Paleozoic Era Invertebrates - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Title: Paleozoic Era Invertebrates


1
Paleozoic Era Invertebrates
  • Chapter 12 Part 1

2
Paleozoic Geology
  • 4 transgressions
  • Major orogenies
  • Mountain ranges form/oceans close open
  • Pangaea forms

3
Pre-Paleozoic life
  • Stromatolites
  • Ediacaran fauna

4
End of the Paleozoic life
5
Cambrian climate
  • What is the climate like coming out of the
    Proterozoic?
  • Where are most of the continents located?

6
Cambrian
  • Animals with skeletons appear, abruptly
  • Cambrian explosion
  • Why?

7
Early Cambrian fossils
  • Shelly fauna
  • Several millimeters

8
Why develop a calcium skeleton in the Cambrian?
  • Precambrian oceans low in calcium carbonate
    (calcite)
  • Theory now rejected
  • How to disprove?

9
Why develop a calcium skeleton in the Cambrian?
  • Metabolic systems evolving
  • Organism needs to eliminate mineral matter
  • Secret excess ions as skeleton

10
Why develop an exoskeleton?
  • Advantages?

11
Cambrian predator and prey
  • Anomalocaris and trilobite

12
Marine communities
  • How things get around
  • Where they live
  • How they feed

13
Where marine animals live/how they move
  • Organisms live above seafloor are pelagic
  • Plankton are floaters
  • Nekton are swimmers

14
Where marine animals live/how they move
  • Organisms live above seafloor are pelagic
  • Plankton are floaters
  • Nekton are swimmers
  • Animal plankton zooplankton
  • Plant plankton phytoplankton

15
Where they live/how they move
  • Organisms live in/on seafloor are benthonic
  • Infauna (live in sediment)
  • Epifauna (animals)
  • Epiflora (plants)
  • Can be sessile (stationary)
  • Or mobile

16
Feeding style
  • Suspension feeders catch food from water
    (plants, animals, nutrients)
  • Sediment-deposit feeders ingest sediment
  • Herbivores plant eaters
  • Carnivore/scavenger meat eaters

17
Description
  • Benthonic, epifaunal, suspension feeder
  • Animal lives on seafloor and removes food from
    water

18
Cambrian marine community
  • Cambrian explosion
  • Experimentation!

19
Famous Cambrian fossil locations
  • Burgess Shale, British Columbia
  • Sauk Sea transgressing

20
  • Sands covered with black mud
  • Shale preserved benthonic, soft-bodied community

21
Why there?
  • Avalanche of mud off edge of coast trapped
    shallow-water creatures
  • Fine mud let soft-bodies be preserved

22
Trilobites
  • Appear in the Cambrian
  • Benthonic, mobile, sediment-deposit feeders

23
Trilobites
  • Member of arthropod phylum
  • Exoskeleton
  • Distinct parts to body
  • Jointed appendages

24
Trilobites
  • Member of arthropod phylum
  • Exoskeleton
  • Distinct parts to body
  • Jointed appendages

25
Trilobites
  • Max diversity by Late Cambrian

26
Trilobites
  • Extinction at end of Cambrian
  • Increased competition?
  • Increased predation?
  • Loss of habitat?
  • Cooling seas?

27
Cambrian Brachiopods
  • Two-shelled animals
  • Benthonic, sessile, suspension feeders
  • Inarticulate muscles held shells together

28
Inarticulate Brachiopod
  • Two-shelled animals
  • Benthonic, sessile, suspension feeders
  • Inarticulate muscles held shells together

29
Cambrian Archaeocyathid
  • Benthonic, sessile, suspension feeders
  • Built reef-like structures

30
Cambrian Archaeocyathid
  • Benthonic, sessile, suspension feeders
  • Built reef-like structures

31
Other fauna
  • Arthropod from Burgess shale

32
Other fauna
  • Short-lived evolutionary experiments
  • Anomalocaris
  • Up to 3 feet long
  • Major predator

33
Other fauna
  • Short-lived evolutionary experiments
  • Helicoplacus extinct 20 Ma after appeared

34
Marella, lt 1 inch
35
Halluciginia
36
Arthropod-like creature
37
Cambrianscaly slug
38
Paleozoic life
  • Cambrian Explosion
  • Exoskeleton
  • Experimentation
  • Animals to know
  • Trilobite
  • Brachiopod
  • Archaeocyathid
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