REVIEW FOR TAKS Chemistry Classes - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

1 / 160
About This Presentation

REVIEW FOR TAKS Chemistry Classes


REVIEW FOR TAKS Chemistry Classes – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:99
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 161
Provided by: classroom7


Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: REVIEW FOR TAKS Chemistry Classes

REVIEW FOR TAKSChemistry Classes
  • The TAKS test covers 8th grade Earth Science, 9th
    grade IPC and 10th grade biology concepts and
  • Answer questions, and take notes on vocabulary
    you dont remember.

Matter is divided into 3 types
  • Elements
  • Compounds
  • Mixtures

The 3 types can be further separated in two
  • Pure Substances
  • Elements are the simplest pure substances
  • Mixtures are not pure substances and we will deal
    with them in a few minutes.
  • Compounds which are formed when two or more
    elements share electrons or become ions that
    attract other elements.

4 Basic Types of Elements
  • Metals found on the left and center of the Table
    of Elements
  • Non-metals found on the right side of the Table
    of Elements
  • Metalloids found along the stair-step line
  • Synthetic made in the laboratory and not yet
    found in nature many of the Actinide and
    Lanthanide series and very large elements.

Where are the metal elements?
Left of the Stair-step line!
Properties of Elements - Metals
  • Metals are
  • Conductors
  • Lustrous
  • Electron donors
  • Malleable
  • Ductile

Where are the nonmetals?
To the Right of the stair step line, and
Properties of Nonmetals
  • Nonmetals are brittle, insulators, electron
  • Usually form negative ions (except H)
  • Many are gases at room temperature
  • Found to the right of the stair-step line

23 According to the periodic table, which element
most readily accepts electrons?
  • A Fluorine
  • B Nitrogen
  • This is a nonmetal, so it accepts electrons but
    it will also share them as in NO31-.
  • C Arsenic
  • This is a metalloid, so it only sometimes accepts
  • D Aluminum
  • This is a metal so it donates electrons.

Fluorine only needs 1 electron to complete its
shell of 8, so it will accept it from any other
element very very very easily. This periodic
property increases as you move up and left in the
table, except for the Noble Gases.
Use the Table provided! What do the numbers mean?
This is the atomic number. It is the number of
protons in a single atom of this element. By the
way, its also of electrons.
The symbol for this element.
This is the atomic mass, it is the number of
protons neutrons, or the mass of the nucleus of
an atom.
22.990 sodium
This is the name of the element.
Diatomic Elements Nonmetals that come as
  • 7 Elements are di- (2) atomic (atoms)
  • The easy way to remember them is by the name
  • Br I N Cl H O F

3 Which of the following groups contains members
with similar chemical reactivity?
  • To have similar chemical properties of any kind,
    they must be in the same Group or Family.
  • Groups are columns, so the answer would be
  • B
  • A Li, Be, C
  • B Be, Mg, Sr
  • C Sc, Y, Zr
  • D C, N, O

Chemical Reactivity
  • Metals increase in reactivity left and down.
  • Nonmetals become more reactive up and to the
  • Most reactive metal is?
  • Most reactive nonmetal is?

Names of Compounds Ionic
  • Ionic compounds consist of cations (positive
    ions) and anions (negative ions).
  • A Roman numeral in parentheses, preceded by the
    name of the element, is used for elements that
    can form more than one positive ion. This is
    usually seen with metals.
  • Fe2 Iron (II) Cu Copper
    (I)Fe3 Iron (III) Cu2 Copper

Ionic compounds naming cont.
  • The -ide ending is added to the name of a single
    element when it becomes an ion of that element.
    Oxide, Nitride, Sulfide etc.
  • Some polyatomic anions have a names ending in
    -ite for the lower of oxygens and ate for
    more oxygens.
  • NO2 nitrite NO3 nitrate

Covalent Compounds Names are the Formulas
  • These are nonmetal to nonmetal compounds.
  • The name tells you the formula.
  • Carbon dioxide
  • 1 C and 2 O
  • CO2

Special Names of Compounds Acids and Bases
  • Acids that are two elements are named
    Hydro-nonmetal ic Acid such as
  • HCl hydrochloric acid
  • Group -ate becomes ic and -ite becomes ous.
  • H2SO3 sulfurous acid
  • H2SO4 sulfuric acid
  • Bases end in the hydroxide anion OH-
  • They are named with the metal and hydroxide.
  • NaOH is sodium hydroxide

15 An advertisement claims that patients can be
cured of the common cold in 48 hours by vitamin C
tablets with secret mineral supplements. In a
scientific experiment to test these claims, which
data can be considered irrelevant? A The amount
of vitamin C in each tablet B The severity of the
patients cold symptoms C The chemical formula
for vitamin C D The amount of time before
symptoms improve
What doesnt matter to the test?
  • A The amount of vitamin C in each tablet
  • This should be a controlled variable!
  • B The severity of the patients cold symptoms
  • This would be very hard to control, but a large
    experimental group should allow for differences
  • C The chemical formula for vitamin C
  • Compound formulas NEVER change so this is our
    answer it is irrelevant!!!
  • D The amount of time before symptoms improve
  • This is what we are testing, it is most relevant.

Changes in Matter Physical or Chemical?
  • Physical changes are changes in the state of
    matter. They do not change the substance.
    (Melting, boiling, condensing, freezing, cutting)
  • Chemical changes are reactions that result in new
    products with new properties.

Changes in Matter Physical, Chemical or
  • Physical changes do not change the substance.
    The state of the matter may change, but it keeps
    its own properties.
  • Cutting a piece of wood does not change the wood,
    it is simply smaller.
  • Chemical changes are also called chemical
  • When a different substance is produced than what
    was present at the start, a chemical change has

Nuclear Changes Fission and Fusion
  • Fission occurs when the nucleus of an atom ejects
    particles and energy when hit by a subatomic
    particle such as a neutron.
  • This also causes a release of extreme energy and
    is the basis of atomic energy plants and bombs.
  • Fusion occurs when the nucleus of one atom is
    joined by the nucleus of another.
  • This is the reaction that occurs on the sun and
  • It produces extreme energy release.

Chemical Reactions
  • Since matter can not be created or destroyed,
    chemical reactions must be balanced in terms of
  • The amount of mass you start with must be equal
    to the mass of the products.
  • Reactants ? Products
  • 100g total 100g total

39 According to the law of conservation of mass,
how much zinc was present in the zinc carbonate?
Since matter can not be created or destroyed in
chemical reactions, the mass on both sides of the
arrow must be equal. So 64g 192g 256g and
152 g Zinc 256g There must be 104g of Zinc.
Answer C.
  • A 40 g B 88 g C 104 g D 256 g

Chemical Equations
  • Whole numbers written in front of formulas are
    called coefficients. For example, 4 C6H12O6
    indicates that there are 4 molecules of glucose
  • To determine how many total atoms of each element
    are present, multiply the coefficients by the
    subscripts for each element.
  • 4 C6H12O6 would contain 24 atoms of carbon
  • (4 x 6), 48 atoms of hydrogen (4 x 12), and 24
    atoms of oxygen (4 x 6).

To balance equations
  • The number of atoms of each type of element on
    the reactant side (left of the arrow) must be
    equal those on the product side (right side of
    the arrow).
  • 2 H2 O2 2 H2O
  • There are 4 hydrogen atoms on the left (2 H2) and
    4 hydrogen atoms on the right (2 H2O)
  • There are 2 atoms of oxygen (O2) on the left and
    2 atoms of oxygen on the right (2 H2O). When a
    subscript is missing, it is understood to be 1.

Balance the equation below, the boxes should get
the coefficients.
Which element does not have the same number of
atoms on both sides? Oxygen. It has 2 on the
reactant side and 3 on the product side. If we
put a coefficient of 2 in front of PbO, we will
now have 4 O and 2 Pb on the right. By placing
a coefficient of 2 in front of the reactant, we
have 2 Pb and 2 x 2 O. That means it is
balanced! Answer?
The 3 types can be further separated in two
  • Pure Substances
  • Elements are the simplest pure substances
  • Compounds which are formed when two or more
    elements share electrons or become ions that
    attract other elements.
  • Mixtures are not pure substances. Each part of a
    mixture keeps its own properties, and can be
    separated out by a physical change.

Separating Mixtures Physical Changes
  • Separation of mixtures could be
  • Magnetic removal (if there is Fe, Ni, Co)
  • Filtration (if there are large particles)
  • Hand sorting particles
  • Decanting (pouring off the less dense liquid)

Also to separating mixtures
  • Evaporation changing from a liquid to vapor
    state leaves behind the other component.
  • Distillation
  • Process used to remove vapor from liquid by
  • Great for separating two or more liquids which
    have different boiling points.

So, what is a suspension or colloid?
  • Colloids have small particles that are not
    visible by just looking. An example would be
  • However, they show the Tyndall Effect (see the
    laser light line).
  • They can not be separated by filtering.
  • Suspensions have larger particles, often visible
    in size.
  • The particles can be filtered out.
  • It scatters light No Tyndall Effect.
  • If left undisturbed, the particles will settle
    to the bottom.

Solutions 2 parts
  • S o l v e n t - t h e m o s t
    a b u n d a n t s u b s t a n c e
    i n t h e s o l u t i o n .
  • S o l u t e - t h e l e a s t
    a b u n d a n t s u b s t a n c e
    i n t h e s o l u t i o
    n .
  • Homogeneous You can not see any particles of
    either part!

The three methods to increase the rate of
solution for a solid are?
  • Heat it!
  • Crush it!
  • Stir it!

17 All of these can affect the rate at which a
solid dissolves in water except
  • A decreasing air pressure
  • B stirring the water
  • C increasing the temperature of the water
  • D using larger crystals of the solid

The three methods to increase the rate of
solution for a solid are?
  • Heat it! C
  • Crush it! D slows it
  • Stir it! B
  • So this eliminates choices B, C D
  • Which will NOT change it?
  • A
  • Answer choices were
  • A decreasing air pressure
  • B stirring the water
  • C increasing the temperature of the water
  • D using larger crystals of the solid

Solubility Factors What will dissolve?
  • Solubility Rules
  • 1. All sodium, potassium, and ammonium salts are
  • 2. All silver, lead, and mercury salts are
  • 3. All carbonates, sulfides, and hydroxides are
  • 4. All nitrates and sulfates are soluble except
    calcium sulfate and barium sulfate.

How much solute will dissolve?
  • A solubility curve shows the amount of each
    solute that will dissolve in 100g H20 at each
  • Saturated is on the line.
  • Unsaturated is below the line.
  • Supersaturated is above the line.

Grams solute/100 g H2O
  • 51 At which temperature do KBr and KNO3 have the
    same solubility?
  • A 27C
  • B 48C
  • C 65C
  • D 80C

Try this one!
49 According to the graph, about how
much hemoglobin would be saturated at an
O2 pressure of 7.3 kPa? A 32 B 67 C 89 D 92
pH is a measure of the Strength of Acids Bases
  • Acids have 0-6.99 pH
  • Bases have 7.01-14 pH
  • Remember because A begins the alphabet and zero
    begins numbers
  • Litmus turns red in acids and blue in bases
  • Phenothalein turns pink in a base and stays clear
    in acids.

Higher pH levels means?
  • 33 Two clear solutions are placed in separate
  • beakers. The first solution has a pH of 4, and
    the pH of the second solution is unknown. If
  • the two solutions are mixed and the resulting
  • pH is 5, the second solution must have
  • A fewer suspended solids
  • B a lower temperature
  • C more dissolved salt (NaCl) particles
  • D a higher concentration of OH ions

Solutions are homogeneous and have no suspended
Nothing is mentioned about temperature so B is
NaCl solutions are neutral so have no effect on
Living things are . . .
  • Organized into cells.
  • Grow and develop.
  • Respond to the environment.
  • Use energy
  • Reproduce

  • This is the maintenance of the normal operating
    conditions of an organism.
  • Control of body temperature, pulse rate, blood
    pressure, blood sugar, urine output, digestive
    absorption, metabolism rate, growth rate and
    hormone levels all need to be maintained.

Structural and Integumentary System
  • Bones
  • Provide support structure
  • Make blood cells
  • Allow movement
  • Provide muscle attachments (tendons)
  • Ligaments hold joints together

Integumentary System
  • 3 types of muscles
  • Smooth, involuntary
  • Striated, voluntary
  • Cardiac, heart muscle somewhat like both above
  • Allow for movement and are attached by tendons
    above and below joints
  • Ligaments hold bones to bones and stabilize joints

Nervous System
  • Consists of brain and spinal chord
  • Somatic, you control and choose
  • Autonomic, allows parts to keep functioning
    without you knowing
  • Nerve cells send and receive information . .

Nervous System
  • Nerve cells have 3 parts
  • Axon Sends signal
  • Cell Body controls cell functions
  • Dendrite Receives signal from another
  • Synapse space between cells
  • Neurotransmitters cross the synapse to carry

Endocrine System
  • Chemical messages sent through the blood
  • Slow change and response compared to nervous
  • Long term maintenance or scheduling in the
    organism such as mating patterns
  • Chemicals, in the form of hormones and enzymes
    are released from glands as chemical messages

Digestive System
  • This is how we intake all the vitamins, minerals,
    protein, lipids, carbohydrates and water we need.
  • Mechanical Digestion begins in the mouth, it is
    grinding and the breaking up of food

Digestive System
  • Saliva has enzymes that begin digestion of
  • Mouth connects to the esophagus, then to the
    stomach, which churns the food with HCl to help
    break it up
  • The stomach dumps into the small intestine where
    90 of digestion takes place.
  • Enzymes, which are biological catalysts, from the
    pancreas and bile from the liver and gall bladder
    break down the food into useable parts.

Digestive System
  • Absorption of the amino acids to make proteins,
    glycol and fatty acids to make lipids occur in
    the small intestine
  • Water is reabsorbed in the large intestine where
    bacteria E. coli help with solid waste

8 Some bacteria benefit mammals by helping with
  • Kingdom Bacteria has beneficial and harmful
  • The best answer here is H, since digestion
    systems of mammals contain bacteria.
  • Bacteria found in the respiratory system usually
    result in illness, which would trigger the
    defenses, not help them.
  • F growth
  • G defense
  • H digestion
  • J respiration

Respiratory System
This is how O2 is taken in and CO2 is expelled.
Oxygen is required for cell respiration, and
carbon dioxide is a waste product.
Nose Sinus Mouth Pharynx Larynx Trachea
Lungs Bronchi
Respiratory System
  • The diaphragm contracts, expanding the chest to
    fill the lungs with air, rich in O2.
  • Lungs are full of alveoli (little sacs), where
    the blood vessels have high levels of CO2.
  • Oxygen diffuses in, carbon dioxide diffuses out,
    and the diaphragm relaxes causing you to exhale.
  • Air is filtered, warmed and moistened in the
    nose, mouth and pharynx.

Excretory System
  • This system is responsible for cleaning the blood
    and getting rid of liquid wastes.
  • The kidneys, located near the lower back, are the
    primary filters, taking out excess water and
  • Ureter tubes connect the kidneys to the bladder,
    which stores urine until it is passed out through
    the urethra.

16 A portion of the human excretory system is
represented in the diagram. The order in which
urine flows through the system is
  • F urethra ? bladder ? urethra ? kidney
  • G ureter ? kidney ? bladder ? urethra
  • H kidney ? ureter ? bladder ? urethra
  • J bladder ? urethra ? kidney ? ureter

Name the organs in order, they are Kidney
Ureter Bladder Urethra So it is answer H
Circulatory System
  • This system helps to connect many other systems
    as it provides the transport of substances from
    one organ to another.
  • Every cell must touch a blood vessel to take in
    what it needs and get rid of waste.
  • Arteries carry blood away from the heart and
    veins carry it back to the heart.
  • The heart pumps the blood

Circulatory System
  • The top parts of the heart receive blood Atrium
  • The bottom two are very muscular and pump the
    blood Ventricles
  • Two contractions, right ventricle pumps to the
    lungs, the left ventricle pumps to the body and

29 Nutrients from digested food move from the
digestive system directly into the
  • A circulatory system
  • B integumentary system
  • C excretory system
  • D endocrine system

Endocine system does not transport anything. So
. . . Excretory system gets rid of waste CO2 and
H2O, not food. So . . Integumentary system
holds organs and tissues in place. So. . .
The Circulatory System carries everything to
every cell, so it is . .
Immune System
  • Your immune system protects you from infections
    and illness
  • Your first line of defense is mucus, hair, and
  • It protects you in a general way nonspecific

Immune System
  • Two types of immunity
  • Natural you got sick, and now your body
    recognizes it. This is permanent.
  • Acquiredvaccination or immunization shot this is

6 Most viruses infect a specific kind of cell.
Which of the following are infected by the human
immunodeficiency virus (HIV)?
  • F Helper T cells
  • G Liver cells
  • H GABA-receptor cells
  • J Red blood cells

Look for key words in the question to help.
Ask yourself, which cell type deals with
  • F Helper T cells
  • G Liver cells
  • H GABA-receptor cells
  • J Red blood cells
  • Answer? Helper T cells.
  • All the rest are body cells with specific jobs
    that do not relate to immunity.

Eukaryotic Cells
This is a typical animal cell with its organelles
Cell Part Function
Plant Cells have it, Animal Cells dont
  • Chloroplasts organelle responsible for
  • Cell Walls a structure outside of the membrane
    to provide support
  • Very large vacuoles to store extra water

This is a typical plant cell
  • It contains a cell wall, chloroplasts, a very
    large vacuole.
  • Why do plants need large vacuoles?
  • ANSWER This is where food and water are stored.

  • 52 Compared to annual rings of trees that have
    experienced years of sufficient rainfall, the
    annual rings of trees that have experienced a dry
    period will
  • F be softer
  • G grow at a faster rate
  • H be thinner
  • J photosynthesize at a faster rate

These would indicate more water, not less
Transporting into Cells -
Diffusion Osmosis is the diffusion of H2O
  • Passive movement from an area of high
    concentration to an area of low concentration is
  • The diffusion of water is called osmosis.
  • In cells, the membrane controls what goes in and
    out of the cell.

What is Active Transport?
  • Energy, stored in ATP is used to move selected
    molecules into a cell, even if they are at a low

  • 34 When a sea urchin egg is removed from the
    ocean and placed in freshwater, the egg swells
    and bursts. Which of these causes water to enter
    the egg?
  • F Coagulation
  • G Sodium pump
  • H Active transport
  • J Osmosis

Means to clump together Incorrect
Sodium is not being moved Incorrect
The egg would not use energy to do this since it
kills the cell.
This is the movement of water from an area of
high concentration (the fresh water) to low
concentration (inside the Salt Water Urchin Egg)
Genetic Code
  • All of the information to make a new organism is
    contained in the chromosomes of the cell.
  • Chromosomes are made of tightly coiled DNA or
    Deoxyribonucleic Acid.
  • Chromosomes contain genes each of which codes for
    a single protein. There are hundreds to
    thousands of genes on each chromosome.

Cell Reproduction
  • The Cell Cycle is the life cycle of a cell. It
    has two parts. Mitosis is the process of cell
    division and Interphase is the process of growing
    and functioning.
  • During mitosis the cell separates into two new
    identical sister cells, with the same chromosome
    number as the original.

26 If a cat has 38 chromosomes in each of its
body cells, how many chromosomes will be in each
daughter cell after mitosis?
  • F 11
  • G 19
  • H 38
  • J 76

Mitosis is the normal division of any body cell,
so the chromosomes replicate exactly and then
separate into two identical cells. So the answer
  • DNA is composed of nucleotides, each has 3 parts.
  • A sugar, a phosphate and a nitrogen base make up
    a nucleotide.
  • There are 4 different nitrogen bases in DNA,
    Adenine and Thymine, Cytosine and Guanine. They
    always pair to form the rungs of the ladder.
  • The process of copying DNA is called Replication

The Stuff of Life
  • The structure of DNA is called a double helix, or
    twisted ladder
  • The base Guanine always pairs to Cytosine.
    Adenine pairs to Thymine.
  • Mutations are caused when these pairings are not
    made correctly.

What is the DNA base pair rule?
24 If the template of a strand of DNA is 5'
AGATGCATC 3', the complementary strand will be
In DNA A to T and T to A, C to G and G to C
  • Base pair each letter by the above rule.
  • So the answer is
  • F
  • 5' AGATGCATC 3

38 In DNA, which of the following determines the
traits of an organism?
  • F Amount of adenine
  • G Number of sugars
  • H Sequence of nitrogen bases
  • J Strength of hydrogen bonds

This is only one of the 4 nitrogen bases, it
cant code for anything by itself.
Every nitrogen base is attached to a sugar, so
this is not correct.
Hydrogen bonds strength does not change enough to
code for trait changes.
  • DNA is so important, it doesnt leave the
    nucleus. So RNA acts as a note taker and
    messenger by carrying the instructions from the
    nucleus to the ribosome where the proteins are
    made. This is called TRANSCRIPTION
  • RNA has no Thymine, it has Uracil as its 4th
  • When its time to make a new cell part . . . .

Translation . . . Code into words
  • mRNA takes the code from the nucleus to the
    Ribosome where it pairs with tRNA to put Amino
    Acids into chains called proteins.
  • mRNA (codon) pairs to tRNA (anticodon) in the
    ribosomes This protein building is called

Transcription and Translation
  • F The amino acid sequence would be shorter than
  • G The identity of one amino acid would change.
  • H The amino acid sequence would remain unchanged.
  • J The identities of more than one amino acid
    would change.

26 The chain above represents three codons. Which
of the following changes would be expected in the
amino acid chain if the mutation shown above
What does this chart represent?
To read the chart, on the left, find the first
letter, and match to the second letter from the
top 4, then using the right side letters come
back to the box from the second letter to read
the amino acid.
It says codons, and has U instead of T, so it
must be mRNA.

AGA mutated to ACA
  • According to the codon chart AGA codes for the
    amino acid Arganine.
  • ACA codes for the amino acid Threonine.
  • So it would change 1 amino acid in the sequence.

Evolution Change over time.
  • There are natural variations in all populations.
  • As climate changes occur, and as pressures in
    terms of food, space, shelter and predation
    occur, some variations allow a species to
  • The members who survive, reproduce causing the
    change to become a characteristic of the species.

2 Because of this animals adaptations, it would
be most successful at
  • F competing with birds
  • G making its own food
  • H hiding from predators
  • J running very rapidly

And the answer is?
  • H hiding from predators.
  • Its not a plant, so it cant make food.
  • It has no wings, so it can not compete with
  • Although it has long legs, it doesnt seem
    balanced for running.

Speciation Separation into new species.
  • Geographic isolation can cause two different
    natural variations to become prominent causing 2
    separate species.
  • Reproductive isolation can have the same effect.

During a severe drought a dry lake was explored
for fossils. The diagram represents the fossils
uncovered and the layers they were in. According
to this information, this area was once a
  • A forest that was replaced by a freshwater lake
  • B freshwater lake that was replaced by a desert
  • C saltwater sea that was replaced by a forest
  • D freshwater lake that was replaced by a forest

The oldest fossil shows forest trees, and the
newest fossils are fish. So a forest gave way to
a body of water.
Homologous vs. Analogous Structures
  • Homologous means they have the same origin, but
    may be different now.
  • Example, the upper arm bones in dogs, cows, cats
    and monkeys.
  • Analogous means they have the same function but
    come from different origins.
  • Example, bird wings and wings of bats.

When cells reproduce out of control
  • Tumors are formed. This is what is called
  • It may or may not be malignant (kind that

Genetics How traits are inherited
  • Father of Genetics is Gregor Mendel, he
    experimented with pea plants.
  • Dominant traits always are visible, and are
    represented by capital letters.
  • Recessive traits are hidden unless both alleles
    are the recessive one (Homozygous)
  • At least one pair of alleles determines the trait
    in genetic inheritance.

Punnett Squares
  • d d
  • D Dd Dd
  • d dd dd

D d D DD Dd d Dd
Heterzygous Homozygous Recessive
Heterzygous Heterozygous
  • D d
  • D DD Dd
  • D DD Dd

D D d Dd Dd d Dd
Homozygous Dominant Heterozygous
Homozygous Recessive Homozygous Dominant
Phenotype is what you see
  • Phenotype refers to what is visible the
    dominant trait or the recessive trait.
  • How do you know the phenotype?
  • LOOK!!

Genotype actual combination of alleles
  • Only 3 possibilities
  • BB Homozygous Dominant
  • Bb Heterozygous
  • bb Homozygous recessive
  • Must look at inheritance pattern to find out.

Pedigree shows the Family Tree
Since one son has the trait, and the other did
not have it, their father must be normal, and he
must have inherited it from his mother, which
makes her a carrier.
Ecology Study of the relationships among
living things
  • Symbiosis is a close relationship between two
    living things.
  • When both are helped it is called mutualism
  • When one is helped and there is no effect on the
    other it is called commensulism
  • When one is helped and the other is harmed it is
    called parasitism

All energy on the earth comes from the sun.
  • 35 Clown fish are small reef fish that seek
    protection from predators by sheltering
    themselves among the stinging tentacles of sea
    anemones. Clown fish are very territorial and can
    potentially scare off predators of sea anemones.
    This relationship is an example of --
  • A neutralism
  • B mutualism
  • C parasitism
  • D commensalism

This is not a type of symbiosis Incorrect
Since both are helped, it is of mutual benefit or
Neither is harmed so this is incorrect
Means only one is being helped and the
relationship has no effect on the other also
Food Chains One of many feeding relationships
in a community
  • Arrows in a food chain show the direction of
    energy flow.
  • This is not the only feeding relationship for
    these organisms.
  • When several or all of the food relationships are
    shown its a FOOD WEB.

  • 37 Which of these groups of organisms would most
    likely have accumulated the largest concentration
    of a long-lasting chemical pollutant in their
  • A Phytoplankton
  • B Zooplankton
  • C Lake trout
  • D Gulls

Since the Gulls are at the top of the food web,
they would have the highest accumulation of
everything but energy.
18 Energy used by producers in a grassland food
web is provided by-
Used by producers
  • F sunlight
  • G photosynthesis
  • H oxygen
  • J carbon dioxide

This is a process, not an energy source. H and J
are elements which are types of matter, not
energy. So our answer should be F
10 Rule Only 10 of the energy moves to the
next level
Water Cycle
  • Precipitation (rain and snow) fall on plants and
  • Plants respire and water evaporates back into
  • The ground filters the water run-off into the
    lakes where it evaporates again.

  • 21 The diagram shows
  • physical changes that
  • occur in the water cycle. Which of these shows
  • condensation?
  • A Q
  • B R
  • C S
  • D T

Run Off of ground water
Carbon Cycle
  • Glucose C6H12O6 is produced by plants, eaten by
  • Photosynthesis
  • Animals and plants exhale CO2 which is taken in
    by plants to make glucose
  • Cellular Respiration

Nitrogen Cycle
Rock Cycle
Mans Effects on the Environment
  • Ozone O3 is a protective layer at the top of the
  • However, when it occurs near the ground, it is
    very harmful to all living things, it is SMOG

Mans Effects on the Environment
  • More than 90 of fresh water is locked in ice at
    the polar caps and in glaciers.
  • Much of the fresh water is polluted by land
    run-off, dumping of wastes and excess heat
    directly into lakes, oceans and rivers.

Mans Effects on the Environment
  • Global warming, also called the Greenhouse Effect
    is caused by excess burning of fossil fuels and
    destruction of our oxygen producing protista in
    the oceans, and deforestation on land. Less
    plants means less oxygen and more CO2.

54 Which of these activities can help conserve
natural resources?
Reduce, Reuse, Recycle
What is the phrase for ecology?
  • F Recycling cardboard boxes
  • G Washing small loads of laundry
  • H Driving large cars
  • J Building wooden fences

Yes! Recycle! Not saving water! Wasting fuel!
Cutting down trees that give oxygen and clean
49 Which of these classifications is most
The taxonomy divisions from largest to smallest
are Kingdoms (5) Phylla
Class Order Family
Genus species
  • A Family
  • B Genus
  • C Phylum
  • D Order

Binomial Classification
  • Living things are given a two-part scientific
    name. The first part is the Genus which is
    capitalized, and the second part is the species
    which is never capitalized.
  • Scientific names are used because the same plant
    or animal in different places may have different
    common names.
  • Only those in the same genus can viably breed.
  • Your scientific name is Homo sapien

12 The bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana, is most
closely related to the
  • F spotted chorus frog, Pseudacris clarki
  • G Asian flying frog, Polypedates leucomystax
  • H northern leopard frog, Rana pipiens
  • J African bullfrog, Pyxicephalus adspersus

Related in biological terms means family, genus,
  • Genus is always a capital letter, species is
    lower case.
  • Most closely related would be in the same genus,
  • F spotted chorus frog, Pseudacris clarki
  • G Asian flying frog, Polypedates leucomystax
  • H northern leopard frog, Rana pipiens
  • J African bullfrog, Pyxicephalus adspersus

Animal Kingdom - Multicellular heterotrophic
Kingdom Plantae -Multicellular and autotrophic
(Means that all plants do photosynthesis
Kingdom Fungi -Multicellular and some
single-cells. Most of these organisms are
Kingdom Protista
  • Largest source of food and oxygen for the entire
  • Includes plankton, amoeba, and ciliates.
  • Described as Unicellular Eukaryotes

Prokaryotic Kingdom
  • Phyllum Eubacteria normal bacteria found
    everywhere. Some are helpful(are important
    decomposers) and some cause illness. Described
    as Unicellular Prokaryotes
  • Phyllum Archeobacteria bacteria found in
    extreme environs such as ocean floor volcanos, or
    salty or low oxygen places. Described as
    Unicellular Prokaryotes from extreme

Quick Physics
  • Average speed distance/time
  • Acceleration is change in speed/ time
  • Force Mass x acceleration (kg x m/s2)
  • Work Force (Newton) x distance (meter)
  • Power (watts) Work (Joule)/time (sec)

  • Is defined as the Ability to do Work
  • Energy has Two
  • Types

Kinetic (Energy of Motion) and Potential (Stored
Kinetic Energy
  • KE ½ mv2
  • A moving car has the ability to do work on the
    light pole if it hits it.

Potential Energy 2 possibilities
  • Gravitational PE -Object lifted to some height
  • Elastic PE An object that is stretched or
    compressed (springs)

Use the formula page! GPE mgh
  • 41 What is the potential energy of the rock?
  • A 59,900 joules
  • B 64,600 joules
  • C 93,100 joules
  • D 121,600 joules

m 95 kg g 9.8 m/s2 h 100 m 95 kg x
9.8 m/s2 x 100 93,100 joules C
Law of Conservation of Energy
  • Energy can change forms,
  • but is not created nor destroyed
  • Loss in one form
  • gain in another form

14 Which process best shows the conversion of
solar energy to chemical energy?
  • F Prevailing winds causing windmills to spin
  • This is thermal (wind) to mechanical (spin)
  • G Green plants making their own food
  • This is solar (photosynthesis) to chemical (food)
  • H Uranium producing heat to make steam
  • This is nuclear (radioactive U) to thermal
  • J Tides generating electricity
  • This is mechanical (tide of water moving a
    generator) to electrical

Definition of a Force
  • A Force is a push or a pull

Balanced Force
  • A force that produces no change in an objects
    motion because it is balanced by an equal,
    opposite force.

Unbalanced Forces
  • Are forces that results in an objects motion
    being changed.

Newtons FIRST Law
  • Law of Inertia
  • An object at rest or in motion remains that way
    until acted upon by an unbalanced force.

27 A ball moving at 30 m/s has a momentum of 15
kgm/s. The mass of the ball is
  • A 45 kg
  • B 15 kg
  • C 2.0 kg
  • D 0.5 kg

Formula Page says that Momentum Mass x Velocity
So 15 kg.m/s M x 30 m/s solving for M it
Newtons SECOND Law
  • Force Mass x Acceleration
  • The greater the force on an object in a single
    direction the greater the acceleration in that
    direction will be.

45 If a force of 100 newtons was exerted on an
object and no work was done, the object must have
  • A accelerated rapidly
  • B remained motionless
  • C decreased its velocity
  • D gained momentum

Work Force x Distance Work 0 Force 100
N so 0 J 100 N x d distance must be 0 It
did not move!
11 The frog leaps from its resting position at
the lakes bank onto a lily pad. If the frog has
a mass of 0.5 kg and the acceleration of the leap
is 3 m/s2, what is the force the frog exerts on
the lakes bank when leaping?
  • A 0.2 N
  • B 0.8 N
  • C 1.5 N
  • D 6.0 N

Formula chart says Fma, m is mass in kg, a is
acceleration in m/s2. So, .5 kg x 3 m/s2 1.5 N
Newtons THIRD Law
  • Law of Action/Reaction
  • For every action force there is an equal and
    opposite reaction force.
  • Motion is the result of unbalanced forces on the
    same object.

There are 6 simple machines .
  • Lever
  • 1st Class with the fulcrum in the middle
  • 2nd Class with the resistance in the middle
  • 3rd Class with the effort in the middle
  • FRE are the lever classes three.
  • Pulley,
  • Wheel and Axle,
  • Inclined Plane,
  • Wedge and
  • Screw

  • Compression Waves move in the same direction as
    their vibration.
  • Sound waves, caused by a disturbance, carried
    through a medium are of this type.
  • Transverse Waves vibrate 90o from the direction
    of travel.
  • All electromagnetic waves are in this group.
  • Visible light and the color spectrum are all
    transverse waves.

The Electromagnetic Spectrum
Shortest to Longest
Gamma X rays Ultraviolet Visible
Infrared Micro- TV Radio Radiation
Light Light
Radiaion waves Waves
Light Spectrum
  • Visible light is a small part of the
    electromagnetic spectrum.
  • Violet is the shortest wavelength, red the
    longest of visible light.
  • As wavelength increases, frequency?

Answer Decreases!
50 A solar heater uses energy from the sun to
heat water. The heaters panel is painted black
  • F improve emission of infrared radiation
  • G reduce the heat loss by convection currents
  • H improve absorption of infrared radiation
  • J reduce the heaters conducting properties

Convection is movement of heat in fluid matter,
heat loss would be from a solid exterior Not G
Painting a substance will not change its
conductivity That is a property of metals. It
would have to be made of a different substance to
change that Not J
Emission is giving off we want to absorb Not F
Speed frequency x wavelength
  • All radiant energy travels at the same speed.
  • 3 x 108 meters/sec
  • This is the speed of light through space.
  • Radio waves and nuclear energy waves travel at
    the same rate

Heat- Transfer of Thermal Energy
Three forms of heating
  • 1. Conduction-direct contact, a pot heating on a
  • 2. Convection- heating by circulating fluids,
    heating from a fireplace
  • And. . .

3. Radiation Transfer of Electromagnetic (E.M.)
  • Objects are heated when
  • exposed to infrared radiation
  • The suns heats the earth by
  • sending infrared radiation
  • along with other forms of E.M.
  • energy 93,000,000 miles through empty space

Heat moves by conduction in solids since the
particles are close together and vibrate. . .
  • 43 Heat convection occurs in gases and liquids.
    Heat convection does not occur in solids because
    solids are unable to
  • A absorb heat by vibrating
  • B transfer heat by fluid motion
  • C emit radiation by reflecting light
  • D exchange heat by direct contact

Solids do radiate heat to their surroundings
Ohms LawVoltage Current x Resistance
Standard American Current 110V _at_ 15 or 20 Amps
Power, measured in Watts is P VI
Circuits 2 types
  • Series circuits are the most simple.
  • One (1) path for the current to travel.
  • Contains an energy source, a path, and a load
    (something for it to do, like a lamp)

Circuits 2 types
  • Parallel circuits provide more than one path for
    the current to travel.
  • Most circuits are parallel, since if one lamp
    goes out, the others can stay lit.

  • Which switches, if opened, will
  • cause the light bulb to stop glowing?
  • Q
  • R
  • H. S
  • J. T

It is the only switch in series to both the
battery and light.
  • Work using a force
  • for a distance
  • W F x d
  • The work done by forces on an object changes in
    energy for that object.
  • Work and Energy are measured in Joules
  • 1 Joule1 Newton meter

  • 42 How much work is performed when a 50 kg crate
    is pushed 15 m with a force of 20 N?
  • F 300 J
  • G 750 J
  • H 1,000 J
  • J 15,000 J

Use the formula Work Force x distance Force
of 20 N x 15 meters 300 Joules Answer
Machines make work easier
  • The ideal mechanical advantage of a machine (IMA)
    of a machine is the number of times the output
    force is larger than the input force IMAFout/Fin
  • A machine can only make this happen by moving the
    input force through a farther distance than the
    output force
  • Fin dinFout dout

Mechanical Advantage and Efficiency, Why Not
100 ?
  • Mechanical advantage is how much your force is
    multiplied by the machine
  • Efficiency is
  • Actual MA/Ideal MA
  • Never 100 due to FRICTION

  • 48 The diagram shows an electric motor lifting a
    6 N block a distance of 3 m. The total amount of
    electrical energy used by the motor is 30 J. How
    much energy does the motor convert to heat?
  • F 9 J
  • G 12 J
  • H 18 J
  • J 21 J

Work Input 30J done by the motor
Work Output Resistance Force x Resistance
Distance Workout 18J 6N x 3m
The difference is lost as heat due to friction,
which is 30J 18J 12J Answer G
Universal Law of Gravitation
  • Gravity varies depending on two factors

1) the mass of the object doing the pulling, and
2) the distance from the center of that object
On Earth gravity 9.8 m/s/s
  • For every second that an object falls its speed
    increases by 9.8 m/s

Weight Mass (m) X acceleration due to gravity (g)
  • Weight Unit of mass kg
  • Unit of acceleration m/s/s
  • Unit of weight Newton
  • 1 Newton about ¼ pound

Good Luck!
Write a Comment
User Comments (0)