives at an acceptable level of achievement
in a reasonable amount of time.
Chapter 7
  • Teaching Method The teacher way of deliver the
  • Learning activities What the student has to do
    in order to achieve the Goals and understand the
  • The teaching method should.
  • Suit the teacher's ability.
  • Suit the student's ability.
  • Suit the type of teaching aimed.
  • Suit the time and place.
  • Suit the subject matter.
  • Suit the number of students.
  • Suit the interest and experience of the students.
  • suit the teacher relationship with the students

  • Methods of teaching
  • lectures
  • demonstration
  • discussion groups

1) Lecture Definition is one method of teaching
in which the teacher give a lot of information
about the topic and the student will take notes
and its one way communication.
  • How to prepare a lecture
  • use your objectives
  • Gather information.
  • Choose related information
  • Arrange information
  • Divide time
  • Plan the question you will ask
  • Use simple language
  • Summarize important points
  • Ask student what they know

  • Delivery skills
  • Personal warmth
  • Talk as you talk to one
  • Not too quick or slow
  • Your pitch of voice

  • Characteristics related to lecture
  • Compulsory attendance
  • Time of date
  • Length attention declines after 20 minutes
  • Recall 20 after one week
  • Delivery speed is related to the difficulty of
  • Tone of voice

Advantage and Disadvantage of Lecture
Advantage Disadvantage
very efficient method of transmitting knowledge to a large number of students lack of involvement of the learner
Exerting a considerable saving on teacher time. Length and poor presentation effect.
Motivating function of a good lecturer. Inability of the method to reach the need of the individual learner.
  • 2- Demonstration Its a visualized explanation
    of facts, concepts and procedure.
  • Purpose
  • Designed to show the learner how to perform
    certain psychomotor skill
  • Designed to show learner why certain things

Advantage and Disadvantage of Demonstration
Advantage Disadvantage
Show learner the skill step by step. Costly if much equipment is involved.
Each learner sees what is going on. Need careful preparation.
Provide immediate practice by the learner himself. Need careful attention.
Can be used with individual or group.
3- Discussion group we have controlled
discussion group and action group a- controlled
discussion group I will be a leader and I will
give the topic to the student. b- Action group
(role playing) Dramatization by two or more
persons of a situation relating to a problem.
  • Advantage of discussion group
  • Two ways communication, which encourage critical
    thinking and problem solving within a group.
  • Other types of Discussion group
  • puzzle group
  • Consist from 2-6 members, frequently used to
    provide learner involvement during a lecture.

  • Purpose
  • a- providing the student with social activity.
  • b- Helping to maintain their level of aroused
    during the lecture.
  • free discussion group
  • It is under the control of the group members and
    the teacher acts as an observer and resource
    person. The topic and direction are decided by
    the group.

  • learning through discussion group
  • Similar to the free discussion group, but the
    topic decided by the teacher rather than the
  • Seminar group
  • It involves the reading of a paper by one group
    member, after which there is discussion of the
    paper by the total group. The teacher or one of
    the group member is the leader.

  • Other types of action groups
  • In contrast to discussion group's action groups
    involves the members in activity, and involves a
    greater degree of activity on the part of their
  • Simulation is an abstract representation of a
    real life situation that requires a learner or a
    team to solve a complex problem. Aspects of the
    situation that are close to reality are created,
    and the learner must perform manipulations, make
    responses and take actions to correct any

  1. Games A game is a formalized situation activity
    in which two or more participant or team complete
    a set of objectives relating to a training topic.
    The game takes place under a set of rules and
    procedures with information being provided
    required decision making and follow up actions.

Chapter 8 Instructional Resources Introduction Aud
iovisual aids are important to the teaching
process. In order not to limit communication with
student to voice and gesture alone.
  • Criteria for selecting the appropriate teaching
    learning material or equipment
  • When you select any material or equipment you
    should consider
  • setting
  • number of students
  • objectives
  • learner variables reader, non reader)

  • Purposes of using learning resources
  • motivate learners by stimulating interest in a
  • involve learners in learning experiences
  • Explain and illustrate subject content and
    performance skill

  • We have two resources to support teaching
    learning activities
  • Non projected materials
  • Diagram are usually intended to show
    relationships between items and help explain
  • Chalk board - Useful for displaying lists as
    outlines or may be used to communicate words,
    symbols and drawing.
  • Models Tangible simulations can be substitute
    for real items which are too big or small.

  • Functions of Non Projected materials
  • Promote correlation of information.
  • Assist organization of material
  • Meet my teaching methods
  • Help to Explain process. (More understanding and
    clarification of the subject)

  • 2- Projected materials
  • Overhead correlation of information.
  • Slide and slide projector.
  • Overhead projector it is very simple machine
    with few components requiring special maintenance
    procedures such as keeping it as clean as
  • To prolong the life of the lamp allow it to cool
    before moving the projector, and move the
    projector with care.

  • Advantage
  • can be used for a large audience
  • Presenter facing audience.
  • Easy to prepare.
  • Its a very simple machine.
  • Disadvantage
  • Electricity required
  • Equipment for making transparencies are expensive
  • Usually restricted to teacher use.

  • Slide and slide projector the term slide refers
    to a small- format photographic transparency .
    The size is 2x2 inches or 5x5cm.
  • advantage
  • It's easy to produce your own slides.
  • The automatic projectors allow the presenter to
    remain at the front of the room.
  • Easily to handle it
  • Can be used for small and large group.
  • More flexible than filmstrips or other fixed
    sequent materials.

  • Disadvantage
  • Electricity Required
  • Equipment for making slides are expensive
  • They can easily become disorganized
  • Sides are susceptible to accumulation of dust and
    finger prints.
  • Careless storage or handling can easily lead to
    permanent damage.

Factors to consider in making final media 1-
Preparation costs. 2- Time to prepare. 3-
Maintenance and storage. 4- Students
preference. 5- Instructors preference.
Chapter 9 Support Services Introduction Once the
actual instruction, teaching learning activities
and resources has been planned then a attention
should be given to some number of services
necessary to support the instruction. These
services are-
  • Budget
  • All new programs require funds to get started.
    Any institution interested in supporting its
    instructional program must provide money for
    development and implementation of the program. We
    need money during the preparation and
    implementation of the program.

A- During the preparation of the program,
workshop and lesson plan we need money for 1-
Preparation of instructional materials including
transparencies and multiple copies. 2-
Development of evaluation tools to evaluate the
learner and program. 3- Cost for tryouts,
including consumable materials, as insulin
syringes 4- Administration cost, as telephone,
and overhead projector.
  • B- During implementation of the program
  • faculty and staff salaries
  • consumable and damaged materials
  • maintenance of equipment
  • overhead charges for facilities and services
  • 2- Facilities
  • a- room for presentation to group of average
  • b- Small room for meeting.
  • c- Staff meeting and working room.

  • 3- Material
  • a- transparencies.
  • b- Preparing graphic.
  • c- Taking pictures.
  • d- Making slides.
  • e- Video taping.
  • f- Tape recorder.
  • 4- Equipment
  • Decisions about equipment usually depend on your
    choice of materials.
  • overhead projector.
  • Recorder
  • Camera
  • Video

  • 5- Personal services
  • Instructor or teacher
  • Instructional designer (this person must be
    experienced with the instructional design process
    and know about teaching learning methods
  • Evaluation specialist
  • formative Evaluation (during program)
  • summative evaluation (at the end of the program)
  • Secretary to handle all office work including
    typing, and correspondence.

6- Time and schedules. To do schedule for all
Chapter 10 Evaluating Learning There is a direct
relationship between evaluation and objective.
Some suggestions mentioned that as soon as an
objective are listed, you should immediately
write the examination questions relating to the
objectives Evaluating learning Is the last of
the four essential elements in the instructional
design process.
  • Types of evaluation
  • Formative Evaluation used to know how well the
    program is serving the objectives and done during
    the course teaching.
  • Example
  • giving quizzes during and after lecture
  • Summative Evaluation It measured the degree to
    which the major outcomes are attained and it's
    done at the end of the course.
  • Example
  • Final examination.

  • 3- Performance Evaluation performance evaluation
    can be done by
  • Using checklist.
  • Example
  • Catheterization
  • 4- Objectives evaluation objectives can be
    evaluated be using
  • Questionnaire.

  • Types of questionnaire
  • Open ended question the teacher gives questions
    and the student allowed time to answer these
    questions by their own words.
  • Advantage - Easy to construct it.
  • Disadvantage - Difficult to analyze it.

  • Closed ended question The teacher gives
    questions with many alternative answer and the
    students should select the proper answer.
  • Types of closed ended questions
  • Dichotomous items yes of no questions
  • multiple- choice questions The teacher put
    the questions with 3-5 alternative answer
  • check list
  • Items that included several questions related to
    the topic.

  • 5- pre and post-test evaluation
  • pre-test a measurement of learning before
    starting the topic
  • Post-test a measurement of learning when study
    of a topic is concluded.

Validity and reliability of tests there are two
important features that tests must fulfill in
order for them properly to accomplish the job for
which they are intended. Definition of validity
the ability of the instrument to measure what
it is intended to measure. Internal validity
the ability of the independent variable (IV) to
cause change on the dependent variables not other
extraneous variable. External validity the
degree to which the finding of the study can be
generalized to other similar sitting.
  • Types of validity
  • Face and content validity the question is
    submitted to a panel with experience and
    knowledge of the topic, who make suggestion about
    the adequacy of the instrument.
  • Criterion related validity comparing the
    finding with data collected on the same
    phenomenon by other method.
  • Construct validity how well the questionnaire
    measures a particular construct as (self esteem).

  • Reliability is the degree of consistency of an
  • Types and reliability
  • Test- retest is used to measure the stability of
    the instrument by administering the questionnaire
    in two occasions and comparing the responses.
  • alternate from test asking the same question
    with other method
  • spilt-half test dividing the instrument into two
    parts (e.g. 10 questions) the first five score
    should equal the second five questions to be sure
    of homogenous of the questions.
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