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Title: Why%20Semantic%20Web%20Services%20?

Why Semantic Web Services ?
New Opportunity for the Semantic Technology
Vagan Terziyan
Semantic Web Services Basis
The question we should answer today Why these
are necessary ?
Semantic Web Services
Web Services
Distributed Artificial Intelligence
Semantic Web
Service Oriented Design
Semantic Technology
Software Technologies
Software Technologies
Distributed Artificial Intelligence
Semantic Web and Web Services
Intelligent Web Applications
Object-Oriented SE
Semantic Web
Model-Driven SE
Semantic Web and P2P
Agent-Oriented SE
Agent Technologies
Agents and Web Services
Component-Based SE
Web Services
Semantic Web and Web Services
Web Services Orchestration and Interoperability
Semantic Technologies
Knowledge Engineering
Semantic Engineering
The Why Semantic Web Services? topic can be
natural part of different advanced courses
depending on curriculum and background of students
Service-Oriented SE
Web Services Engineering
Engineering Semantic Web Services
Why Semantic Web Services ?
Students Background and Expectations
Software Engineering Background
Telecommunication / Mobile Computing Background
Artificial Intelligence Background
Why Semantic Web Services?
Motivation to study techniques to design
Intelligent (adaptive, learnable) Web
applications based on Web-services
Motivation to study techniques for designing
semantically marked-up Web-services and
applications, which integrate heterogeneous
Motivation to study techniques for designing
personalized mobile context-aware interoperable
Lecture Notes and Textbook
Lecture Notes (available online)
Follow link http//www.cs.jyu.fi/ai/vagan/courses

Main recommended textbook
Dave McComb, Semantics in Business Systems,
Morgan Kaufmann, 2004.
Additional Reading(to prepare for research
seminars and theses work)
Dieter Fensel Ontologies A Silver Bullet for
Knowledge Management and Electronic Commerce,
Springer Verlag, 2001
Johan Hjelm, Creating the Semantic Web with
RDF, John Wiley, 2001
John Davies, Dieter Fensel Frank van Harmelen,
Towards the Semantic WEB Ontology Driven
Knowledge Management, John Wiley, 2002
Dieter Fensel, Wolfgang Wahlster, Henry
Lieberman, James Hendler (Eds.) Spinning the
Semantic Web Bringing the World Wide Web to Its
Full Potential, MIT Press, 2002
Michael C. Daconta, Leo J. Obrst, Kevin T. Smith
The Semantic Web A Guide to the Future of XML,
Web Services, and Knowledge Management, John
Wiley, 2003
Thomas B. Passin, "Explorer's Guide to the
Semantic Web", ISBN 1932394206, June 2004
Jeff Pollock and Ralph Hodgson, "Adaptive
Information Improving Business Through Semantic
Interoperability, Grid Computing, and Enterprise
Integration, Wiley Computer Publishing,
September 2004
M. Klein and B. Omelayenko (eds.), Knowledge
Transformation for the Semantic Web, Vol. 95,
Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and
Applications, IOS Press, 2003
Useful Research References
  • Rajasekaran et al., 2004 P. Rajasekaran, J.
    Miller, K. Verma, A. Sheth, Enhancing Web
    Services Description and Discovery to Facilitate
    Composition, Proceedings of SWSWPC, 2004
  • METEOR-S, 2002 METEOR-S Semantic Web Services
    and Processes, http//swp.semanticweb.org , 2002.
  • Ankolenkar et al., 2003 The DAML Services
    Coalition, DAML-S Web Service Description for
    the Semantic Web, The First International
    Semantic Web Conference -ISWC, Italy
  • Roman et al., 2004 D.Roman, U. Keller, H.
    Lausen, WSMO Web Service Modeling Ontology
    (WSMO), DERI Working Draft, 14 February 2004,

Where to find out more Web-Sites
  • OWL, OWL-S
  • http//www.w3.org/2004/01/sws-pressrelease
  • http//www.w3.org/2004/01/sws-testimonial
  • Semantic Web
  • http//www.w3.org/2001/sw/
  • http//www.semwebcentral.org/
  • Semantic Web Services
  • http//www.daml.org/services/
  • http//www.swsi.org/
  • http//www.wsmo.org

  • Background Information
  • Reminder Semantic Web
  • Reminder Semantic Technology
  • Reminder Service-Oriented Design
  • Why Semantic Web Services (6 reasons)
  • Conclusions
  • Additional Material Available
  • World-Wide Trends, Activities and Expectation
    Related to Semantic Web Services
  • Practical Training Opportunities for Students
  • Relevant Topics for Master Theses.

Full version with detailed content for grayed
topics is available in printed version of the
slides and in the Web http//www.cs.jyu.fi/ai/va
Background Information(from previous
lectures)Reminder 1 Semantic WebReminder 2
Semantic TechnologyReminder 3 Service-Oriented
Reminder 1Semantic Web
Semantic Web
  • The Semantic Web is an extension of the
    current Web in which information is given a
    well-defined meaning, better enabling computers
    and people to work in cooperation. It is the
    idea of having data on the Web defined and linked
    in a way that it can be used for more effective
    discovery, automation, integration and reuse
    across various applications.
  • From the W3C Semantic Web Activity statement
  • machine-readable descriptions of the
    content and capabilities of web accessible
    resources must be in addition to the
    human-readable versions of that information.
  • From the OWL Guide

The Semantic Web
The Semantic Web is a vision the idea of
having data on the Web defined and linked in a
way that it can be used by machines not just for
display purposes, but for automation,
integration and reuse of data across various
http//www.w3.org/sw/ The Semantic Web is
an initiative with the goal of extending the
current Web and facilitating Web automation,
universally accessible web resources, and the
'Web of Trust', providing a universally
accessible platform that allows data to be shared
and processed by automated tools as well as by
Semantic Web New Users
Semantic Web What to Annotate?
External world resources
Web resources / services / DBs / etc.
Web users (profiles, preferences)
Shared ontology
Web agents / applications
Web access devices
Smart machines and devices
Semantic Web vs Model-Driven Architecture
The Semantic Stack
RDF and OWL became standard
  • 10 February 2004 the World Wide Web Consortium
    announced final approval of two key Semantic Web
    technologies, the revised Resource Description
    Framework (RDF) and the Web Ontology Language
  •
  • http//www.w3.org/2004/01/sws-pressrelease.html.en

Adoption Dynamics
Confidence in ability to implement
Current State
Positive experiences of the power of OWL
People are now asking How questions as opposed
to Why and What.
Increase in attendance at trainings and more
evidence of coverage at conferences
Commitment to Action
Technology Roadmap for Applications
Semantic Communication
Semantic Search
Semantic Games
Semantic Annotation
Semantic Integration
Semantic Proactivity
Semantic Personalization
Web Services
Agent Technology
Machine Learning
Semantic Web (SW)
Reminder 2Semantic Technology
Semantic Technology
Semantic technology as a software technology
allows the meaning of information to be known and
processed at execution time. For a semantic
technology there must be a knowledge model of
some part of the world that is used by one or
more applications at execution time.
Semantic Technology
Semantics is the study of meanings. Semantic
Technologies are software technologies that make
this meaning more explicit. Semantic
Technologies represent meanings separately from
data, content, or program code, using the open
standards for the semantic web. The Semantic Web
initiative have recently (February 2004) anointed
RDF and OWL as W3C standards, which is expected
to bring a flood of products based on Semantic
If software is ever going to be able to
effectively interoperate (in ways that were not
explicitly preconceived and engineered), it will
be because applications share enough of the
semantics of their data elements, Doug Lenat,
President, Cycorp
What is Specific in Semantic Technology ?
  • Semantic technologies represent meaning of terms
    through connectivity of concepts.
  • Semantic model expresses multiple viewpoints.
  • Semantic models represent knowledge about the
    world in which the system operates. Several
    interconnected models could be used to represent
    different aspects of the knowledge. The models
    are accessible by applications at run time.
  • Semantic application uses knowledge models as
    part of its operation ("reasoning over the
    model). All the business rules logic is held in
    the models shared across applications.

Semantic Models
Taxonomy a simple Semantic Model
Ontology a richer Semantic Model
Relationships are explicitly named and
Homogeneous parent-child relationships
Object Model
Object Model in an object-oriented program is a
networked data set that describes the system
itself. In an object model, classes high in the
hierarchy express properties that are shared by
many system elements classes low in the
hierarchy describe properties that are specific
to small sets of elements. Therefore, it is a
model that reflects and describes properties and
functions of a specific system.
Data Model
Data Model describes the world outside of the
system. Many applications can share the same
database, but in reality the schema of the data
is typically fine-tuned to the needs of specific
application. In a data model, each table in the
schema dictates what this collection of records
has in common another schema denotes this for
other records. Differences are represented both
by individual records, as well as record types.
The relationships are held in special index
tables and are not explicitly defined.
Semantic Model
Semantic models are intended as a way for
different agents (applications and/or people) to
interoperate and to share meaning. Unlike object
models they describe the world that is outside of
any of the application that uses the model.
Furthermore, the variations and commonalities
semantic models represent are not of a single
entity or stakeholder. By definition semantic
models support multiple viewpoints. This makes
them especially suitable for solving
interoperability problems.
Knowledge Modeling Standards and Marketplace
Contrasting Semantic and Other TechnologiesModel
s and their Role
Traditional OO
Model-Driven Architecture
Knowledge/Rules Engineering
Semantic Engineering
Semantic Application Architecture
Typical Application Architecture
Semantic Application Architecture
Architecture for Semantic Interoperability
Interoperability is achieved by using a common
set of models describing business concepts and
their relationships
Semantic Interface
Enterprise Resource Planning
Customer Relationships Management
Product Data Management
Semantic technology could be used to encapsulate
business domain knowledge used by many
applications. This means that the applications
would become thinner as they no longer need to
have their own representation of business logic.
Instead they would need to have a way to consult
a knowledge model. Such access is made possible
through the use of semantic engines.
SoftwareNew Categories
  • Ubiquitous computingwireless networks
  • Netsourcingthe Web as a computing engine
  • Open sourcefree source code open to the
    computing community
  • Semantic Web (OWL, RDF, XML)
  • Agents
  • Also
  • Data mining
  • Grid computing
  • Cognitive machines
  • Software for nanotechnologies

According to Mieczyslaw M. Kokar Department of
Electrical and Computer Engineering Northeastern
Reminder 3Service-Oriented Design
Service-Oriented Design
  • SOD aims to provide enterprise business solutions
    composed of reusable services, with well-defined,
    published and standards-compliant interfaces. SOD
    provides a mechanism for integrating existing
    legacy applications regardless of their platform
    or language.

SOD is an evolution of COD. It provides a
distributed computing approach for integrating
extremely heterogeneous applications over the
Web-services are well suited to implementing a
service-oriented design. Web services are
self-describing and modular applications that can
be published, discovered, and invoked over the
Internet. Based on XML standards, Web services
can be developed as loosely coupled application
components using any programming language, any
protocol, or any platform.
COD is an emerging paradigm concerned with the
development of software intensive systems from
reusable parts (components).
Service-Oriented Software Engineering
  • Service-Oriented Software Engineering is an
    evolution of Component-Based Software
  • Multiple, possibly competing, service providers
    often realize a service description. The
    services, in turn, need to be "powered" by a
    functional pieces, of software that lends itself
    to a component-based view of the world. Within
    components we can find the design principles of
    object-orientation defining the internal
    structures of components. Thus, service modeling
    is about identifying the right services,
    organizing them in a manageable hierarchy of
    composite services (smaller grained often
    supported larger grained), choreographing them
    together for supporting a business process. On
    the provider side, these services are either
    allocated directly to component-based containers
    for realization of their functionality, or
    realized by adapting existing legacy
  • The service consumer doesn't have to be concerned
    with the implementation or realization of the
    service, as long as it supports the required
    functionality and quality of service (Consumer
    View). Alternatively, the Provider View offers a
    perspective on how to design the realization of
    the component that offers the services its
    architectural decisions and designs.

Layers of Service-Oriented Architecture
Layer 1, the bottom layer, describes operational
systems. This layer contains existing systems or
applications, including existing CRM and ERP
packaged applications, legacy applications, and
"older" object-oriented system implementations,
as well as business-intelligence applications.
The composite layered architecture of an SOA can
leverage existing systems, integrate them using
service-oriented integration. Layer 2, the
component layer, used container based
technologies and designs in typical
component-based development. Layer 3 provides
for the mechanism to take enterprise-scale
components, business unit-specific components,
and in some cases project-specific components and
provides services through their interfaces. The
interfaces get exported out as service
descriptions in this layer, where services exist
in isolation or as composite services.
Level 4 is an evolution of service composition
into flows or choreographies of services bundled
into a flow to act as an application. These
applications support specific use cases and
business processes. Here, visual flow composition
tools can be used for design of application flow.
Layer 5, the presentation layer, is usually out
of scope for an SOA. However, it is depicted
because some recent standards such as Web
Services for Remote Portlets version 2.0 may
indeed leverage Web services at the application
interface or presentation level. It is also
important to note that SOA decouples the user
interface from the components. Level 6 enables
the integration of services through the
introduction of reliable and intelligent routing,
protocol mediation, and other transformation
mechanisms, often described as the enterprise
service bus. Level 7 ensures quality of service
through sense-and respond mechanisms and tools
that monitor the health of SOA applications,
including the all-important standards
implementations of WS-Management.
Service-Oriented Analysis and Design
Existing development processes and notations such
as Object-Oriented Analysis and Design (OOAD),
Enterprise Architecture (EA) frameworks, and
Business Process Modeling (BPM) only cover part
of what is required to support the architectural
patterns currently emerging under the SOA
Service-Oriented Analysis and Design
Service-Oriented Analysis and Design is an
emerging architectural style for building
next-generation enterprise applications
interdisciplinary service modeling approach.
The Web Services Stack
Wire Protocol
Registry (UDDI)
provides a standard, flexible way to discover
where a Web service is located and where to find
more information about what the Web service does
provides a standard, flexible way to describe
what and how a Web service does what it does
provides a standard, flexible communications
interoperability at the lowest level
interoperability at the content level
dynamic discovery
Service-Oriented Analysis and Design
Core SOAD elements (besides OOAD, BPM and EA)
  • Service categorization and aggregation (service
    composition models, BPEL, UDDI)
  • Policies and aspects (WSDL, WS-Policy
  • Meet-in-the-middle processes (legacy
  • Semantic brokering (semantics of underlying
  • Service harvesting and knowledge brokering
    (knowledge management and lifecycle issue,
    service reuse).

Service-Oriented Analysis and Design
Current Web Service Protocol Stack
Semantic Grid
  • Semantic Grid as a service-oriented architecture
    in which entities provide services to one another
    under various forms of contract.
  • David De Roure, Nicholas R. Jennings and Nigel
    R. Shadbolt, The Semantic Grid A Future
    e-Science Infrastructure

Recommended book
  • Zoran Stojanovic , Ajantha Dahanayake,
    Service-Oriented Software System Engineering,
    Idea Group Publ., 2005

Why Semantic Web Services ?
  • Why Semantic Web Services?

Reason 1Limitations of Traditional Web Services
Web Services - Liberating the Machine
  • Web Services traditionally have a human interface
  • Required information is presented using forms
  • Humans interpret labels and enter required
  • Humans interpret resulting information

Limitations of Web-Services Technology
  • Manual Discovery
  • Manual Invocation
  • Manual (ad hoc) Mediation
  • Manual (ad hoc) Composition

Web Services - A New Paradigm?
  • Web Services
  • self-contained, self-describing, modular
    applications that can be published, located, and
    invoked across the Web
  • Which will allow
  • on the fly composition of new functionality
    through the use of loosely coupled reusable
    software components
  • decomposition and distribution of large-scale
    processing tasks into component tasks executed
    simultaneously across many devices

The Need for Semantics for Services
  • Semantic Web provides open, extensible, semantic
    framework for describing and publishing semantic
  • Benefits?
  • Improved interoperability
  • Automated service composition, discovery and
  • Access to knowledge on the internet

Why Semantic Web Services?
According to Dieter Fensel (Univ. of Innsbruck)
Bringing the Web to its full potential
Web Services
Minimization of any human intervention.
Web-services described in a formal, semantic
way, so programs can find, compose and invoke
them automatically in a task-driven way.
Lack of proper support for semantics. Human
intervention is needed to actually discover,
combine, and execute Web Services
Semantic Web
Why Semantic Web Services? The Basic Idea
  • Web Services lift the Web to a new level by
    integrating computational aspects.
  • Web Services are accessed by computer programs
    but these still need help by humans.
  • If these programs could find and invoke all the
    Web-services they need on their own, efficiency
    would raise dramatically and new applications
    would be possible.
  • gt Web-services should be described in a formal,
    semantic way, so programs can find, compose and
    invoke them automatically.

Why Semantic Web Services?
Process description Automatic service
discovery Automatic service composition Automa
tic service execution DYNAMIC SCALABLE
Why Semantic Web Services ?
  • Web Services can change the Web from a static
    collection of information to a dynamic place
    where different pieces of software can be
    assembled on the fly to accomplish users goals.
  • UDDI, WSDL and SOAP facilitate the means to
    advertise, describe and invoke Web services,
    using semi-formal natural language terms, but do
    not say anything about what services can do, nor
    how they do it in a machine understandable and
    processable way.

Semantic Web Services Definition
  • Self-contained, self-described, semantically
    marked-up software resources that can be
    published, discovered, composed and executed
    across the Web in a task-driven way .

S. Arroyo, R. Lara, J. Gomez, D. Berka, Y. Ding
and D. Fensel, Semantic Aspects of Web Services
Practical Handbook of Internet Computing, Chapman
Hall and CRC Press, 2004
Reason 2Automatic and Personalized Service
  • Why Semantic Web Services?

Service discovery problem
Service Provider
Service Consumer
I want to buy Das Kapital
This is what I provide
And pay by Credit Card
This is what I provide
This is what I provide
And I want to receive it at home
How to express what?

How to express the request?
Automatic Web Service Discovery
  • Involves the automatic location of Web services
    that provide a particular service.
  • Currently, this task must be performed by a human
    who uses a search engine to find a service, read
    the Web page, and execute the service manually.
  • With an ontology of services, the information
    necessary for Web service discovery could be
    specified so that ontology-enhanced (semantic)
    search engine will locate the services
  • Alternatively, a server could proactively
    advertise itself in the ontology with a service
    registry so that requesters can find it when they
    query the registry.

Upper Ontology of Services
  • A Service is a kind-of Resource in the Web, i.e.
    some Web resources provide services.
  • What does the service require of the user, or
    other agents, and provides for them? The
    answer to this question is in ServiceProfile
  • How does it work?
  • The answer to this question is in ServiceModel
  • How is it used?
  • The answer to this question is in

Service Provides some Function
Service Model
Service Grounding
Service Profile
Service Provides some Function
x1 movie_name x2 time x3 number_of_tickets x
4 seats preference x5 money
1 takes x1, x2, x3, x4 2 checks availability
of x3 tickets for the x1 movie, at x2 time, which
suits x4 constraint 3 finds one_ticket_prise
from the price list 4 calculates price for x3
tickets price
one_seet_price x3 5 takes x5 6 calculates
y2 ( y2 x5 price ) 7 gives y1, y2.
1 cinema address 2 cinema movie schedule 3
cinema cash-desk location 4 nock to the
cash-desk window and, when it opens, make your
order (X)
y1 movie tickets y2 change
Service Profile (OWL-S ontology)
Automated Service Discovery
Web Service
Service Ontology
Service profile
Service consumer
Semantic query for service
Semantic matchmaking engine
Sample of Semantic Matchmaking
Semantic Web What to Annotate?
External world resources
Web resources Web-pages/ Web-Services / Web-DBs
/ etc.
Web users (profiles, preferences)
Shared ontology
Web agents / applications
Service consumers profile can be considered as
an additional filter (context) for automated
service discovery
Smart machines and devices
Web access devices
Semantic Personalization
Service consumer
Semantic matchmaking engine
Consumers profile
Service profile
Web Service
Why Semantic Web Services?
Reason 3Automatic Service Invocation and
Execution Monitoring
Automatic Web Service Invocation
  • Involves the automatic execution of a Web service
    by a computer program or agent.
  • Currently, a user must go to the service Web
    site, fill out a form, and click to execute the
    service (or send a direct HTTP request with the
    appropriate parameters in HTML).
  • With service ontology, execution of a Web service
    is a collection of function calls. Ontology
    provides a declarative, computer-interpretable
    API for executing these calls. A software agent
    should be able to interpret the markup to
    understand what input is necessary to the service
    call, what information will be returned, and how
    to execute the service automatically.
  • Thus, ontology must provide declarative APIs for
    Web services that are necessary for automated Web
    service execution.

Automated Service Invocation and Execution
Execution of a Web service is a collection of
function calls. Ontology provides a declarative,
computer-interpretable API for executing these
Execution of a Web service is a collection of
function calls. Ontology provides a declarative,
computer-interpretable API for executing these
Service Ontology
A user may want to know during service execution
period what the status of the request is, or
plans may have changed, etc. Thus ontology should
also provide declarative descriptors for the
state of execution of services.
Web Service
Function calls
Should be able to interpret the markup
Why Semantic Web Services?
Reason 4Automatic Service Integration(compositi
on / orchestration / interoperation)
Automatic Web Service Composition (and
  • Involves the automatic selection, composition,
    and interoperation of Web services to perform
    some task, given a high-level description of an
  • Currently, the user must select the Web services,
    specify the composition manually, and make sure
    that any software needed for the interoperation
    is custom-created.
  • With ontology of Web services, the information
    necessary to select and compose services will be
    encoded at the service Web sites. Software can be
    written to manipulate these representations,
    together with a specification of the objectives
    of the task, to achieve the task automatically.
  • Thus, ontology must provide declarative
    specifications of the prerequisites and
    consequences of individual service use that are
    necessary for automatic service composition and

Web-Services Choreography
  • Web Services Choreography concerns the observable
    interactions of services with their users. Any
    user of a Web Service, automated or otherwise, is
    a client of that service. These users may, in
    turn, be other Web Services, applications or
    human beings.
  • A choreography description is a multi-party
    contract that describes the external observable
    behavior across multiple clients (services) in
    which external observable behavior is defined as
    the presence or absence of messages that are
    exchanged between a Web Service and it's clients.

Web-Services Choreography
Web-Services Composition
Composed service
Objective for a new service
Service profile
Shared ontology
Web Service
Why Semantic Web Services?
Reason 5Web-Services Proactivity and
Proactive Web-Servicesadding an agent to
service platform allows agent-based S2S
Goal-driven behavior
Service Platform
Service Agent
Learning Web-Services for Smart Devices
Devices with on-line data
Semantic Web Services(Corrected Definition)
Self-contained, self-described, semantically
marked-up proactive software resources
(components) that can be published, discovered,
composed and executed across the Web in a
task-driven way, which behave to increase their
utility and are the subject of negotiation and
Ermolayev V., Keberle N., Plaksin S., Kononenko
O., Terziyan V., Towards a Framework for
Agent-Enabled Semantic Web Service Composition,
International Journal of Web Service Research,
Idea Group, Vol. 1, No. 3 , 2004, pp. 63-87.
Why Semantic Web Services?
Reason 6Semantic Mediation Web-Services
Semantic Call Service
SEMA semantic profile based matching service
Conclusions Why Semantic Web Services ?
  • (1) To overcome limitations of traditional
    Web-Services Technology by integrating it with
    Semantic Technology
  • (2) To enable automatic and personalized service
  • (3) To enable automatic service invocation and
    execution monitoring
  • (4) To enable automatic service integration
  • (5) To enable learnable Web-Services with
    agent-based proactivity and service-to-service
  • (6) To enable semantic mediation of Web-Services.

Additional Material(available in printed version
of the slides and in the Web http//www.cs.jyu.fi
/ai/vagan/Why_SWS.ppt )
  • World-Wide Trends, Activities and Expectation
    Related to Semantic Web Services
  • Job Opportunities in the Field
  • Practical Training Opportunities for Students
  • Relevant Topics for Master Theses.

World-Wide Trends, Activities and Expectation
Related to Semantic Web Services
Distributed Intelligence a new wave of
Semantic Technology Market Forecasting
Semantic solution, services software markets
will grow rapidly, topping 60B by 2010.
Analysts and Media Coverage
" Products with evolutionary vocabularies
(ontologies) will win out.... Ontology-aware
software agents will succeed -- others will age
rapidly. Vendors and users that dont make
their systems evolutionary will fall behind and
lose out."
From, Forrester Research, "How Things Will
Communicate", 12/2001
... Semantics-based integration tools are
destined to become increasingly powerful and
capable, combined with web services
applications, the technology could doom
middleware as it is currently known.
From, CIO Magazine, August 2002.
Whats the big deal?
  • In U.S. Web Services Market Analysis, 2002 IDC
    predicts that Web services will become the
    dominant distributed computing architecture in
    the next 10 years. Web services will drive
    software, services and hardware sales of 21
    billion in the U.S. by 2007 and will reach 27
    billion in 2010.
  • Semantic Web Services promise easy access to
    remote content and application functionality,
    independently of the provider's platform, the
    location, the service implementation, or the data

  • Kuassi Mensah, Oracle

Semantic differences remain the primary
roadblock to smooth application integration, one
which Web Services alone won't overcome. Until
someone finds a way for applications to
understand each other, the effect of Web services
technology will be fairly limited. When I pass
customer data across the Web in a certain format
using a Web Services interface, the receiving
program has to know what that format is. You have
to agree on what the business objects look like.
And no one has come up with a feasible way to
work that out yet -- not Oracle, and not its
competitors... Oracle Chairman and
CEO Larry Ellison
Semantic Web Services Promised Challenge
  • When Semantic Web becomes widespread, the
    ability to deploy, discover and use online
    processing resources and devices, in a
    significantly automated fashion, will likely be
    viewed as a major transformation of the Web.
  • Work on Semantic Web Services is complementary
    with commercial work on Web Services, and
    provides greater expressiveness in describing
    services in a way that software agents can reason
    about, in support of more powerful and more fully
    automated approaches to Web service tasks such as
    service discovery, selection, invocation,
    execution, composition, monitoring, and recovery
  • David Martin, AI Center,
    SRI International

Word-Wide Correlated Activities
Semantic Web
Global, collaborative effort to construct an
open network of on-line systems hosting diverse
agent based services.
Extending current web by giving information a
given well-defined meaning, better
enabling computers and people to work in
Grid Computing
Utilizing the global Internet to
build distributed computing and communications
Producing standards for the interoperation of
heterogeneous software agents.
Web Services
Providing technologies for automated
communication, discovery and integration of Web
services, to enable on-the-fly software
composition through the use of loosely coupled,
reusable software components.
Samples of Relevant EU projects
  • OntoWeb
  • EU Network of Excellence (http//www.ontoweb.org)
  • network with more than 100 academic and
    industrial participants, which creates a
    technical roadmap of the next generation Web and
    provides guidelines to industrial and commercial
  • SWWS
  • Semantic Web and Web Services, EU 5th Framework
  • http//swws.semanticweb.org
  • researching for scalable mediation between
    different and heterogeneous services based on
    semantic-driven descriptions and business logic
  • SWAP
  • Semantic Web and Peer-to-Peer, EU 5th Framework
  • http//swap.semanticweb.org
  • provides a comprehensive study of the potential
    of Semantic Web and Peer-to-Peer for knowledge
    management and plan to provide an appropriate
    integrated software environment
  • ASG
  • Adaptive Services Grid, EU 6th Framework
  • http//asg-platform.org

More Samples
  • SEWASIE1 (Semantic Web and Agents in Integrated
  • fights the problem of access to heterogeneous
    data sources on the Web
  • SCULPTEUR2 (Semantic and Content-Based
    Multimedia Exploitation for European Benefit)
  • develops the technology to create, manipulate
    and manage cultural archives to make European
    cultural heritage accessible to all
  • MOSES3 (Modular and Scalable Environment for
    the Semantic Web)
  • sets out to create scalable ontology based
    Knowledge Management System and ontology-based
    search engine that will accept queries and
    produce answers in natural language
  • and many other projects
  • 1 http//www.sewasie.org
  • 2 http//www.sculpteurweb.org
  • 3 http//www.hum.ku.dk/moses/

Leading Research CentreDigital Enterprise
Research Institute (DERI)
  • www.deri.ie
  • www.deri.at

Knowledge Mgt
Semantic WebServices
  • A conceptual model for Semantic Web Services
  • Ontology of core elements for Semantic Web
  • a formal description language (WSML)
  • execution environment (WSMX)
  • derived from and based on the Web Service
    Modeling Framework WSMF
  • an SDK-Cluster Working Group
  • (joint European research and development

EuroLAN 2005, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
WSMO Web service description
  • complete item description
  • quality aspects
  • Web Service Management
  • Advertising of Web Service
  • Support for WS Discovery

Capability functional description
Non-functional Properties DC QoS Version
  • realization of functionality by aggregating
  • other Web Services
  • functional
  • decomposition
  • WS composition
  • client-service interaction interface for
    consuming WS
  • External Visible
  • Behavior
  • - Communication
  • Structure
  • - Grounding

Web service Implementation (not of interest in
Web Service Description)
Choreography --- Service Interfaces ---
EuroLAN 2005, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Capability Specification
  • Non functional properties (QoS, Dublin Core)
  • Pre-conditions What a web service expects in
    order to be able to
  • provide its service. They define conditions
    over the input.
  • Assumptions Conditions on the state of the
    world that has to hold before
  • the Web Service can be executed
  • Post-conditions
  • describes the result of the Web Service in
    relation to the input,
  • and conditions on it
  • Effects
  • Conditions on the state of the world that hold
    after execution of the
  • Web Service (i.e. changes in the state of the

EuroLAN 2005, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Choreography Orchestration
  • VTA example
  • Choreography how to interact with the service
    to consume its functionality
  • Orchestration how service functionality is
    achieved by aggregating other Web services

When the service is requested
When the service requests
Hotel Service
Date, Time
VTA Service
Flight, Hotel
Date, Time
Flight Service
EuroLAN 2005, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Samples of Conferences
  • 2004
  • SiCOP Semantic Interoperability Community of
  • Delphi Group On-Demand Enterprises (2004)
  • COFES-2004 Conference on Future of Engineering
  • SD-Forum 2004 on the West Coast
  • Enterprise Architecture 2004
  • DAMA Conference (2004)
  • Software Development West 2004
  • KM World and Intranet 2004
  • 2nd Annual Semantic Technology for eGovernment
    Sep 8th and 9th
  • 2005 (main event)
  • Semantic Technology Conference 2005, March 7-10,
    2005, Stanford Court Hotel, Nob Hill, San
    Francisco, CA
  • The first conference focused on the application
    of Semantic Technologies to Enterprise Systems
    and the Web

Main promise to software developers The
introduction of Semantic Technology to the
development process will profoundly change the
way software is modeled and built
Excellent Job OpportunitiesSamples of Mail-List
with Job Advertisements
OntoWeb (at least 2-3 job advertisements on
Semantic Web and Web Services Technologies in
Europe per week!) ontoweb-list_at_lists.deri.org
To register follow the link http//lists.deri.org
Semantic Web (at least 2-3 job advertisements on
Semantic Web and Web Services Technologies in
Europe per week!) seweb-list_at_lists.deri.org
To register follow the link http//lists.deri.org
Practical Training for Students
SmartResource Project
  • Ongoing Tekes Project SmartResource Proactive
    Self-Maintained resources in Semantic Web, Agora
    Center, University of Jyväskylä among other tasks
    studies and develops prototypes of Semantic Web
    Services for condition monitoring and remote
    diagnostics of smart industrial devices.
  • You can make your practical training within scope
    of the project together with the project team
    (send your inquiries to vagan_at_it.jyu.fi ).
  • More information is in
  • http//www.cs.jyu.fi/ai/OntoGroup/SmartRe

Relevant Master Theses Topics
Suggested Topics for Master Theses
  • Web-Service Ontology Engineering Tools
  • Semantic Wrappers for Integration of
    Heterogeneous Web-Services
  • Orchestration of Web Services based on Semantic
  • Software Reuse based on Semantic Web Services
  • Integrating Web Services using Multi-Agent
    Systems Coordination Approaches
  • Context-Aware Mobile Services based on Semantic
  • Semantic Web Services for Management Multimedia
    Content for Mobile Users.

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