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Radio Law, Radio Equipment Regulations and Technical Standards


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Title: Radio Law, Radio Equipment Regulations and Technical Standards

Radio Law,Radio Equipment Regulations and
Technical Standards
  • Info Communication Policy Workshop
  • August 8, 2003
  • Tomoyuki TANUMA
  • Deputy Director
  • International Policy Division,
  • Ministry of Public Management, Home Affairs,
  • Posts and Telecommunications (MPHPT), JAPAN

  • Frequency Allocation
  • Efficient and Transparent Allocation
  • Radio Policy Visions
  • Mobile Communication Systems
  • Conformity Assessment Scheme for
    Telecommunications Equipment in Japan
  • MRA Overview

Frequency Allocation
Transparent Frequency Allocation Process
Development of licensing policy and technical
Surveillance of actual radio frequency use,
publicity and evaluation thereof
Domestically decided frequency allocation
Radio station license
International frequency allocation
(Specific requirements for licensing)
(Frequency assignment plan)
(Individual assignment)
Ensuring fairness and improving transparency in
the process of decision-making process
Participation of the private-sector members in
the delegation to ITU WRC
Implementation of the procedures for gathering
opinions widely from the public and reflecting
the public comments to the policy
ltRadio Regulatory Councilgt
Deliberations upon assignment plans, etc. are
being made in accordance with the principle of
disclosure through public comment procedures.
Implementation of public comment procedures in
developing Japans proposals
ltTelecommunications Councilgt
Deliberations upon technical conditions are
being made in accordance with the principle of
Frequency Assignment Plan
  • Table outlining conditions concerning allocated
    services, objectives of radio stations and use of
  • Publicizing via the Internet, etc.
  • In altering the Frequency Assignment Plan,
    transparency is maintained through inquiries to
    the Radio Regulatory Council, invitation of
    public comments, etc.

2110 2170 MHz bands (excerpts from the
Frequency Assignment Plan
Purpose of Radio Stations (5)
Conditions for Use of Frequencies (6)
Commercial Telecommunications Service
The use of this frequency band in the Fixed
Service is allowed only until 30 November 2002.
Commercial Telecommunications Service (Portable
Radio Communications)
An assignment to the Portable Radio
Communications is subject to Annex 7-2.
SPACE RESEARCH (deep space) (Earth-to-space)
SPACE RESEARCH (deep space) (Earth-to-space)
Public Service General Service
Commercial Telecommunications Service
Commercial Telecommunications Service
The use of this frequency band in the Fixed
Service is allowed only until 30 November 2002.
Commercial Telecommunications Service (Portable
Radio Communications)
An assignment to the Portable Radio
Communications is subject to Annex 7-2.
Commercial Telecommunications Service
The use of this frequency band in the Fixed
Service is allowed only until 30 November 2002.
SPACE RESEARCH (deep space) (Earth-to-space)
Commercial Telecommunications Service
Commercial Telecommunications Service Public

  Columns (1) through (3) in this Table indicate
the international frequency allocations contained
in the RR of ITU. Japan belongs to Region 3.
Examination Procedures for Application for Radio
Station License
  • Applications for radio stations are processed by
    a comparative examination system on a competitive
    basis or first-come-first-served basis.
  • Standards for comparative examination system are
    to be decided through procedures for inviting
    public comments and then made public.
  • Procedures for competitive application process

MPHPT accepts applications for radio station
licenses within a period of time as specified by
the Minister for Public Management, Home Affairs,
Posts and Telecommunications, and after this
period examines those applications accepted.
  • Base stations for use of telecommunications
  • Satellite stations for use of telecommunications
  • Broadcasting stations
  • Examples of competitive application process

Licenses of base stations for IMT-2000 (3G mobile
telephone) and land mobile stations (April
2000) Licenses of satellite stations for use of
mobile satellite systems in 2.5/2.6GHz bands
(October 2001)
Efficient and Transparent Allocation
Trends in use of radio spectrums

78.32 million stations
Number of radio stations
About 20 times
3.81 million stations
Mobile 75.80 million
About 700 times
Mobile 1.07 million
5.317 stations
Mobile 4,119
Fixed 90,000
Fixed 38,000
Fixed 593
Broadcasting 24,000
Broadcasting 30,000
Broadcasting 129
Other 2.68 million
Other 2.40 million
Other 476
December 2002
September 1950
March 1985
Realization of New Frequency Reallocation
Severe shortage of assignable frequencies
Appropriate response to new demand for radio
spectrums including wireless access is vital.
Large-scale and swift reallocations are vital.
In order to allocate necessary frequency bands
for new demand
ltEnsure transparencygt The amended Radio Law was
enacted on April 26, 2002, and promulgated
October 31, 2002.
ltSwift implementation of reallocationsgt Conclusion
will be reached within FY2003
(1) Surveillance on actual use of radio
spectrums, and publication thereof Prior survey
was commenced in late November 2002 All
frequency bands will be surveyed within a 3-year
period. (2) Expanded information disclosure
Launch of disclosure in March 2003 http//www.tele One million
accesses were recorded in 10 days after launch
(1) Compensation for existing licensees Where
a period until the reallocation is five years or
less, remaining book values of facilities are to
be compensated. (2) Desirable burden sharing for
compensation Appropriation of cost sharing of
new licensees and the Spectrum User Fees (new
licensees will shoulder at least 50)
Radio Policy Visions
Development of mid- to long-term vision(Radio
Policy Vision)
Develop a mid- to long-term vision (the Radio
Policy Vision) for drawing up a blueprint on
future radio spectrum use and for promoting
radio regulatory administration from the
viewpoints of the ICT strategy and international
strategy. (A report was compiled on July 30,
Development of the Radio Policy Vision
Circumstances surrounding radio administration
Policy targets in the future and promotion
measures thereof
Mid- to long-term perspectives
  • Socioeconomic roles of radio spectrums in the
  • Future perspectives of radio spectrum use
  • Future trends in radio spectrum use
  • Demand forecast for radio spectrums in the future

Radio Spectrum Auction(1)
(1) Merits/demerits of auction systems
  • Swiftness of frequency assignment procedures
    higher transparency clear reasons for winners
    and losers
  • Incentives for effective radio spectrum use
    through collection of prices
  • Contribution to the national financial basis
  • Skyrocketing of bid prices caused negative
    effects on managerial basis/investment of
    telecommunications carriers, affecting
  • For users, concern about an increase in charges,
    deteriorated service quality
  • Fear of radio spectrum monopoly by a carrier
    with abundant funding

Radio Spectrum Auction(2)
(2) Examples in Western countries
ltExample in the
ltExample in Europegt
  • Skyrocketing of bid prices
  • U.S. cellular telephones
  • Some 2.15 trillion yen
  • U.K. next-generation
  • mobile phone
  • Some 3.75 trillion yen
  • German next-generation mobile phone
  • Some 5 trillion yen

Nonpayment of winning bidders
Effects on managerial basics
  • Delay in service start-up
  • Emergence of areas without service
  • Mobile telephony service provision status
  • Cellular telephone (C block)
  • Implementation area ratio 17
  • Population coverage ratio 15
  • Credit rating was lowered due to increased debts
    and corporate bonds
  • British Telecom
  • the U.K.
  • Aa1?Baa1
  • lowered 6 ratings (Moodys)

Loss of IT industry vigor due to delay in
facilities investment
Introduction of auctions in Japan is
Desirable Radio Policy(1)
Construction of the worlds most advanced
wireless broadband environment
  • Advancement and expanded use of mobile
  • 330 to 340 MHz bandwidth frequencies shall
    be ensured within 5 years
  • 1.06 to 1.38 GHz bandwidth frequencies 4
    to 5 times the current frequencies
  • shall be ensured for a long term (10
    years after)
  • Advancement and expanded use of wireless LAN
    (mainly in 5GHz bands)
  • Maximum 480 MHz bandwidth frequencies
    shall be ensured within 5 years
  • For best-effort type wireless LAN systems,
    maximum 740 MHz bandwidth
  • frequencies about 5 times the current
    frequencies shall be ensured for a long
  • term (10 years after)
  • Advancement and introduction of systems for
    radio spectrum use toward
  • realization of ubiquitous networks
  • To appropriately respond to demands for
    RFID (ultrasmall chips),
  • the Quasi-Zenith satellites, etc.

Desirable Radio Policy(2)
Promotion measures for the mid- to long-term
frequency assignment and reallocation
  • Ensuring of transparency and fairness in
    licensing procedures
  • Consideration of new comparative
    examination system
  • Smooth and swift implementation of frequency
  • Implementation of frequency reallocation
    by making use of surveillance radio
  • spectrum use and disclosure system thereof
  • Consideration of a compensation scheme for
    existing licensees upon the
  • short-term reallocation
  • Flexible assignment of radio spectrums
  • Expansion of shared use (commons) for
    further diffusion of low-power
  • radio systems
  • Expansion of radio spectrum assignments
    considering differences in localities
  • Consideration of UWB introduction
  • Grouping of similar radio systems

Desirable Radio Policy(3)
Promotion of RD
  • Promotion of prioritized RD
  • RD on technologies for effective radio spectrum
  • Fostering of researchers in the radio field
  • Simplification of licensing procedures for
    short-term test station

Further strengthening of international strategy
  • Strengthening of industry-government-academia
    tie-ups toward WRC,
  • international standardization
  • Promotion of harmonization with Asian countries
  • Human capacity building in response to
    specialized technical studies at ITU
  • Ensuring of orbits and frequencies
  • Strengthening of international strategy for
    expanding the wireless industry

Desirable Radio Policy(4)
Preparation of safe and secure environment for
radio spectrum use
  • Promotion of bio-EMC
  • Promotion of EMC
  • Preparation of environments for radio spectrum
    use (ensuring of security)
  • Promotion of countermeasures against illegal
    radio stations, etc.

Promotion of smooth introduction of radio
  • Implementation of supplier's declaration of
    conformity system
  • Further promotion of MRA
  • Preparation of frameworks for international
    roaming of terminals

Mobile Communication Systems
Number of Subscribers to Cell Phones in Japan
January 200379.4million(including PHS)
Development of Mobile Phone Services
Voice telephony
Analog Digital
Multimedia (pictures,moving images)
Growing demand for multimedia
Changing Generations of Mobile-communications
Present status of IMT-2000
Wireless access system in JAPAN
Evolution of Mobile Internet Access Systems
High (Vehicle)
New element of systems beyond IMT-2000 (4G)
Enhancement of IMT-2000 (3.5G)
Existing Cellular (2G)
IMT-2000 (3G)
Low (Pedestrian)
Nomadic (indoor)
Wireless LAN/access (2.4GHz)
Wireless LAN/access (5GHz)
Wireless LAN/access (25GHz)
Wireless LAN/access (60GHz)
FWA(Fixed Wireless Access)
Transmission speed 0.1
1 10
100 1000
Systems beyond IMT-2000
Systems beyond IMT-2000
A long-term plan required for RD and
allocating frequency Discussion has already
begun within the ITU-R (WP8F) MPHPTs
Telecommunications Council has reported the basic
concept (June 2001)
Key Elements
1. Very high-speed communication (50-100Mbps)
equivalent to OPT fiber 2. All IP network
(IPV6) 3. Integration of cellular type and
wireless LAN type system. 4. Use of Software
Defined Radio technology (Note3G network
will not be replaced by new elements,
rather co-exists with them)
Conformity Assessment Scheme for
Telecommunications Equipment in Japan

Certification of Conformity forTelecommunications
Certification Procedure
- Connection to Public Telecommunications
Network - No-license required for Radio use etc.
Assessment of Conformity with Technical
Marking of Certification
  • conduct test

- accept test data
Scope of Conformity Assessment
Specified Radio Equipment (Radio Law)
Terminal Equipment (Telecommunications Business
  • Land Mobile Radio, - Wireless LAN

- Telephone,
  • Cellular phone
  • Wireless LAN

- Facsimile,
- Amateur Radio etc.
- Modem,
- PBX etc.
- PHS etc.
Effect of Certification of Conformityfor Radio
License Procedure for Certified Equipment
General License Procedure
Specified Radio Equipment
General Equipment
Conformity Assessment
No-license required
Blanket license
(ex. PHS, cordless phone)
(ex. Cellular phone base station)
(ex. Cellular phone terminal)
Issuance of license
Issuance of license
Beginning into use of the radio station
Technical Requirements for Radio Equipment
Technical Regulations for Radio Equipment ? To
prevent radio interference ? To utilize
radio spectrum equitably and efficiently
Standards for various services (Protocols,
Standards for additional services etc. )
Technical Requirements for cellular phone
Technical Regulations for Radio
Equipment (Frequency, Maximum power, Spurious
emissions, etc. )
Private Organization (ARIB)
Technical Regulations
Government (MPHPT)
Effect of Certification of Conformity for
Terminal Equipment
Conformity Assessment
Terminal Equipment
Inspection of Conformity with Technical
Regulations by Telecommunications Operators
No-inspection by Telecommunications Operators
Connection to Public Telecommunications Network
Technical Requirements for Terminal Equipment
Technical Regulations of Terminal Equipment
? To prevent network harm ? To prevent
nuisance of other users ? To clarify the
demarcation of responsibility between the
operators and users
Standards for various services (Protocols,
Modulation, etc. )
Technical Requirements for modems
Technical Regulations for Terminal
Equipment (Output power, Basic function of the
connection to the network, etc. )
Private Organization (TTC)
Technical Regulations
Government (MPHPT)
Designated Conformity Assessment Body
  • Criteria for Designation
  • Impartiality
  • Technical competence for assessment
  • Ability to execute service adequately etc.
  • Current Designated CAB
  • Telecom Engineering Center (TELEC)
  • - Radio Equipment
  • The Japan Amateur Radio Development Association
    Inc. (JARD)
  • - Amateur Radio Equipment
  • Japan Approvals Institute for Telecommunications
    Equipment (JATE)
  • - Terminal Equipment
  • DSP Research. Inc
  • - Radio Equipment, Terminal Equipment
  • TUV Rheinland Japan Ltd
  • - Terminal Equipment
  • Chemitox, Inc
  • - Radio Equipment

- -
Marking-Symbol and Identification number for
Telecommunication Equipment  
1. Specified Radio Equipment
Three-digit number as CAB ID
R 201 DX 123456
The Minister of MPHPT assigns CAB ID
numbers. The first digit 0,1Japan-CABs 2EC-CABs
, 3SG-CABs, 4 (to be confirmed) The second
and third digits01,02,03,04the order of
2. Terminal Equipment
T AC 02-0001 201
Review of Conformity Assessment Scheme
1 Background
  • Improvement of equipment quality
  • Upgrade of quality control by manufactures

Introduction of self-verification scheme
(so-called SDoC)
2 Legislation
  • Bills to amend Radio Law and Telecommunications
    Business Law submitted to Diet
  • Both bills under examination by Diet committee
  • Expect to be approved by June and to come into
    effect by the end of 2003

Overview of proposed SDoC Scheme
1 Outline
Manufactures may choose either a) SDoC
or b) CAB Certification
2 Equipment for SDoC
  • Radio equipment limited at initial stage
  • Terminal equipment almost all

3 Procedure and Effect
Manufactures shall a) Conduct test, b) Maintain
test records, c) notify to MPHPT, and d) Affix
Then, they may enjoy identical benefit of the
effect with CAB certification.
4 Monitoring and Post-regulation
  • MPHPT monitors conformity assessment
    situation through market surveillance and
    other measures.
  • Directions may be issued by MPHPT against
    violation of rules to improve assessment
    procedure, to prohibit marking, or to re-call
    equipment, if necessary.

Conceptual image of SDoC in Japan
Claim from consumer and market surveillance by
  • Self-verification of conformity to
    technical regulations
  • Only notification of SDoC to the MPHPT is
  • -Duty to record SDoC related document

Strict enforcement against violation
Penalties Directions
Radio Equipment eligible for SDoC system is
selected according to the possibility of
MRA Overview
Japan's approach to MRA
Binding Agreement
Foreign Administrations
Obligation Right should be legally secured
-Criteria -Supervision
Same criteria according to Japanese Law
Issue Certifications
MRA Status in JAPAN
  • JAPAN-EC MRA for Phase 1 and 2
  • - Under fully implementation
  • JAPAN-SINGAPORE MRA for Phase 1 and 2
  • - Under preparation for fully implementation
  • APEC Telecom MRA
  • - Under consideration

  • Parties to the agreement
  • Japan and 15 member states of EC
  • Target areas
  • Telecommunications Terminal Equipment Radio
  • Equipment, Electrical Products, Chemicals and
  • Pharmaceuticals
  • Signed in April 2001
  • Enter into force in January 2002
  • Joint Committee 1st meeting in March 2002
  • 2nd meeting in
    October 2002
    B.V.(Netherlands )

(No Transcript)
  • Target areas
  • JSEPA (FTA between Japan and Singapore)
    including MRA
  • Telecommunications Terminal Equipment
  • Equipment and Electrical Products
  • Signed in January 2002
  • Enter into force in November 2002
  • Joint Committee 1st meeting in March 2003

(No Transcript)
APEC Telecom MRA
  • Phase-1
  • Under consideration of acceptance of foreign
  • test data
  • Phase-2
  • Japan need a binding agreement for Phase-2.
  • Under consideration continuously
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