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Lecture 1: OS Introduction, History and Concepts Chapters 1'1 1'3 textbook


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Title: Lecture 1: OS Introduction, History and Concepts Chapters 1'1 1'3 textbook

Lecture 1 OS Introduction, History and
ConceptsChapters 1.1 1.3 textbook
What is an Operating System?
Why care about OS? (1)
  • Most critical software in a computer.
  • OS performance influences the performance of all
    software on a computer
  • How to extract the best performance out of an OS?
  • How to work around design flaws? Write software
    that takes advantage of the design of the OS

Why care about OS? (2)
  • You need to understand enough to make informed
    decisions about things like
  • Buying and using a personal computer
  • Why do different PCs with the same CPU perform
  • Should I get Windows XP? Windows 2000? Linux?
    Whats the difference?
  • Should I upgrade my hardware? Should I upgrade my
  • Whats going on with my PC, especially when I
    have to install something?
  • Should I use disk compression? Is there a cost to
    using it?

Why care about OS? (3)
  • If youre going to be a software engineer then
    youll need to understand the environment offered
    by your OS
  • What abstractions does the OS provide? E.g., the
    OS may (or may not) provide illusions such as
    infinite number of CPUs, infinite memory, single
    worldwide computing, etc.
  • What system design trade-offs have been made?
    E.g., what functionality has been put in
    hardware? What trade-offs have been made between
    simplicity and performance, putting functionality
    in hardware vs. software, etc?
  • Operating system design and implementation
    combine many different areas of computer science
    languages, hardware, data structures, and

3 most important things youll get from this class
  • Learn how to reason about costs and tradeoffs in
    resource management at the operating systems
  • Become comfortable with inter-process
    communication primitives
  • Become comfortable with system programming for
    Linux environment
  • In addition Improve your skills (and confidence)
    in C programming

This Course
File systems
I/O devices
Memory management
Processes, threads, scheduling
Hardware components of a computer system
Memory hierarchy
  • 5 programming assignments (2 quite intense)
  • 3 tests (2 midterms and 1 final)
  • 10s of practice problems (optional)
  • Almost daily quizzes (not affecting your grade)
  • A word of advice
  • Do not procrastinate
  • Read assigned material every week
  • Start your programming assignments right away
  • Budget enough time, this is a difficult course

A Short History of Operating Systems
Early Computers
  • First Computer
  • Charles Babbage (1791-1871) designed
  • the first true digital computer called
  • the Analytical Engine.
  • That was purely mechanical and
  • intended to do math operations
  • The engine was supposed to be made of brass, and
    steam powered
  • He did not actually built the machine but
    inspired others in the field.
  • He had previously designed and started building a
    special-purpose computer called the Difference

In 1991, on the occasion of the 200th anniversary
of the birth of Charles Babbage, the Science
Museum in Kensington, England, constructed a
complete Difference Engine from the drawings left
behind by Babbage. They found only two major
errors in the drawings they were easy to remedy.
Early Computers
  • Babbage also thought of the concept of software
  • And hired the first programmer (Lady Ada,
    Countess of Lovelace) for his analytical engine
  • From Ada Lovelaces notes The analytical machine
    was suited for "developping !!! and tabulating
    any function whatever. . . the engine is the
    material expression of any indefinite function of
    any degree of generality and complexity."
  • Ada language named in her honor

History of Operating Systems (1)
  • First generation 1945 - 1955
  • Technology vacuum tubes plugboards
  • Programming setting some switches
  • Programming language machine language
  • Tasks tables of sine, cosine, logarithms
  • OS none
  • Computer designer is
  • builder and
  • programmer and
  • operator and
  • sys admin

Program from those days
A Famous Remark (1943)
  • "I think there is a world market for maybe five
  • Thomas Watson, chairman of IBM

History of Operating Systems (2)
  • Second generation 1955 1965
  • Technology Transistors
  • Programming Punched cards
  • Programming languages FORTRAN Assembly
  • Tasks Scientific
  • Computer Mainframes
  • OS Batch system
  • Universities started to buy computers (millions
  • Separation between computer designers, builders,
    operators, programmers and maintenance personnel.

Early Batch System
  • bring cards to IBM 1401 machine (good at card
  • read cards to tape
  • put tape on IBM 7094 which does computing
  • put tape on IBM 1401 which prints output offline

A Famous Remark (1957)
  • "I have traveled the length and breadth of this
    country and talked with the best people, and I
    can assure you that data processing is a fad that
    won't last out the year.
  • The editor in charge of business books for
    Prentice Hall

History of Operating Systems (3)
  • Third generation 1965 1980
  • Technology Integrated circuits
  • Programming Punched cards
  • Programming languages FORTRAN Assembly
  • Tasks Scientific commercial
  • Computers IBM 360, DEC PDPs
  • OS Multiprogramming/timesharing, spooling
  • OSes Developed
  • MULTICS (father of all modern OSes)
  • UNIX (System V, BSD)
  • POSIX (by IEEE)
  • MINIX (by Tanenbaum)
  • Linux (originated by Linus Torvalds, inspired by

A Famous Remark (1977)
  • There is no reason anyone would want a computer
    in their home.
  • Ken Olson, president, chairman and founder of
    Digital Equipment Corp.

History of Operating Systems (4)
  • Fourth generation 1980-Present
  • Technology VLSI
  • Programming High level
  • Programming languages C/C, Java,
  • Computer PC
  • OS Windows, MacOS, Linux
  • Cheap PCs

A Famous Remark (1989)
  • We don't see Windows as a long-term graphical
    interface for the masses.
  • A Lotus Software Development official, while
    demonstrating a new DOS version

Types of Operating Systems (1)
  • Mainframe operating systems
  • Room-size computers
  • High I/O capacity
  • Offers
  • Batch processing (no interaction, such as large
  • Transaction processing (large number of small
  • Timesharing (multiple users sitting in front of

Famous Forecast (1949)
  • "Computers in the future may weigh no more than
    1.5 tons."
  • Popular Mechanics, forecasting the relentless
    march of science, 1949

Types of Operating Systems (2)
  • Server operating systems
  • Offer services like print, file, or web
  • UNIX, Windows 2000, Linux
  • Multiprocessor operating systems
  • Parallel computing
  • Personal computer operating systems
  • Single user with a good GUI, such as Windows 98,
    Windows 2000, Macintosh OS, Linux

Operating Systems (3)
  • Real-time operating systems
  • E.g. industrial process control systems where
    each job must be completed in the specified time.
  • Hard real-time (nuclear reactor control systems)
    or soft-real time systems (e.g multimedia
    systems) depending on the acceptance of missing
  • Embedded operating systems
  • Real-time systems with some resource constraints
    like memory, CPU, power.
  • Smart card operating systems
  • Extremely primitive OS running on credit
    card-sized devices with a CPU.

For next time
  • Read sections 1-1.3
  • Try to log on one of the machines
    c4labpc11-c4labpc19. If you dont have an
    account, get one.
  • To log on use any ssh client (such as putty.exe)
  • Run
  • ssh c4labpc11.csee.usf.edu
  • Youll need a CSE Unix password. Instructions to
    get one will follow by email.
  • Watch this http//www.csee.usf.edu/anda/cop4600/
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