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The National Response System and the Incident Command System/Unified Command


ICS/UC at work: Professional Food Systems case study. Moving Forward. Sources ... Food Systems Case ... to the Professional Food Systems Response (cont'd) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The National Response System and the Incident Command System/Unified Command

The National Response System and the Incident
Command System/Unified Command
Federal On-Scene Coordinator
  • Responsible for providing access to federal
    resources and technical assistance
  • Coordinates all federal containment, removal, and
    disposal efforts and resources during an oil or
    hazmat incident
  • Serves as the point of contact for coordination
    of federal efforts with the local response
  • Coordinates, monitors, or directs response
  • Agency providing OSC might differ depending on
    the incident (EPA, USCG, DOD, DOE, or other
    federal agency)

National Response System Concept of Response
OSC Response Assets
  • Enforcement authorities to ensure that the
    responsible party (RP) cleans up the spill or
  • Immediate access to technical assistance and
    cleanup contractors if the response is beyond the
    RPs capabilities
  • Immediate access to Superfund and the OSLTF
  • Reimbursement of extraordinary oil or hazmat
    response costs incurred by state or local
  • Regional Response Teams (during major incidents)
  • Technical expertise from special federal teams
  • Special equipment

(No Transcript)
  • Purpose of the ICS/UC Technical Assistance
  • Background and authorities for NCP and ICS/UC
  • ICS/UC
  • Relationship between UC and ICS
  • Relationship between the RRT and UC
  • ICS/UC A response management tool
  • Responsibilities under ICS/UC
  • Advantages of ICS/UC
  • Participants in the UC under the NCP

Overview (contd)
  • OSC and RRT Planning Roles and Responsibilities
  • Reimbursement programs
  • Potential liability
  • UC implementation
  • Essential planning elements and ACPs
  • Initial UC meeting activities
  • ICS/UC at work Professional Food Systems case
  • Moving Forward
  • Sources of ICS information

Purpose of ICS/UC Technical Assistance Document
  • Increase awareness of ICS/UC
  • Improve coordination among responders during
    responses and exercises
  • Encourage interagency training programs
  • Encourage development of a common language and
    response culture
  • Help achieve consistent, effective, and efficient
    response among members of the NRS

Background and Authorities for NCP and ICS/UC
  • NCP developed to provide federal agency expertise
    to responses of oil spills and hazardous
    substance releases
  • Establishes the mechanism for the NRS
  • OPA enacted after Exxon Valdez to strengthen the
    NRS and provide better contingency planning
  • NIIMS-based ICS first designed to respond to
    forest fires
  • Under the NCP, the NRS functions as an ICS

Background and Authorities for NCP and ICS/UC
  • 1989 EXXON VALDEZ Report to the President
  • 1994 Revisions to the NCP
  • 1996 and 2002 NRT Technical Assistance Documents

Background and Authorities for NCP and ICS/UC
  • The NRT recommended that NIIMS-based ICS/UC be
    used for on-site response management during
    terrorist incidents
  • A recommendation from the NRT to the Department
    of Justice after TOPOFF 2000, the largest
    domestic terrorism exercise in the US to date
  • ICS/UC is an important element of the Homeland
    Security Presidential Directive 5 that addresses
    terrorist incidents

Incident Command System
  • Provides organizational structure for response to
    any single incident or multiple incidents without
    being hindered by jurisdictional boundaries
  • Integrates communication and planning by
    establishing a manageable span of control
  • Divides emergency response into five functions
    Command, Operations, Planning, Logistics, and

Unified Command
  • Component of an ICS
  • Responsible for overall management of incident
  • Directs incident activities and approves ordering
    and releasing of resources
  • Used whenever multiple jurisdictions are involved
    in a response effort

aThis usually includes local authorities as well.
When should a UC be used?
  • The UC may be used whenever multiple
    jurisdictions are involved in a response effort.
    These jurisdictions could be represented by
  • Geographic boundaries
  • Governmental levels
  • Functional responsibilities
  • Statutory responsibilities
  • Some combination of the above.

Participants in the Unified Command under the NCP
  • Under the NCP, the UC may consist of the
    pre-designated Federal OSC, State OSC, Incident
    Commander for the RP, the local emergency
    response Incident Commander, and/or other parties
    as appropriate
  • Local fire and police are frequently first
    responders to arrive on-scene
  • May establish an initial ICS
  • Relationships can vary depending on state laws
    and/or practices
  • Makeup of the UC is determined by
  • Specifics of the incident
  • Determinations outlined in existing response
  • Decisions reached during the initial meeting of
    the UC
  • Makeup of UC may change over time.

Participants in the Unified Command (contd)
  • Number of personnel should be kept at a minimum
  • Decision to include RP in the UC depends on its
    relationship with members of the ICS

Who is in the Unified Command?
  • Member organizations in the UC
  • Must have jurisdictional authority or functional
    responsibility under a law or ordinance for the
  • Must have an area of responsibility that is
    affected by the incident or response operations
  • Must be specifically charged with commanding,
    coordinating, or managing a major aspect of the
  • Must have the resources to support participation
    in the response organization

What if you are not a member of the UC?
  • Being in the UC does not mean that you are the
    only member of your agency on the response
  • There must be support staff on lower levels
  • Being a member in the UC is not the only place
    one can make a difference
  • Much of the real work occurs within the
    sections of the ICS organization
  • That is where you should be involved!

Duties of UC Representatives
  • Establish response objectives and priorities
  • Sustain a 24-hour-a-day, 7-day-a-week commitment
    to the incident
  • Ability to commit resources
  • Authority to spend funds
  • Agree on an incident response organization
  • Agree on the appropriate Command and General
    Staff position assignments
  • Commit to speak with one voice through the
    Information Officer or JIC
  • Agree on logistical support procedures
  • Agree on cost-sharing procedures

Relationship between ICS and UC

Relationship Between the RRT and UC
  • National Response System Concept of Response

ICS/UC A Response Management Tool
  • Assists the OSC in directing, monitoring, and
    coordinating response efforts
  • Responding organizations retain their authorities
    and responsibilities
  • Facilitates and coordinates the effective
    involvement of the various agencies
  • Creates link between the organizations responding
    to the incident

ICS/UC A Response Management Tool (contd)
  • Provides an avenue for response organizations to
    establish input in the decision-making process
  • Allows for information sharing both horizontally
    and vertically throughout the response
  • All parties must be integrated throughout the

Responsibilities of Command/General Staff under
  • Provide response direction
  • Coordinate effective communication and resources
  • Establish incident priorities
  • Develop mutually agreed-upon incident objectives
    and approve response strategies
  • Assign objectives to response structure
  • Review and approve incident action plans

Responsibilities of Command/General Staff under
ICS/UC (contd)
  • Ensure integration of response organizations
  • Establish protocols
  • Ensure worker and public health and safety
  • Inform the media

Advantages of ICS/UC
  • Uses a common language and response culture
  • Optimizes combined efforts
  • Eliminates duplicative efforts
  • Establishes a single command post
  • Allows for collective approval of operations,
    logistics, planning, and finance activities
  • Encourages a cooperative response environment
  • Allows for shared facilities, reduced response
    costs, increased efficiency and fewer
    communication breakdowns
  • Permits responders to develop and implement one
    consolidated Incident Action Plan

How do responders prepare for ICS/UC
  • Planning and exercising at the regional and area
    levels using the ACP process.
  • Practice using an ICS/UC to help responders
    understand their roles and responsibilities and
    prepare them to work together in the ICS.
  • The OSC and the Area Committee are responsible
    for developing, adopting, and implementing a
    response management system, such as ICS/UC,
    through the Area Contingency Plan (ACP).
  • Using a NIIMS-based ICS/UC as the model for
    response management in the ACP to ensure an
    effective response

Essential Planning Elementsfor Implementing
  • Formalized structure accepted by all parties
  • Well-defined functions and responsibilities
  • Designated individuals for each function
  • Defined and accepted reporting mechanisms
  • Established methodology for developing IAP and
    Site Safety Plan
  • Participant commitment to respond as a team
  • Training and familiarity with ICS/UC addressed in
  • Defined relationships to entities outside ICS but
    relevant to the NRS

Area Contingency Plans and ICS/UC
  • Area Contingency Plans should consider
  • Jurisdictional responsibilities
  • Roles of all levels of government in the Unified
    Command (i.e., federal, state, and local)
  • Financial agreements
  • Information dissemination
  • Communications
  • Training and exercising
  • Logistics
  • NRS organizational components
  • Lessons learned

OSCs Planning Roles and Responsibilities
  • Oversee development of the area contingency plan
  • Coordinate, direct, and review work of other
    agencies, Area committees, RPs and contractors
  • Coordinate with state and local response agencies
  • Periodically conduct drills of spill removal
  • Monitor the actions of the RP and state and local

RRT Planning Roles and Responsibilities
  • Develop and coordinate preparedness activities
    before a response is taken
  • Coordinate assistance and advice to OSC during
    response actions
  • Provide guidance to Area Committees to ensure
    inter-area consistency and consistency of
    individual ACPs with the Regional Contingency
    Plan and the NCP

OSCs Response Roles and Duties
  • Direct, monitor and coordinate response actions
  • Monitor the actions of the RP and/or local and
    state governments and provide support and advice
    where appropriate
  • Explain the OSCs authority at a response during
    both the planning and response phases
  • Implement an ICS at the beginning of a response,
    OR be prepared to integrate into an existing,
    properly functioning, ICS during a response
  • May establish any of the functions of an ICS by
    assigning responsibility to another individual
  • Provide access to appropriate response trust funds

The Role of the Regional Response Teams

National Response System Concept of Response
Implementation During an Incident Initial
Unified Command Meeting
  • Initial meeting is an opportunity for open
    discussion to
  • Set priorities and objectives
  • Present considerations
  • Develop a collective set of incident objectives
    and priorities
  • Adopt an overall strategy
  • Select a Unified Command spokesperson
  • Establish a JIC, as needed
  • Decide on initial membership of UC

Initial Unified Command Meeting Step 1 Set
Priorities and Objectives
  • National Response Priorities specifically for oil
    response established by the NCP for the NRS
  • Preserve safety of human life
  • Stabilize the situation to prevent the event from
  • Minimize adverse effects to the environment
  • Address these three priorities concurrently
  • Each responding entity will likely have other
    significant priorities

Initial Unified Command Meeting Step 2 Present
  • UC members discuss their organizations
    authorities, equipment, skills, experience, and
    response capabilities
  • Constraints and capabilities must be shared openly

Initial Unified Command Meeting Step 3 Develop
a Collective Set of Incident Objectives
  • Identify what the Unified Command as a whole
    needs to accomplish
  • Develop a set of incident-specific objectives for
    the response
  • Objectives should be measurable, assignable,
    reasonable, and time-related
  • Helps to provide focus to the growing response
  • Includes establishing and agreeing upon
    acceptable priorities

Initial Unified Command Meeting Step 4 Adopt
an Overall Strategy
  • Determine how to accomplish the objectives
  • Request preferred strategies for later approval
    as necessary

Initial Unified Command Meeting Step 5 Select
a Unified Command Spokesperson
  • Establish a JIC
  • A single spokesperson is typically needed to
    speak for the Unified Command
  • One of the members of the Unified Command
  • Point of contact and a single voice to the
    incident management team
  • Spokesperson at internal and external briefings
  • Final procedural check

ICS/UC at WorkProfessional Food Systems Case
  • Leak in accumulator assembly valve released
    anhydrous ammonia into the PFS building and the
    outside environment
  • Approximately 4,000-5,000 pounds of anhydrous
    ammonia contained in the system was leaking at
    4-5 pounds per hour
  • Leak was slowed by initial responders, but not
    completely contained
  • Ammonia gas accumulated in the building,
    presenting difficulties for the responders

ICS/UC at Work Professional Food Systems Case
Study (contd)
  • Bedford Volunteer Fire Company and the Roanoke
    Valley Regional HAZMAT Response Team were first
    to respond
  • Established an ICS
  • Began response actions
  • FOSC initiated response from off-site by
    deploying ERT
  • FOSC merged into the existing ICS structure

Responding Organizations
  • US EPA Region III Removal Response Section
  • VA DES
  • Bedford Volunteer Fire Company/Rescue Squad
  • Forrest Volunteer Fire Company/Rescue Squad
  • USCG Atlantic Strike Team
  • Roanoke Valley Regional Hazardous Materials
    Response Team
  • Bedford Police Department
  • Professional Food Systems
  • USDA
  • Roy F. Weston Inc. SATA
  • City of Bedford, VA
  • Webb Technologies

Responding Organizations (contd)
  • Franklin County Fire Department
  • Evington Fire Department
  • Smith Mt. Lake Fire Department
  • Lyn/Dan Heights Fire Department
  • Stuartsville/Chamblissberg Fire Department
  • Huddleston Fire Department/Rescue Squad
  • Chamblissberg Fire Department
  • Moneta Fire Department/Rescue Squad
  • Boonesboro Fire Department/Rescue Squad
  • Montvale Fire Department
  • Saunders Fire Department
  • Good Rescue Squad
  • Campbell Rescue Squad

Effective ICS/UC Actions to the Professional Food
Systems Response
  • OSC immediately able to identify and integrate
    roles and positions for USCG-AST and contractor
  • Coordination between and presence of FOSC and
    state OSC allowed for seamless operations
  • ICS/UC informally applied to allow UC to
    effectively manage diverse responding agencies

Effective ICS/UC Actions to the Professional Food
Systems Response (contd)
  • Early and continued presence of the USCG-AST, the
    EPA ERT, and the SATA team provided continuity
    throughout the response
  • Early coordination with local, state, and federal
    response teams
  • Representatives from all appropriate levels of
    government in the UC expedited coordination
    efforts with other agencies
  • Close and early coordination with the ERT and
    SATA team

Moving Forward
  • There are four keys to effective implementation
    of the ICS/UC as a tool of the NRS
  • Learn the NRS and the ICS
  • Plan ACP process
  • Start Early
  • Practice - Federal, state, and local officials
    should plan and conduct exercises
  • Develop a sense of team work and trust

Sources of ICS Information
  • NRTs Minimum Essential ICS Training Elements
  • NRTs Federal Natural Resource Trustees and the
  • Annex 3 of the NRT ICP Guidance
  • USCGs Incident Management Handbook
  • USCG HQ ICS web site
  • RRTs I and II ICS in Oil Spill Response web site
  • NSFCC ICS web site
  • FEMAs and the U.S. Fire Administrations
    Computer-assisted Instruction for ICS
    Self-study Course
  • USCGs OSC2 On-scene Command and Control
  • Setting Objectives in a Unified Command The
    Cost of Leadership,1999 IOSC Proceedings
  • Incident Command System, Fire Protection
    Publications, Oklahoma State University
  • NWCG ICS National Training Curriculum modules
  • NOAA Electronic ICS Forms ICSFORMS Solution
  • Unified Command The Mechanism for Ensuring a
    Comprehensive, Coordinated Response, 1995 IOSC
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