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Mix away from other people who is around. Lavender and Tea tree are the only oils that can be applied directly on to the skin undiluted. Always skin test first. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: TO

  • TO

  • Aromatherapy uses pure essential oils to balance
    the bodys equilibrium and to improve mental and
    physical health.
  • Aromatherapy involves more than fragrance. Plant
    essential oils have therapeutic powers in
    addition to beneficial fragrance, and all are
    antiseptic in different degrees.

  • The natural healing art of aromatherapy is an
    excellent way to promote optimum health and
  • Aromatherapy can reduce stress, improve sleep and
    give you more energy. It can improve your
    complexion, treat an annoying skin itch and
    eliminate a stomachache.

  • Aromatherapy is a healing therapy that utilises
    the properties and aromas of essential plant
  • Perhaps the best thing about aromatherapy is that
    it is so easy and pleasurable to engage in.

Definition of Aromatherapy
  • Aromatherapy conveys the concept of healing with
    aromatic substances. - Robert Tisserand
  • Aromatherapy is a caring, hands-on therapy which
    seeks to induce relaxation, to increase energy,
    to reduce the effects of stress and to restore
    lost balance to mind, body and soul. - Robert

Definition of Aromatherapy
  • Aromatherapy can be defined as the controlled
    use of essential oils to maintain and promote
    physical, psychological, and spiritual
    wellbeing. Gabriel Mojay
  • Aromatherapy is the skilled and controlled use
    of essential oils for physical and emotional
    health and well being. - Valerie Cooksley

Definition of Aromatherapy
  • Aromatherapy is derived from two words. Aroma -
    meaning fragrance or smell and Therapy - meaning
  • Aromatherapy can be defined as the art and
    science of utilizing naturally extracted aromatic
    essences from plants to balance, harmonize and
    promote the health of body, mind and spirit.

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  • Aromatherapy was used by the most ancient
    civilizations and is reputed to be at least 6000
    years old. It is widely thought that Aromatherapy
    began in Egypt.
  • The Egyptians used a method known as infusion to
    extract the oils from aromatic plants and incense
    was probably one of the earliest ways of using

  • Frankincense was burned at sun rise as an
    offering to the sun god, Ra and myrrh was offered
    to the moon.
  • The Egyptians were experts at embalming using
    aromatics to help preserve flesh.
  • The Egyptians used to be massaged with fragrant
    oils after bathing .

  • The Greeks continued the use of aromatic oils and
    used them medicinally and cosmetically.
  • A Greek physician, Pedacius Dioscorides, wrote a
    book about herbal medicine and for at least 1,200
    years as the Western world's standard medical
    reference. Many of the remedies he mentions are
    still in use today in Aromatherapy.

  • The Romans took much of their medical knowledge
    from the Greeks and went on to use and improve
    the ability of aromatics with Rome becoming the
    bathing capital of the world.
  • After bathing they would be oiled and massaged.

  • The Romans started to import new aromatic
    products from East India and Arabia through the
    opening up of trade routes.
  • During the crusades the knowledge of aromatic
    oils and perfumes spread to the Far East and

  • It was a physician called Avicenna who lived from
    A.D 980 to A.D. 1037 that is understood to have
    first used the process known as distillation to
    distil essence of rose, although it probably took
    many years to perfect the process.
  • The Arabs also discovered how to distil alcohol
    around the same time making it possible to
    produce perfumes without a heavy oily base.

  • There is a strong possibility that the ancient
    Chinese civilizations were using some form of
    aromatics at the same time as the Egyptians.
  • Shen Nung's Herbal book is the oldest surviving
    medical book in China which is dated about 2700
    B.C. and contains information on over 300 plants.

  • The Chinese used aromatic herbs and burned
    aromatic woods and incense to show respect to
  • Traditional Indian medicine known as ayurveda has
    been practiced for more than 3,000 years and it
    incorporates aromatic massage as one of its main

  • The North American Indians also used aromatic
    oils and produced their own herbal remedies.
  • It wasn't until the 19th century that scientists
    in Europe and Great Britain began researching the
    effects of essential oils on bacteria in humans.

Origin of the word Aromatherapie
  • The term aromatherapie was coined by a French
    chemist called Rene Maurice Gattefosse in 1928.
  • Gattefosse whose family owned a perfumery
    business, while working in the laboratory one day
    burned his hand badly. He plunged the injured
    hand into a container of lavender essential oil
    and was amazed at how quickly the burn healed
    without blistering.

Origin of the word Aromatherapie
  • And this event set Gattefosse on a lifetime study
    of the therapeutic properties of plant oils. He
    utilized the word to imply the therapeutic use of
    aromatic substances.
  • A French medical doctor, Jean Valnet, discovered
    Gattefosse's research and began experimenting
    with essential oils during the World War II.

Origin of the word Aromatherapie
  • Around the same time, Marguerite Maury, a French
    biochemist developed a unique method of diluting
    and applying these oils to the skin with massage
    - the treatment which we know today as

What are Essential Oils ?
  • Essential oils occur widely in the plant kingdom
    and are sometimes referred to as the plants
    life force or essence or soul.
  • They are minute drops of liquid occurring in
    glands, glandular hairs, sacs or veins of
    different plant parts flowers, leaves, seeds,
    bark (twigs) and wood (stem), resin (gum), roots,
    berries or fruit peel of the plant.

What are Essential Oils ?
  • Essential oils give each plant its very specific
    or unique scent or fragrance. (E.g. as you smell
    the beautiful fragrance of a rose, you are
    actually experiencing the joy of essential oils
    as they are released into the atmosphere)
  • Essential oils droplets are a mixture of complex,
    organic compounds. When extracted, they are
    highly concentrated and highly fragrant.

What are Essential Oils ?
  • Essential oils are volatile, which means that
    they turn quickly from a liquid into a gas at
    room temperature or higher.
  • They are also non-oily, despite their name. A
    good test of the purity of these aromatic
    substances is that they do not leave a greasy
    mark on a piece of paper. However, there are a
    few exceptions to this rule, such as myrrh and

What are Essential Oils ?
  • Essential oils are soluble in oils, fats and pure
    alcohol, but they are partially or non-soluble in
  • Essential oils are also flammable!! (Experiment
    Squeeze a lemon or orange rind into a candle
    flame to see tiny fireworks!)
  • They can be damaged by light, heat, air and
    moisture. Therefore, we must know how to take
    good care of our precious essential oils.

What are Essential Oils ?
  • Essential oils are usually very liquid and do not
    feel greasy at all.
  • Essential oils can only be produced by nature.
    Therefore, they are natural.

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Where Essential Oils are found?
  • Flowers ? chamomile, lavender, neroli, rose
  • Leaves ? eucalyptus, peppermint
  • Wood ? cedarwood, rosewood, sandalwood
  • Fruits ? bergamot, grapefruit, lemon, orange
  • Berries ? black pepper, juniper

Where Essential Oils are found?
  • Twigs ? petitgrain
  • Roots ? angelica, ginger, vetiver
  • Seeds ? angelica, cardamon, carrot, nutmeg
  • Gum ? myrrh
  • Whole plant ? basil, citronella, lemongrass

Where Essential Oils are found?
  • It is interesting to note that different oil can
    sometimes be extracted from different parts of a
    particular plant
  • Angelica seed oil and root oil
  • Cinnamon leaf oil and bark oil

Where Essential Oils are found?
  • Clove leaf oil and bud oil
  • Orange tree
  • blossom ? neroli
  • fruit ? orange
  • leaves and twigs ? petitgrain

  • Over 30 families of plants, with some 90 species,
    represent the main oil-producing group.
  • The majority of spices (allspice, cardamon,
    clove, nutmeg, ginger, etc.) originate in
    tropical countries.

  • Conversely, the majority of herbs grow in
    temperate climates (bay, cumin, dill, marjoram,
    fennel, lavender, rosemary, thyme, etc.).
  • The same plant grown in a different region and
    under different conditions can produce essential
    oils of widely diverse characteristics, which are
    known as chemotypes.

  • Therefore, it is important not only to know the
    botanical name of the plant from which an oil has
    been produced, but also its place of origin and
    main constituents.

Main constituents of essential oils
  • In general, essential oils consist of chemical
    compounds which have hydrogen, carbon and oxygen
    as their building blocks. These can be subdivided
    into two groups
  • Hydrocarbons made up almost exclusively of
  • Oxygenated compounds mainly alcohols,
    aldehydes, esters, ketones, oxides and phenols.

Main constituents of essential oils
  • Acids, lactones, sulphur and nitrogen compounds
    are sometimes also present.
  • True essential oils may only be obtained by the
    methods of distillation or expression that
    preserve the life-giving vital essence of the

Main constituents of essential oils
  • Please refer to Table 1 for
  • Chemical Groups
  • Please refer to Table 2 for
  • Aromatic Chemical Groups, and their Uses

How are Essential Oils produced?
  • Essential oils that have been extracted via the
    process of distillation or expression are the
    highest grade and purest and are most commonly
    used for the purposes of aromatherapy.
  • Oils obtained by solvent extraction are primarily
    used by the perfume, herbal medicine, skincare
    and food industries.

How are Essential Oils produced?
  • Some plant materials, especially flowers, are
    subject to deterioration and so they should be
    processed as soon as possible after harvesting.
  • Others including seeds and roots are either
    stored or transported for extraction, often to
    Europe or America.

How are Essential Oils produced?
  • The method of extraction which is employed
    depends on the quality of the material which is
    being used, and the type of aromatic product that
    is required.
  • Steam distillation is by far the most widely used
    and most economical method.

Steam distillation process
  • The plant is heated by water or steam in a still
    which causes the cell structure to rupture and
    frees the essential oil.
  • The steam carrying the aromatic molecules is
    cooled to produce a mixture of oil and water.
  • The essential oil is then separated and bottled.

Expression process
  • This method of extraction is employed for
    obtaining oil from citrus fruits such as
    bergamot, grapefruit, lemon, lime, orange,
    mandarin and tangerine, as their oil is present
    in the rind of the fruit.
  • The expression process was originally carried out
    by hand, but now mechanical presses are employed.

Other processes
  • Other processes do not yield true essential oils
  • Solvent (alcohol, benzene, hexane) extraction
    which produces absolutes, concretes and
  • Enfleurage (infusion with fat) which produces
    pomades and then enfleurage absolutes. This
    process is virtually obsolete today.

Other processes
  • Maceration with alcohol which produces tinctures.
  • Carbon dioxide extraction which employs carbon
    dioxide under extremely high pressure to extract
    essential oils.

Other processes (latest)
  • Percolation (hydrodiffusion) whereby steam at
    atmospheric pressure disperses throughout the
    plant material from the top of the plant chamber.
  • Turbodistillation extraction whereby the plants
    are soak in water, and steam circulates through
    this plant-and-water mixture.

Production Of Essential Oils
  • Plants contain from 0.01 to 10 essential oil
    content. The average amount found in most
    aromatic plants is about 1 to 2.
  • A 1 yield indicates that 100 kilos of plant
    material are required to produce 1 liter of
    essential oil.
  • It is interesting to note that the amount nature
    has provided in its original plant form strongly
    correlates to the amounts used in aromatherapy

Production Of Essential Oils
  • An oil such as the highly expensive rose oil
    yields just 0.01 essential oil. No wonder it is
    so costly!
  • Rose oil Bulgarian takes approximately 4,000
    pounds of hand-picked flower petals to make 1
    pound of oil, making it one of the most expensive
    oils that can be purchased!

Production Of Essential Oils
  • 60,000 rose blooms are required to produce 1
    ounce of rose oil.
  • 220 pounds of Lavender plant to produce 7 pounds
    of oil.
  • 400 kg of Thyme would produce 1kg of essential
  • 6,000 kg of Orange blossoms to produce 1kg of

Production Of Essential Oils
  • Jasmine flowers must be picked by hand before the
    sun becomes hot on the very first day they open.
    It takes eight million hand-picked jasmine
    blossoms to produce 2.2 pounds of oil! That is
    why, it is also one of the most expensive oils on
    the market.
  • Sandalwood tree must be thirty years old and
    thirty feet high before it is cut down for

How do Essential Oils work?
  • Essential oils enter the body by two main routes
    the nose and the skin.
  • They enter and leave the body efficiently,
    leaving no toxins behind.
  • Essential oils are taken directly into the blood
    stream they have a positive effect on blood
    circulation, helping to bring oxygen and
    nutrients to the tissues whilst assisting in the
    disposal of carbon dioxide and other waste
    materials .

Nose-brain connection
  • The olfactory system, the nose-brain association,
    is the most direct connection we have with the
    environment or nature.
  • We smell with every breath we take, constantly
    monitoring the world around us, although we are
    not always conscious that we are doing so.

Nose-brain connection
  • Our sense of smell is approximately 10,000
    times more sensitive than any other sensory organ
    we possess.
  • Our nose-brain connection is very powerful. When
    we inhale an essential oil it affects the limbic
    part of our brain which is where our emotions and
    mood functions are seated.

The Power of our NOSE
Nose-brain connection
  • Aromas and memories are very strongly linked.
  • Perhaps the smell of lavender will remind you of
    your favourite grandmother (or the grandmother
    you were not particularly fond of !)

Nose-brain connection
  • Whenever a smell, such as freshly baked bread,
    freshly ground coffee or a perfume that your
    mother wore, may evokes a memory.
  • All the above happenings are because of the
    nose-brain connection.

Refresh - Memory
Absorption through the skin
  • Our skin (our largest organ) is designed to let
    some substances in and to keep others out.
    Essential oils, unlike many other substances, are
    able to penetrate through the skin (via pores and
    hair follicles) because of their small molecules.
  • Essential oils are absorbed into the bloodstream
    from where they may be transported to any organs
    or structures where they are needed.

Absorption through the skin
  • Poor circulation, thick toughened skin, or
    excessive cellulite or fat may slow down the rate
    of absorption.
  • Whereas heat (e.g. sauna or massage), water (e.g.
    aromatic bath), aerobic exercise, and broken or
    damaged skin will cause increased absorption.

Absorption through the skin
  • Also, the carrier oil used may affect the
    absorption rate, since some vegetable oils are
    heavier than others.
  • It takes anywhere from 15 minutes to 12 hours for
    essential oils to be fully absorbed.

Absorption through the skin
  • It takes about 3 to 6 hours to expel or
    metabolize them in a normal healthy body, and up
    to 12 to 14 hours for an unhealthy, obese body.
  • One factor that will make this time interval
    variable is the condition of the skin.

Method of excretions
  • Unlike synthetic chemicals or drugs, essential
    oils do not accumulate in the body.
  • Essential oils are then excreted in the urine,
    faeces or via our perspiration or our breath.
  • If you find this difficult to believe, then do
    this experiment

Method of excretions
  • Rub a freshly cut clove of garlic on the sole of
    your foot. After about 15 to 30 minutes, you (or
    your partner) will detect the smell of garlic on
    your breath!
  • The method of excretion differs among oils.

Method of excretions
  • Juniper and Sandalwood are excreted through the
    urine, as their aroma can be detected there.
  • Geranium, which assists in increasing circulatory
    functions, is detected in the perspiration.
  • Garlic, if you eat a lot of Italian food, will
    exit the body through our breath.

Method of excretions
  • Essential oils basically have a low potential to
    be physically habit-forming because they are
    eliminated extremely quickly through the skin and
  • Hence, there is no residual or accumulative
    effect to withdraw from or become addicted to.

Modes of action
  • It is important to recognize that essential oils
    have three distinct modes of action with regard
    to how they inter-relate with the human body
  • Pharmacological
  • Physiological
  • Psychological

Modes of action
  • The pharmacological effect is concerned with the
    chemical changes which take place when an
    essential oil enters the bloodstream and reacts
    with the hormones and enzymes, etc.
  • The physiological mode is concerned with the way
    in which an essential oil affects the systems of
    the body, whether they are sedated or stimulated,

Modes of action
  • The psychological effect takes place when an
    essence is inhaled, and an individual responds to
    its odor.
  • With relation to the first two points,
    Aromatherapy has a great deal in common with the
    tradition of medical herbalism or phytotherapy.
    In fact, these two forms of therapy are not
    synonymous, but complementary.

What is not Aromatherapy?
  • The practice of using essences that did not
    originate from an aromatic plant that was once
    alive is not Aromatherapy.
  • 95 of the products sold as aromatherapy are
    counterfeits pseudo-aromatherapy. Their aromas
    derive from synthetic scents, and they offer no
    therapeutic value whatsoever.

What is not Aromatherapy?
  • True Aromatherapy never uses synthetic aromatic
  • Pseudo-aromatherapy relies on synthetic
    petrochemicals that merely smell but have no
    healing qualities. Simply having an aroma doesnt
    make something Aromatherapy.

  • Everyday, thousands of consumers unknowingly
    purchase pseudo-aromatherapy products as mass
    marketers strive to gain a greater market share
    of the Aromatherapy trend.
  • Mass marketers have corrupted the category and
    robbed the word Aromatherapy of its original
    meaning and its authenticity.

  • In their confusion, and through misplaced trust,
    millions of people mistakenly purchase
    Aromatherapy products they believe will improve
    their health and well-being.
  • These petrochemical impostors possess the
    potential to seriously harm the health of the
    people who seek healing from them.

Natural versus Nature Identical
  • Many perfumes or oils, once obtained from flowers
    like Carnation, Gardenia and Lilac, are nowadays
    produced almost entirely synthetically.
  • These chemically constructed products are called
    nature identical.

Natural versus Nature Identical
  • However, the so-called nature identical
    products and the naturally occurring substances
    are of an entirely different character, which is
    reflected in their relative costs
  • The synthetic types are much cheaper to produce
    than the genuine ones.

Natural versus Nature Identical
  • Most nature identical oils are said to be only
    about 96 pure or accurate.
  • Yet it is the remaining 4, the trace elements
    (found in natural aromatic oils) that often
    really define a particular fragrance or odor.

Natural versus Nature Identical
  • It is also the specific combination of
    constituents in a real essential oil, including
    the trace elements, which give it value
  • For e.g., Rose has over 300 different
    constituents, some of which have not yet been
    identified. Which is why synthetic Rose oil is

Natural versus Nature Identical
  • Nature identical oils cannot be used
    therapeutically as substitutes for the naturally
    occurring aromatic materials.
  • It is because the subtle balance of constituents
    is lost and they lack the vital life force of
    oils of natural origin.

Natural versus Nature Identical
  • Many, if not all, Aromatherapists believe the
    whole or entire essential oil in its natural
    form should be used to insure its greatest
    therapeutic value.
  • Otherwise, one increases the risk of toxicity!

Pure or Adulterated?
  • The terms pure or natural when applied to an
    oil refer to its authenticity. They promise that
    the product is both unadulterated and derived
    from the actual botanical species for which it is
  • Oils are adulterated for many reasons, including
    world demand, availability and cost.

Pure or Adulterated?
  • Rare and expensive oils are the most likely
    candidates for adulteration.
  • "Quality" refers to the degree of excellence or
    the grade of an oil.
  • Quality can be affected by the methods under
    which the plant source was grown and picked, and
    its oils were extracted and processed.

Pure or Adulterated?
  • Genuine and authentic essential oils are the most
    therapeutic and will have a fuller, sweeter, and
    milder character. Therefore, very little is
    needed, justifying the higher cost.
  • When using a cheaper, perhaps adulterated oil,
    you naturally increase your risks considerably!

Pure or Adulterated?
  • It is possible to assess the purity of individual
    essences using high-tech methods such as
    Gas-Liquid Chromatography (GLC).
  • With GLC analysis, there is a good chance that
    any adulteration of the oil can be discovered.
    Because each essential oil has its own unique

Adulterated Oils
  • Fractionated / Rectified / Redistilled Oils Some
    oils are double/triple distilled to remove
    "undesirable" constituents.
  • Though this may be useful in some situations
    (terpeneless citrus oils keep longer redistilled
    eucalyptus or peppermint smells more pleasant),
    but many consumers want, and need, whole oils for
    therapeutic purposes.

Adulterated Oils
  • Extended Oils Often, less-expensive oils or
    synthetic filler are added to expensive ones.
  • Rose oil is often extended with the natural
    compound geraniol, found in the Geranium (or
    other plants), which has a distinctive rose-like
  • Sometimes essential oils are diluted with a
    vegetable oil (e.g. jojoba) or alcohol.

Adulterated Oils
  • Reconstructed Oils Sometimes individual
    constituents (may be fractions of other essential
    oils) are combined to match the major
    constituents found in essential oils.
  • Example is a reconstructed Thyme, which might
    consist of carvacrol, thymol and linalol - all
    components found naturally in Thyme, but derived
    from other natural, or perhaps synthetic, sources.

Adulterated Oils
  • Reconstituted Oils There are also oils that have
    had natural or synthetic chemical components
    added to them after distillation.
  • Co-distilled Oils 1) Putting two different
    plants or plant parts in the still and steaming
    them together to produce one oil 2) Adding an
    essential oil to plant material and distilling
    them together, again producing one oil.

Follow your Nose
  • If all these adulterations can be overwhelmingly
    confusing, it's comforting to know that your own
    Nose can be your best resource.
  • Preference in odor is a personal thing, but
    people can train their noses to detect the
    differences between real and synthetic oils and,
    to some extent, variations of quality.

Follow your Nose
  • Please check in the CD for
  • Assesing Essential Oils At Home
  • An article from AGORA (Aromatherapy Global Online
    Research Archives)

Guidelines When Using Essential Oils
  • Essential oils are highly concentrated plant
    constituents possessing potent medicinal and
    cosmetic qualities. The best way to use them is
    in diluted form.
  • There are some that are skin irritants,
    phototoxic or abortive. Therefore, use with care.
  • When a very high quality essential oil is used,
    less of it is needed to obtain the desired effect.

Guidelines When Using Essential Oils
  • More is not better. On the contrary, it can
    produce the opposite effect. For example,
    Lavender oil can cause restlessness, agitation,
    and insomnia if too much is used rather than
  • The difference in the effect between one drop and
    two drops can be substantial. It is important to
    follow the dosages recommended.

Less is OK
Guidelines When Using Essential Oils
  • There are several essential oils that are skin
    friendly like Lavender and Tea Tree. These two
    oils can be used straight or neat, which
    means you can put these directly on your skin
    without diluting them.
  • However, they are an exception, not the rule.
    Most essential oils you must dilute to use.

General Cautions
  • Keep out reach of children.
  • Avoid using essential oils near eyes and other
    sensitive areas.
  • Always read the precautions on the bottle before
  • Use only 100 pure essential oils.

General Cautions
  • Do not take internally. Use essential oils only
    externally, unless under expert guidance.
  • If one suffers from any skin or any other
    allergies, use oils carefully.
  • Be aware of contra-indications precautions.

General Cautions
  • Always test oils on a skin patch first,
    especially if you have sensitive skin or
  • Skin that had any photo toxic essential oils
    applied to, should not be exposed to UV rays for
    at least 4 hours.
  • Less is plenty. When in doubt, use less, not more.

General Cautions
  • Essential oils are flammable, but will not
    self-combust. Keep oils away from any naked
  • Never use an essential oil about which you can
    find little or no information.
  • Do not use essential oils on newborn babies.

General Cautions
  • Never use neat on the skin, unless under special
    circumstances. Dilute oils as recommended.
  • Always consult with your healthcare
    professional before starting any therapies
    with essential oils.
  • Cap essential oil bottles tightly. Essential oils
    evaporate rapidly.

General Cautions
  • Use glass bottles for undiluted essential oils.
  • Discontinue using any oil that causes irritation,
    sensitivity, or an unpleasant reaction.
  • Wash your hands after using essential oils,
    especially before you eat.

Special Cautions
  • Avoid the following essential oils during
    pregnancy Basil, Cedarwood, Clary Sage, Clove
    Bud, Cypress, Fennel, Jasmine, Juniper,
    Lemongrass, Marjoram, Peppermint, Rosemary, Sage,
    Thyme. For other oils, use only in half the usual
    stated amount.
  • If prone to epilepsy, do not use Fennel, Hyssop,
    Rosemary or Sage as there is a remote chance that
    these essences may trigger an attack.

Special Cautions
  • The following oils should not be used on
    sensitive skins Basil, Fennel, Lemongrass,
    Lemon, Lemon Verbena, Melissa, Orange,
    Peppermint, Thyme.
  • If having to drive a long distance after a
    massage, do not use Clary Sage, Marjoram or Ylang
    Ylang they can cause drowsiness.

Special Cautions
  • Some oils can cause photo-sensitization of the
    skin, increasing the risk of sunburn. These
    include Angelica (root), Bergamot, Bitter Orange,
    Cumin, Ginger, Lemon, Lemon Verbena, Lime,
    Mandarin, Orange and Tangerine. They can cause
    unsightly pigmentation.
  • Clary Sage should not be used while drinking

Special Cautions
  • Never mix essential oils with water. Essential
    oils are not water soluble. If they burn a little
    or you get them in your eyes by accident, always
    dilute with any pure vegetable oil. Do not add
    water as water drives the oils in deeper,
    creating more skin irritation.
  • Hops should not be used by anyone suffering from

Special Cautions
  • Avoid Cypress, Hyssop, Rosemary, Sage (all types)
    and Thyme oil if there is any possibility of high
    blood pressure or kidney disease.
  • Homeopathic treatment is not compatible with the
    following oils Black Pepper, Camphor, Eucalyptus
    and the mint oils as they may weaken or cancel
    out the effects of homeopathic remedies.

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Mixing and using safely
  • Always wash your hands before and after using
    essential oils.
  • Make sure you are in a well ventilated area.
  • Mix away from other people who is around.
  • Lavender and Tea tree are the only oils that can
    be applied directly on to the skin undiluted.
    Always skin test first.

Mixing and using safely
  • Use small quantities for babies, small children
    and the elderly.
  • Handle oils carefully to prevent contact with
    skin and cross-contamination.
  • Keep out of contact with the eyes.
  • Avoid prolonged or excessive exposure.

Mixing and using safely
  • Take frequent breaks.
  • If prescribing oils for another person's home
    use, ensure that they understand the instructions
    for use.
  • Keep accurate records of treatment and blends.
  • Use recommended dilution at all times.

How to use Essential Oils?
  • Aromatherapy can also be applied safely by
    massaging blended essential oils to the whole
  • Carefully chosen and blended essential oils, used
    with massage and skilful relaxation techniques,
    are a major part of an Aromatherapy treatment and
    can produce a range of benefits.
  • Other methods of application include ointments,
    creams, lotions and compresses, etc.

How to use Essential Oils ?
  • Since essential oils are highly concentrated
    fluid substances, they are rarely used in an
    undiluted form. Before application, oils are
    first blended with a carrier oil (any pure, cold
    pressed plant oil).
  • This blending dilutes the essential oils so that
    they are safe, and also helps to slow down the
    rate of evaporation, to spread them evenly, and
    to increase their absorption into the skin.

Methods of application
  • Baths
  • Aromatic bath (Your Personal Spa)
  • Epsom salts bath
  • Foot and Hand bath
  • Jacuzzi
  • Sauna
  • Shower (Aromatic)
  • Sitz bath (Alternate hot and cold)

Aromatic Bath
Foot Bath
Methods of application
  • Aromatic ointment
  • Cleaning
  • Creams / Lotions / Gels
  • Compresses
  • Facial steam
  • First aid
  • Gargles and Mouthwashes

Aromatherapy Products
Methods of application
  • Inhalation / Diffusion / Environmental
    fragrancing / Vaporization
  • Candle
  • Car Aromatherapy diffuser
  • Ceramic / Clay / Glass / Metal Vaporizer or
  • Electric pottery diffuser

Aromatherapy Candles
Car Aromatherapy Diffuser
Vaporizer / Burner
Methods of application
  • Handkerchief
  • Humidifier
  • Lamp / Light-bulb ring
  • Nebulizer (electronic glass diffuser)
  • Room spray / Mist spray / Atomizer
  • Tissue paper

Glass Nebulizer / Diffuser
Methods of application
  • Ultrasonic Aromatherapy diffuser
  • Water bowl
  • Massage
  • Natural perfumes
  • Neat application
  • Powders (rice or corn flour - for foot and body)

Ultrasonic Aromatherapy Diffuser
Using Diffuser during Meditation
Massage Oil
Methods of application
  • Please refer to
  • Table 3 for Methods of Applications
  • Table 4 for Using Essential Oils

Which oil to use?
  • Please refer to Table 5 for
  • Which Oil To Use?

How can you benefit from essential oils?
  • Each essential oil has unique properties which
    can be used to relieve stress, stimulate body
    processes such as elimination or circulation,
    ease painful muscular tensions and generally give
    the recipient a heightened feeling of well-being.
  • People have described having calming, cheering,
    soothing or uplifting experiences.

How can you benefit from essential oils?
  • Emotion based benefits
  • Anxiety
  • Depression
  • Fear
  • Frustration
  • Grief
  • Hopelessness
  • Hysteria
  • Insomnia

Anxiety / Depression?
How can you benefit from essential oils?
  • Emotion based benefits
  • Irritability
  • Lack of Concentration
  • Moodiness
  • Nervous Tension
  • Panic Attacks
  • Poor Memory
  • Sadness
  • Worry

Release nervous tension
How can you benefit from essential oils?
  • Medicinal benefits
  • Bruises / Sprains / Strains
  • Burns (including sunburn)
  • Digestive disorders such as Constipation
  • Enhance wound healing
  • Fatigue
  • Fungal infections such as athletes foot and nail

How can you benefit from essential oils?
  • Medicinal benefits
  • Motion Sickness
  • Muscular aches and pains
  • Nervousness / Tension / Stress
  • Purifying the Air
  • Reduce skin inflammation
  • Respiratory Conditions including colds, flu, sore
    throat, asthma and bronchitis
  • Wounds and Scars

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How can you benefit from essential oils?
  • Skincare benefits
  • Acne
  • Antifungal activity
  • Antibacterial activity
  • Cellulite
  • Dermatitis
  • Dry Skin

How can you benefit from essential oils?
  • Skincare benefits
  • Eczema
  • Enhanced wound healing
  • Mature Skin
  • Psoriasis
  • Stretch Marks
  • Varicose Veins
  • Wrinkles

Actions of essential oils
  • Adrenal stimulants for stress-related
    exhaustion Analgesic.
  • Antibiotics and bactericidals for fighting
    bacterial infection.
  • Antiseptic almost all are antiseptic.

Actions of essential oils
  • Anti-depressants for uplifting the spirits.
  • Anti-diabetics or Hypoglycaemics for helping to
    balance blood-sugar levels.
  • Anti-inflammatory helpful for skin rashes and
    wounds as well as helping to reduce pain and
    inflammation in arthritic joints.

Actions of essential oils
  • Anti-fungal for combating fungal infections.
  • Anti-Galactogogues for reducing mothers milk
  • Anti-rheumatics- preventing and relieving
    rheumatic problems.
  • Aperitifs stimulate the appetite.

Actions of essential oils
  • Anti-virals for protecting against and helping
    to reduce serious complications of viral
    infections such as colds, coughs and flu.
  • Anti-spasmodics relax spasms in the bronchial
    tubes and for spasm and pain.
  • Balance thyroid secretion for balancing
    excessive secretions of thyroxine.

Actions of essential oils
  • Carminatives and stomachics for flatulence and
  • Cicatrisant - stimulates the growth of healthy
    skin cells.
  • Cholagogues for stimulating the gall-bladder,
    and thus the flow of bile.

Actions of essential oils
  • Contain oestrogen-like substances to help
    menopausal symptoms.
  • Contain Phyto-Steroids substances that are said
    to resemble the male and female sex hormones are
    found in frankincense and myrrh.
  • Cytophylactics for increasing the activity of
    white blood cells which help in our defense
    against infection.

Actions of essential oils
  • Depuratives for helping to combat impurities in
    the blood and organs.
  • Detoxifying agents - help to detoxify the system
    of metabolic wastes.
  • Deodorant helpful for excessive perspiration.
  • Diaphoretics or Febrifuges - induce sweating, and
    thus reduce fever.

Actions of essential oils
  • Emmenagogues for inducing menstruation and or
    normalizing menstrual flow.
  • Expectorants - promote the removal of mucus.
  • Galactogogues for stimulating the flow of
    mothers milk.
  • Hepatics for strengthening, toning and
    stimulating the secretive functions of the liver.

Actions of essential oils
  • Hormone influencing for a broad spectrum of
    problems associated with the female reproductive
  • Hypertensives stimulate the circulation.
  • Hypotensives lower high blood pressure.

Actions of essential oils
  • Hypnotics specifics for inducing sleep.
  • Insect repellent to repel insects.
  • Nervines strengthen and tone the nervous
  • Normalizing for stimulating or relaxing,
    depending on the state of the individual.

Actions of essential oils
  • Parasiticides prevents and destroys parasites.
  • Rubefacients by stimulating the periphery
    circulation, the blood supply will be increased
    to the affected areas, which in turn relieves
    congestion and inflammation.
  • Sedatives for calming a jangled nervous system.

Actions of essential oils
  • Stimulants to help restore energy levels
    depleted through illness or nervous fatigue.
  • Tonics and Astringents strengthen and tone the
    whole system.
  • Uterine tonics for toning and regulating the
    female reproductive system, and for excessive

Actions of essential oils
  • Vermifuges for expelling intestinal worms.
  • Vulneraries for helping to heal wounds.
  • Please refer to Appendix 1 for
  • Glossary of Medical Terms.

Detoxification problems
  • Many people have reported that when applying too
    many different oils or too much of one oil, the
    body any be subjected to a cleansing response
    which can cause headaches, rashes, nausea,
    burning, diarrhea, etc.
  • Should this occur, simply reduce the amount of
    oil used and the number of times applied and
    drink plenty of purified water.

Detoxification problems
  • If you have used liberal amounts, of cosmetics,
    shampoos, perms, hair coloring, hair sprays,
    deodorants or products containing chemicals,
    petrochemicals and many synthetic ingredients,
    you may have an unpleasant cleansing experience.
  • When using pure essential oils, some people
    experience the release of stored toxins through
    the skin, especially on the face and neck area.

Detoxification problems
  • You may even want to consider an internal
    cleansing program before continuing to use the
  • For this reason, you should always start with 1-2
    drops of oil diluted with 1/2 tsp. of carrier
  • Rarely is there a problem, but it is best to be
    cautious until you see how your body responds.

  • What a beautiful time for a woman to indulge!
    This is an important time for mother and baby to
    be as healthy as possible.
  • After the first four months of the pregnancy,
    essential oils can be used to enhance the feeling
    of wellbeing.
  • During pregnancy, the body changes are so rapid
    that after the first four months, the benefits of
    Aromatherapy Massage are enormous, both
    physically and emotionally.

  • During pregnancy, there are some essential oils
    definitely not to be used. Because some essential
    oils can relax muscles, stimulate contractions,
    or possibly get to the baby. (See Table 6 7)
  • A few essential oils are considered
    abortifacients, meaning they have the potential
    to cause abortion. (See Table 8)
  • Be sure to avoid all essential oils that may be
    unsafe during this time.

  • It is recommended that a 1 dilution (of the safe
    oils), instead of the typical 2 dilution be used
    for body oils and lotions for expectant mothers.
    (See Table 9)
  • Essential oils are best avoided in the first
    trimester of pregnancy, especially if history of
    miscarriages is present.
  • Morning Sickness and Fainting Add 2 drops of
    Lavender to a tissue and inhale deeply. Repeat
    till you feel better.

Pregnancy - Relaxation
Baby and Child care
  • Aromatherapy is invaluable when caring for young
  • Careful use of pure, natural essential oils
    provides a natural alternative to chemical drugs.
  • Essential oils can be used for everyday common
    ailments and as a complementary treatment for
    general wellbeing.

Baby and Child care
  • Essential oils are not intended to replace the
    health care practitioner, however, and for
    serious or ongoing condition a professional
    should be consulted.
  • Children from as young as 48 hours old can be
    gently massaged daily using lavender and
    chamomile oils. This will help bond mother and
    baby and ensure security and stability. Apricot
    kernel or jojoba carrier oil is very nourishing
    for young skin.

Baby and Child care
  • Use with care, in accordance with age
  • Babies (0-12 months) use 1 drop of Lavender,
    Rose, Chamomile or Mandarin diluted in 1 2 tsp
    base oil for massage or bathing.
  • Infants (1-5 years) use 2-3 drops of safe
    essential oils (non-toxic and non-irritant to the
    skin), diluted in 1tsp base oil for massage or

Baby and Child care
  • Children (6-12 years) use as for adults, but in
    half the stated amount.
  • Teenagers (over 12 years) use as directed for
  • For the bath, use 1 drop of Lavender oil in 1
    teaspoon of carrier oil.
  • For massage, blend 1 drop of Lavender or
    Chamomile oil to 10 ml of carrier oil. These two
    oils calm the nervous system.

Beauty and Skin care
  • A healthy, glowing skin is the basis for looking
    and feeling great.
  • Using natural products with essential oils, which
    have nourishing and healing properties that
    penetrate the skin, you are on the way to
    healthier younger-looking skin.

Beauty and Skin care
  • Please refer to
  • Table 10 for Essential Oils for Complexion Types
  • Table 11 for Skin Care Charts

Beauty and Skin care
  • Skin-Care Properties of Essential Oils
  • Penetrate to the dermal layer of skin where new
    cells are developing
  • Stimulate and regenerate produce healthy skin
    cells quickly following sun damage, burns,
    wrinkles or healing of wounds
  • Reduce bacterial and fungal infections, acne and
    other related skin problems

Beauty and Skin care
  • Soothe delicate, sensitive, inflamed skin
  • Regulate sebaceous secretions, balancing over-or
    underactive skin
  • Promote the release and removal of metabolic
    waste products
  • Contain plant hormones that help balance and
    alleviate hormonally related skin problems

Beauty and Skin care
  • Skin-Care Properties of Essential Oils (cont.)
  • Affect the mental and emotional state positively,
    thus alleviating stress-related skin problems.
  • Please see
  • Table 12 for Essential Oils For Facial
  • Table 13 for Essential Oils for Skin Problems.

Treating Common Ailments
  • Essential Oils assist the body to heal itself by
    lowering stress levels, relaxing and toning the
    muscles, stimulating the immune system, the
    organs and the glands in the body to fight
    bacteria, fungi and viruses.
  • These oils can be used to relieve symptoms and
    help the natural healing of common, everyday
  • Please see Table 14 for Essential Oils for
    Treating Common Ailments.

Aromatherapy Care
  • Please refer to
  • Table 15 for Essential Oils For Body Treatments
  • Table 16 for Essential Oils for Physical Problems
  • Table 17 for Fragrances for Emotions
  • Table 18 for Essential Oils for Hair Care

Aromatherapy Massage
Aromatherapy Massage
  • The purpose of aromatherapy massage is to aid the
    penetration of essential oils into the body and
    to treat problem areas.
  • Massage can be stimulating or relaxing depending
    on the oils used and the technique applied.
  • It is an effective way to relieve stress, anxiety
    and tension.

Aromatherapy Massage
  • Aromatherapy massage combines the balancing
    properties of the essential oils with the
    relaxing benefits of touch.
  • As the oils are absorbed into the skin and the
    muscles relax, the therapeutic benefits manifest.
  • Psychologically, massage promotes a wonderful
    feeling of lightness and wellbeing.

Island Massage Therapy
Aromatherapy Massage
  • Massage not only soothes the mind and body, but
    it has numerous other benefits.
  • A good aromatherapy massage will
  • Increase metabolism.
  • Speed up the healing process.
  • Enhance the removal of toxins.
  • Increase muscle and joint mobility.

Aromatherapy Massage
  • Aid relaxation by calming the nervous system.
  • Relieve mental and physical tiredness.
  • Reduce aches, pains, spasms and stiffness.
  • Improve digestion.
  • Improve skin tone.
  • Improve circulation of blood and lymph.

Relaxing Massage
Massage dosage guide
  • Massage oil A 2.5 dilution is recommended for
    adults 1 for children under 12.
  • To determine this dilution in drops, figure out
    how many ml (or cc) are in the bottle you are
    using, then divide that number by 2.
  • Example You have a 30 ml bottle of carrier oil
    that you are going to use for your blend.30/2
    15Therefore, a 2.5 blend for a 30 ml bottle is
    15 drops of essential oil. You can add 15 drops
    to 30 ml of whatever carrier oil you are using.

Popular Aromatherapy Oils
  • Basil Bergamot
  • Cedarwood Chamomile
  • Clary sage Eucalyptus
  • Geranium Ginger
  • Grapefruit Jasmine
  • Lavender Lemon
  • Lemongrass Lime
  • Mandarin Marjoram

Popular Aromatherapy Oils
  • Melissa Neroli
  • Orange Patchouli
  • Peppermint Petitgrain
  • Pine Rose
  • Rosemary Rosewood (Bois de Rose)
  • Sandalwood Tea tree
  • Vetiver Ylang ylang

  • Ocimum basilicum
  • The aphrodisiac oil.
  • Used for nervous insomnia, anxiety and tiredness.
  • Helpful for insect bites, headaches, muscular
    aches and pains.
  • Avoid during pregnancy.
  • Use with caution on sensitive skin, as it can be
    an irritant.

  • Citrus aurantium
  • The uplifting oil.
  • Good for relaxing tight, aching muscles.
  • For massage, it is extremely versatile and can
    lift any blend.
  • Do not use when going in the sun. Because it is

Cedarwood (Atlas)
  • Cedrus atlantica
  • A refreshing oil for men.
  • It has a stimulating, refreshing and tonic effect
    on the body.
  • It is good for dandruff, eczema, greasy skin and
  • It is an effective insect repellent.
  • Avoid during pregnancy.
  • Should be avoided by breast-feeding mothers and
    by children.

  • Chamaemelum nobile
  • The soothing oil.
  • Is a natural anti-inflammatory with great healing
    properties as well as relaxing sedative benefits.
  • Is an expensive oil and you can substitute some
    drops with Lavender when using to ease pain.
  • Safe for use on babies, children and pets.

Clary Sage
  • Salvia sclarea
  • The anti-depressant oil.
  • Calming, promotes a peaceful state of mind and
    restful sleep.
  • Improves mental clarity and alertness, and
    reduces stress and tension.
  • Is well known for its euphoric action.
  • Not to be used during pregnancy.

  • Eucalyptus globulus
  • The perfect insect repellent.
  • Because it prevents bacterial growth and inhibits
    the growth of viruses, it is used to treat burns,
    blisters, cuts, herpes, wounds and sores.
  • It can soothe the pain of sore muscles, arthritis
    and rheumatism.
  • Do not use whilst on homeopathic remedies.

  • Pelargonium graveolens
  • The womens oil.
  • It has a regulatory action on the hormones
    secreted by the adrenal cortex. Ideal for PMT and
  • It reduces stress and tension.
  • Is calming and uplifting, speeds body healing,
    and eases depression
  • And is helpful in managing asthma.

  • Zingiber officinale
  • The warming oil.
  • A warming oil that relaxes tight muscles, relieve
    aches and pains, making it a natural choice to
    threat arthritis.
  • Useful in the treatment of cold and coughs.
  • Also improves digestion as it stimulates the
    gastric juices.

  • Citrus paradisi
  • The cellulite oil.
  • It has an uplifting and reviving effect, making
    it useful in treating stress, depression and
    nervous exhaustion.
  • Is a lymphatic stimulant, so it is helpful in the
    treatment of water retention as well as having
    fat-dissolving properties.
  • A very safe oil to use. It is non-toxic,
    non-irritant and is non-phototoxic!

  • Jasminum grandiflorum
  • The romantic oil.
  • Uplifting, relaxing and an excellent brain
  • It is good for dry sensitive skins and to treat
    muscular aches and menstrual cramps.
  • Always use this oil to lighten the emotional
  • Not to be used during pregnancy.

  • Lavandula angustifolia
  • Essential oil for the first aid kit.
  • Generally regarded as the most versatile essence
  • Is well known for its sedative properties and is
    useful in treating depression, migraine, insomnia
    and nervous tension as well as dealing with
  • Can be used neat on burns and even sunburn.

  • Citrus limon
  • The cleansing oil.
  • Is stimulating, invigorating, astringent,
    deodorizing and antiseptic.
  • Very helpful in treating mental exhaustion. Also
    for energizing an aching body.
  • Used in treatment of cellulite
  • Is phototoxic!

  • Cymbopogon flexuosus
  • The regenerative oil.
  • A good tonic for the skin, especially useful for
    athletes foot.
  • It kills bacteria and fungal infections.
  • It cools and reduces fever in the body and helps
    ease aching muscles.
  • It calms the nervous system relieving depression,
    stress and nervous exhaustion.
  • Use with care on sensitive skins it can cause
    irritation due to high citrus content!

  • Citrus aurantifolia
  • The uplifting oil.
  • Is antibacterial, antifungal and antiseptic.
  • A great stimulant and tonic.
  • Very useful for treating colds and flu,
    cellulite, poor circulation, greasy skin,
    arthritis and varicose veins.
  • Is phototoxic!

  • Citrus reticulata
  • The childrens oil.
  • Having great digestive properties, it relieves
    cramps, spasms and stimulates bile production.
  • It also aids digestion, constipation and
  • A great oil to be used for stretch marks, scars
    and aging skin. Use this oil during pregnancy to
    help reduce stretch marks.
  • Is phototoxic!

  • Origanum majorana
  • The calming oil.
  • It relieves tight muscles, aches and pains.
  • Reduces inflammation, improves digestion and
    helps relieve congestion.
  • Avoid during pregnancy.
  • Avoid if you suffer from low blood pressure.

  • Melissa officinalis
  • The heart oil.
  • Also known as Balm, Lemon.
  • It calms and soothes the skin as well as soothing
    the mind by calming the nervous system.
  • Respiratory-related allergies respond well to it.
  • It offers relief for problems of the digestive or
    circulatory system.

  • Citrus aurantium
  • The mind, body and soul oil.
  • It helps prevent wrinkles, stretch marks and
    thread veins.
  • It has a deep tranquilizing effect and is used
    for treating anxiety, depression, palpitations
    and nervous disorders.
  • It can relieve diarrhoea, indigestion, cramps and
    spasms and help expel gas from the intestines.
  • Safe and ideal to use during pregnancy.

  • Citrus sinensis
  • A calming and relaxing oil.
  • It has a refreshing and stimulating effect on the
    body whilst leaving you relaxed. It rejuvenates
  • Excellent oil for calming children as well as for
    reducing colds and flu.
  • Is phototoxic!
  • Do not use when pregnant.

  • Pogostemon cablin
  • The general tonic oil.
  • Useful in treatment of eczema, acne, scalp and
    fungal infection of the skin.
  • For anxiety and depression, it helps keep one in
    touch with reality whilst encouraging spiritual
  • Has a strong exotic perfume smell.
  • Safe to use. Non-toxic.

  • Mentha piperita
  • The soothing digestion oil.
  • The cooling and refreshing effect on the body
    brings temporary relief from headaches, mental
    fatigue, toothache, sinusitis, travel sickness,
    sunburn, upset stomachs and hangovers.
  • Avoid during pregnancy.
  • Use with care on sensitive skins it can be an
    irritant due to high menthol content.

  • Citrus aurantium var.amara
  • The nerve oil.
  • Its properties include being anti-depressant,
    deodorizing and a sedative.
  • Use in your diffuser an
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