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Jazz In America


Combined with other musical elements from funk, soul, and (especially) Latin. Fusion ... pop songs, blues, R&B, soul, funk, rock, etc. Main focus: sell ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Jazz In America

Jazz In America
  • Lesson 7 Avant Garde / Free Jazz Fusion

Avant Garde/Free JazzReaction to Cool and Hard
  • 1959-1970
  • Free Jazz was a reaction to everything that
    happened before it
  • Swing, Bebop, Cool, Hard Bop were based on
    predetermined chord progressions, standard forms,
    and choruses
  • Free Jazz was not

Avant Garde/Free JazzReaction to Cool and Hard
  • Free Jazz musicians freed themselves from these
    constraints, improvising solely on the emotion
    of the moment
  • Traditional values of melody, harmony, rhythm
    were discarded, providing more freedom for the
  • The idea of what jazz was supposed to be (and
    even what music was supposed to be) were laid
    to the wayside

Avant Garde/Free JazzReaction to Cool and Hard
  • Free Jazz allowed for the exploration of new
    tonal colors, sounds, and emotions
  • From its earliest roots, jazz has been related to
    and represented the freedom
  • To explore new musical horizons
  • To improvise in unorthodox ways
  • From the musical past
  • From traditional melodies
  • From common practice scales, chords, rhythms

Avant Garde/Free JazzReaction to Cool and Hard
  • Pushed the limits of what musicians could play
    what audiences would accept
  • Widened the emotional and expressive parameters
    of jazz
  • Became even more Afro-centric than Hard Bop
    became modern by returning to the primitive

Avant Garde/Free JazzPerformance Practices
  • Size and instrumentation was more varied
  • Music was not based on traditional chords, forms,
    or structures
  • Music was atonal
  • Atonal lacking tonality not based on an
    accepted, somewhat predictable series of notes
    and chords

Avant Garde/Free JazzPerformance Practices
  • Concept of pitch and intonation varied with each
    musical experience
  • Use of rhythm was highly varied, often with no
    steady pulse

Avant Garde/Free JazzOrnette Coleman
Avant Garde/Free JazzArt Ensemble of Chicago
FusionJazz Musicians Fuse Jazz Rock
  • 1969-1990
  • Rapid maturation of rock during this time, jazz
    rock were ripe for a merger
  • Experimentation with electronic instruments, rock
    rhythms, long vamps, and rock riffs
  • Sophistication virtuosity of jazz w/ raw power
    emotion of rock

FusionReaction to Free Jazz
  • Musicians resented art-for-arts-sake attitude
    of Free Jazz
  • Fusion appealed to a broader spectrum of tastes
  • Fusion strived to reach and affect its audience

FusionReaction to Free Jazz
  • Free Jazz was cerebral Fusion was physical
  • Free Jazz was acoustic Fusion was electric
  • Bitches Brew Miles Davis landmark album that
    launched Fusion

FusionPerformance Practices
  • Size and instrumentation varied
  • Jazz Instruments trumpet, saxophone, acoustic
  • Rock Instruments electric guitar, electric bass,
    keyboards synthesizers
  • Groups often employed multiple electronic
    keyboard players percussionists

FusionPerformance Practices
  • Utilized amplification, synthesizers, reverb,
    distortion effects, and other electronic devices
  • Characterized by collective improv, high energy,
    heavy drama, long compositions/performances
  • Repertoire was almost exclusively original
  • Combined with other musical elements from funk,
    soul, and (especially) Latin

FusionImportant Figures
  • Miles Davis, Trumpet
  • Weather Report
  • Herbie Hancock, Piano
  • Chick Corea, Piano
  • John McLaughlin, Electric Guitar
  • Jaco Pastorius, Electric Bass

Smooth Jazz
  • 1970 Today
  • A simpler, more listenable commercial style of
  • Fuses jazz with black pop songs, blues, RB,
    soul, funk, rock, etc.
  • Main focus sell recordings
  • Many pop jazz performers are excellent straight
    jazz players
  • Less sophisticated than other forms feel good
    emotional content

Smooth Jazz
  • George Benson, Guitar
  • Dave Grusin, Piano
  • David Sanborn, Alto Sax
  • Spyro Gyra
  • Grover Washington, Saxophones

Cultural ImplicationsAvant Garde/Free Jazz
  • Jazz musicians remained at the forefront
  • From its roots, jazz has been about freedom Free
    Jazz is a direct outgrowth of this
  • Jazz was transformed because of the world around
  • Social trauma, civil tumult, cultural
    behavioral changes, drugs, W of MD

Cultural ImplicationsAvant Garde/Free Jazz
  • Arts were transformed
  • Free verse poetry, abstract art, circular novels,
    modern dance, Free Jazz
  • Free Jazz fit into a post WWII world, filled with
    questioning of behavior, art, order, and even
  • Reflected a growing movement towards Afro-centric

Cultural ImplicationsAvant Garde/Free Jazz
  • Reflected both black pride and black anger
  • Use of dissonant harmonies, simple chant-like
  • Able to express a vulnerability and fragility
    that black political militants could not express

Cultural ImplicationsFusion
  • Developed in the late 60s out of the most
    confusing and pessimistic time for jazz and
    American Society
  • Was the stage for new cultural roles in jazz
    brought on by Americans search for meaning in
    their lives
  • Against communism, North Vietnam, poverty
  • For civil rights, racial equality, and the
    American Dream

Cultural ImplicationsFusion
  • Americas faith in progress shaken
  • Continuous images of bloodshed, waste, corruption
  • Postwar feelings of affluence, righteousness, and
    liberal progress were thwarted
  • America responded to societys strife by turning
    inward, giving rise to the me generation
  • Music became a vehicle for Americans search for
  • Music styles reflected Americas various
    sub-cultures no longer a shared experience

Cultural ImplicationsFusion
  • Smooth Jazz was associated with the
    uncommitted, private, detached lifestyles of a
    1970s fragmented mass public
  • New cultural trends took the urgency and protest
    out of music many social revolutions that began
    in the 60s were continued and realized
  • Fusion would be heard in movies and TV shows

Jazz Education
  • 1970s people became more aware of Jazzs
    importance to Americas history and culture
  • Jazz has become increasingly legitimized in
    formal academia
  • University jazz studies programs proliferated in
    the 1970s, 80s, 90s
  • Jazz is practiced side by side with classical
  • You can earn bachelors, masters, and doctoral
    degrees in jazz studies

Jazz Education
  • Because jazz encompasses so many musical styles,
    the study of jazz provides practical training for
    budding professional musicians
  • Joint Houses of Congress passed a resolution
    declaring jazz an American National Treasure
    jazz education has henceforth been considered
    American art education
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