Non-Renewable Energy - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Title: Non-Renewable Energy


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Non-Renewable Energy
  • From Living in the Environment by Miller and
    Spoolman

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I. Thinking About Energy
  1. Currently most commercial energy (energy sold)
    comes from extracting and burning nonrenewable
    energy resources obtained from the Earths crust
    primarily from carbon-containing fossil fuels
    oil, natural gas, and coal.
  2. About 82 of the commercial energy consumed in
    the world comes from non-renewable resources
    76 from fossil fuels, 6 from nuclear.

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I. Thinking About Energy
  • C. Scientists think energy resources should be
    evaluated on the basis of their supplies, the
    environmental impact of our using them, and how
    much useful energy they actually provide.
  • D. The usable amount of high-quality energy
    available from a give resource is its net energy.
    It is the total amount of useful energy
    available from an energy resource minus the
    energy needed to find, extract, process, and get
    the energy to consumers.

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I. Thinking About Energy
  • E. Net energy can be expressed as a ratio of
    energy produced to the energy used to produce it.
    For example, if it takes 8 units of energy to
    produce 10 units of energy from a coal mine, the
    net energy ratio would be 10/8, or 1.25.
  • F. Energy ratios for heating
  • Passive solar 5.8, Natural gas 4.9, Oil 4.5
  • Electric heating (coal-fired plant) 0.4

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I. Thinking About Energy
  • G. Net energy ratios for transportation
  • Ethanol from sugarcane 8.0
  • Gasoline 4.1
  • Oil Shale 1.2
  • Ethanol from corn 1.1
  • H. Considering net energy ratios are very
    important when deciding energy policy or where to
    invest RD dollars to develop new technology.

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I. Thinking About Energy
  • I. The laws of thermodynamics are also important
    to keep in mind when thinking about energy
  • 1st law of thermodynamics- Energy is never
    created or destroyed, it just changes form
  • 2nd law of thermodynamics- When changing energy
    from one form to another, we always end up with
    less useful energy than what we started (some
    energy is given off to the environment in the
    form of heat).

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II. Oil
  1. Petroleum (AKA crude, conventional, or light oil)
    is a thick and gooey liquid consisting of
    hundreds of different combustible hydrocarbons
    along with small amounts of sulfur, oxygen, and
    nitrogen impurities.

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  • B. Petroleum was formed from the decaying remains
    of organisms that lived 100-500 million years
    ago. Fossil fuels are formed only when organic
    material is broken down in an anaerobic
    environment, such as the bottom of deep lakes,
    swamps, or shallow seas. Which fossil fuel forms
    depends on the chemical composition of starting
    material, temperatures and pressures, and the
    presence or absence of anaerobic decomposers.

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II. Oil
  • C. Deposits of oil and natural gas are often
    trapped together under a dome deep within the
    earths crust. The crude oil is dispersed in
    pores and cracks in underground rock formations.

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  • D. Crude oil is refined by heating and distilling
    the different types of hydrocarbons present
    refining is all based on differences in boiling
    points of hydrocarbons.

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II. Oil
  • E. Gases and gasoline have the lowest boiling
    points, followed by aviation fuel, heating oil,
    diesel, naphtha, and the residues left over are
    used for asphalt.
  • F. Some of the products of oil distillation,
    called petrochemicals, are used as raw materials
    in cleaning fluids, pesticides, fertilizers,
    plastics, synthetic fibers, paints, and
    medicines.

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By the Numbers.
  • G. Projected global reserves of conventional oil
    will be 80 depleted sometime between 2050 and
    2100, using the current rate of use of oil
    reserves of 2.8 a year. Between 2000-2007, the
    world used nine times more oil than the oil
    industry discovered. The U.S. produces about 9
    of the worlds oil, but uses 24 of the worlds
    oil production. The U.S. imports about 60 of
    its oil. Global oil production has leveled off
    since 2005.

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II. Oil Basics
  • H. Oil is now the single largest source of
    commercial energy in the world, and in the U.S.
    as well. Since the world is so dependent on oil,
    the oil industry (both private 25 and
    governmental 75) is the largest industry in the
    world. Control of oil reserves is the single
    greatest source of global economic and political
    power. Miller and Spoolman

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II. Oil Basics
  • I. The Organization of Petroleum Exporting
    Countries (OPEC) have at least 60 of the worlds
    crude reserves, and produce 43 of the worlds
    oil. OPEC is somewhat secretive about the true
    size of member countries oil reserves, so in
    truth no one really knows the exact size of world
    oil reserves. Saudi Arabia has 25 of the worlds
    largest crude oil reserves.

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  • J. OPEC members are Algeria, Angola, Indonesia,
    Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi
    Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE).

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  • K. What about U.S. reserves? I heard we just
    need to Drill Baby, Drill. There are
    potentially vast reserves beneath federal lands
    and coastal waters (a huge find in the Gulf of
    Mexico in early September 2009). Even if all
    projected reserves are completely developed (a
    perfect world scenario), the oil would only meet
    current U.S. needs for 5 years.

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II. Oil Basics
  • L. Most of these projected reserves are in hard
    to reach areas, and will take billions of dollars
    to develop and be brought to market at very high
    cost.

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II. Oil Basics
  • M. Remember back to net energy the ratio of the
    amount of energy produced to the amount of energy
    needed to produce the energy. The U.S. produces
    most of its dwindling domestic supply of oil at a
    high cost, about 7.50 to 10 per barrel on dry
    land, and 35-40 per barrel for taping deep
    water resources (Saudi Arabia produces for about
    2 a barrel).

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N. How about Alaskan Oil?
  • 1. The estimated reserves under Alaskas North
    Slope the largest crude reserves ever found in
    North America would meet current world demand
    for 6 months, or U.S. demand for 3 years.
  • 2. Of this oil, the reserves under Alaskas
    Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) would meet
    world oil demand for 1-5 months and U.S. demand
    for 7 to 24 months.

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  • 3. ANWR is tundra habitat home to polar bears,
    arctic foxes, and peregrine flacons. It serves as
    summer breeding ground for millions of migratory
    birds and one of North Americas last great herds
    of caribou.

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  • 4. Opponents say getting relatively little oil
    from the ANWRs costal plain is not worth the
    permanent environmental degradation to a pristine
    tundra habitat. If vehicle fuel efficiency for
    new cars, SUVs, and light trucks was improved by
    just 1 mile per gallon, the U.S. would save far
    more oil than what is ever likely to be pulled
    from the ANWR deposit.

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Trade-Offs for Conventional (Light) Oil
Advantages Disadvantages
Ample supply for 42-93 years Need to find permanent substitute within 50 years
Low cost Large government subsidies, environmental cost not included in market price
High net energy yield Artificially low price encourages waste and discourages search for alternatives
Easily transported within and between countries Pollutes air when produced and burned
Low land use Releases CO2 when burned (43 of global CO2 emissions)
Technology is well developed, with efficient distribution system Can cause water pollution (Exxon Valdez oil spill, BP oil spill.)
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III. Heavy Oils
  1. Heavy oil is extracted from either oil sand or
    tar sand, or oil shale.
  2. Oil sand or tar sand is a mixture of clay, sand,
    water, and a combustible organic material called
    bitumen (a thick, sticky heavy oil with a high
    sulfur content that makes up about 10 of tar
    sand).

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  • C. Northeastern Alberta in Canada has
    three-fourths of the worlds oil sand underneath
    boreal forests. Other deposits are in Venezuela,
    Colombia, Russia, and Utah. Together the oil
    sands of Canada and Venezuela contain more oil
    than is found in Saudi Arabia.

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III. Heavy Oils
  • D. How to extract oil from the tar sands of
    Alberta (which is done through strip-mining)
  • Clear cut boreal forest, drain wetlands, and
    divert rivers and streams.
  • Remove the overburden of soil, rocks, and clay to
    expose oil sand deposits.
  • Dig out oil sands and carry it to upgrading
    plants at the upgrading plants, mix with hot
    water and steam to extract bitumen.

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III. Heavy Oils
  • 4) Heat bitumen via natural gas in huge cookers
    to convert to low-sulfur, synthetic crude oil,
    which can then be refined using traditional
    refining methods.
  • E. About 4 metric tons of overburden are removed
    to produce 1 metric ton of bitumen. The mining
    process produces huge pits, as well as huge ponds
    of toxic mine tailings and other wastes stored as
    liquid slurries that are extremely toxic to
    aquatic life and birds.

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III. Heavy Oils
  • F. The process results in much more water and air
    pollution than is produced in traditional crude
    production, and releases at least three times
    more CO2 than conventional oil.
  • G. The environmental defense fund called Canadas
    oil sands industry the most destructive project
    on Earth, and for each barrel of oil produced,
    the energy input needed is 0.7 barrels of oil.

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III. Heavy Oils
  • H. Oily rocks, called oil shales, are another
    potential source of heavy oil. When oil shales
    are heated, a hydrocarbon mix called kerogen is
    produced.
  • I. About 72 of the worlds oil shale reserves
    are in the western U.S., beneath an area called
    the Green River Formation (Arid lands of
    Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah. The federal
    government owns 80 of this land.

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III. Heavy Oils
  • J. It is estimated that these deposits contain an
    amount of recoverable heavy oil equal to almost
    four times the size of Saudi Arabias reserves.
    So yea! Is it time to .

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  • K. Not quite most of these deposits are locked
    up in ore of such low grade that it would take a
    lot of energy to mine and process the rock to
    extract the oil. The net energy is even lower
    than that of the oil sands.
  • L. It also takes A LOT of water to extract oil
    from oil shale. As most of the deposits are in
    arid areas of the west that are already having
    extreme water issues, it seems implausible that
    water could be used in the amount needed.

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III. Heavy Oils
  • M. Pollution issues are huge with oil shale too
    you have to process 1 ton of oil shale to produce
    1 barrel of oil. All of the same toxicity issues
    apply to oil shale mine tailings and slurry as
    well.

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Trade-Offs for Heavy Oil
Advantages Disadvantages
Moderate cost (oil sands) High cost (oil shale)
Large potential supplies, especially in the Canadian oil sands Low net energy yield
Easily transported within and between countries Environmental costs not included in market price
Efficient distribution system in place Large amounts of water needed for processing
Technology well developed (oil sands) Severe land disruption
Severe water pollution
Air pollution and CO2 emissions when burned (at about 3x the rate as light oil)
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IV. Natural Gas
  1. Natural gas is a mixture of gases which contains
    between 50-90 methane (CH4). Natural gas also
    contains smaller amounts of ethane (C2H6),
    propane (C3H8), and butane (C4H10), and small
    amounts of highly toxic hydrogen sulfide (H2S).
  2. Conventional natural gas is often found in
    reservoirs above crude oil deposits, but can not
    be used unless a natural gas pipeline has been
    built.

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IV. Natural Gas
  • C. Russia is the Saudi Arabia of gas, having 27
    of gas reserves, followed by Iran (15) and Qatar
    (14). The U.S. has only 3 of the worlds
    proven gas reserves, but uses 27 of the worlds
    annual production.
  • D. Methane gas can be burned to heat space and
    water or produce electricity or propel vehicles
    with only minor modifications.

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IV. Natural Gas
  • E. Natural gas turbines to produce electricity
    are almost twice as energy efficient as
    coal-burning nuclear power plants.
  • F. Burning natural gas releases CO2 into the air,
    but releases much less CO2 per unit of energy
    than coal or oil.
  • G. To transport natural gas across oceans, it is
    converted to liquefied natural gas (LNG) at very
    low temps and high pressure.

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IV. Natural Gas
  • H. LNG is very flammable and shipped aboard
    refrigerated tanker ships, then reheated to gas
    at regasification plants before being distributed
    via pipeline.
  • I. LNG has a low net energy yield the
    equivalent of more than a third of its energy
    content is needed to compress, decompress,
    refrigerate, and transport it long distances.

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IV. Natural Gas
  • J. The long-term outlook for natural gas is
    better than for oil current reserves are
    estimated to last 65-125 years.

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Trade-Offs for Natural Gas
Advantages Disadvantages
Ample supply Nonrenewable resource
High net energy yield Releases CO2 when burned
Low cost Government subsidies
Less air pollution than other fossil fuels Environmental costs not included in market price
Lower CO2 emissions than other fossil fuels Methane (potent greenhouse gas) can leak from pipelines
Easily transported by pipeline Difficult to transfer from one country to another
Low land use Can be shipped across ocean only as highly explosive LNG
Good fuel for fuel cells, gas turbines, and motor vehicles
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V. Coal
  1. Coal is a solid fossil fuel formed from the
    remnants of land plants that were buried 300-400
    years ago.
  2. Coal is burned to generate approximately 40 of
    the worlds electricity. Coal is also used in
    various industrial plants, for example in blast
    furnaces to make steel or iron.
  3. Using a coal-burning power plant is essentially a
    complex and inefficient way to boil water and
    produce steam.

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V. Coal
  • D. The three largest coal-burning countries in
    the world are China, the U.S., and India. By 2025
    China is expected to burn twice as much coal as
    the U.S., and Indias coal use is expected to
    quadruple.
  • E. In the U.S., coal produces 49 of our
    electricity (followed by natural gas 21, nuclear
    19 and renewable (9).

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  • F. Coal is the worlds most abundant fossil fuel.
    According the USGS, global coal supplies could
    last from 214 1,125 years, depending on use.
  • G. The U.S. is the Saudi Arabia of Coal, with 25
    of world-wide coal reserves. Russia has 15,
    India and China both have 13, Australia has 8
    and South Africa.

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  • H. Different estimates put U.S. coal supplying
    U.S. needs for either 100 or 250 years.
  • I. Without sophisticated and expensive pollution
    control devices, burning coal severely pollutes
    the air. Coal is mostly carbon, but also
    contains small amounts of sulfur, which is
    released into the air as sulfur dioxide (SO2).
    Burning coal also releases large amounts of
    particulates (soot), carbon dioxide, trace
    amounts of mercury and radioactive materials.

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  • J. Coal-burning power plants account for 25 of
    world-wide CO2 emissions, and 40 of U.S. CO2
    emissions.
  • K. Coal is the single biggest air polluter in
    coal-burning nations.

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L. China and Coal
  1. China burns a third of the worlds coal, to
    produce 80 of its electricity.
  2. China is adding the equivalent of three large
    coal-burning power plants per week.
  3. Pollution controls on older, inefficient plants
    in China are almost non-existent, and even the
    newest coal-burning plants are inefficient and
    have inadequate air-pollution control systems.

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  • 4) Since 2005, China has been the worlds leading
    source of SO2, which can cause respiratory and
    cardiovascular disease, as well as cause acid
    rain. In 2008 China became the worlds leading
    producer of CO2.
  • 5) Major Chinese cities are in an almost
    perpetual haze from particulates and other
    pollutants released from burning coal, and China
    contains 20 of the top 30 most polluted cities in
    the world.

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  • 6) According to a World Bank study, indoor and
    outdoor air pollution, mostly from coal burning,
    contributes to 650,000 to 700,000 premature
    deaths a year.

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Trade-Offs for Coal
Advantages Disadvantages
Ample supplies (225 900 years) Severe land disturbance, air pollution, and water pollution
High net energy yield Severe threat to human health when burned
Low cost Environmental costs not included in market price
Well-developed technology Large government subsidies
Air pollution can be reduced with improved technology High carbon dioxide emissions when produced and burned
Radioactive particles and toxic mercury emissions
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