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Nation Building and Nationalism


Lafayette noticed this when he visited in 1824 ... During his presidency, land was peacefully acquired ... Strove for peaceful expansion. J.Q.A.'s Accomplishments ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Nation Building and Nationalism

Chapter 9
  • Nation Building and Nationalism

  • Life in the 1820s was very different from that of
    the 1780s and 1790s
  • Lafayette noticed this when he visited in 1824
  • Then on 4 July 1826, the 50th anniversary of the
    Declaration of Independence, both Thomas
    Jefferson and John Adams died
  • The old world was ending and a new one beginning

  • Between 1760 and 1880, our population grew by
  • Our population had doubled every 23 years
  • European population doubled every 100 years
  • We can attribute this to both natural increase
    and immigration
  • There was a baby boom right after the revolution

  • Availability of land encouraged men and women to
    marry young
  • The more children one had, the more hands there
    were to work the land
  • As fewer children died during childhood, parents
    started to limit the size of their families
  • By 1830, 1/3 of the population was under the age
    of 10

  • Immigration also caused a rise in population
  • U.S. ideals seemed to promote immigration
  • Asylum for the oppressed
  • All were welcome
  • Some came for political reasons
  • Others came for economic reasons
  • Citizenship only given to whites, mostly Europeans

James Monroe
  • During his presidency, land was peacefully
  • This land offered new opportunities to those
    willing to move
  • He served 2 terms, 1816 1824

  • Monroes time in office was known as the Era of
    Good Feelings
  • Monroe was a
  • A Virginian
  • Eccentric in dress
  • Successful as president
  • Had political good luck
  • Got to preside over the calm before the next
  • John Quincy Adams was his Sec. of State

John Quincy Adams
  • Son of John and Abigail Adams
  • Diplomat to Russia
  • Senator
  • Later became the 6th president of the United
  • After the presidency, he bacame a member of the
    House of Representatives
  • Brilliantly successful as Secretary of State
  • Strove for peaceful expansion

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J.Q.A.s Accomplishments
  • Gained political distance from Europe by
    acquiring territory from Spain
  • Gained fishing rights in the Atlantic
  • Got land through negotiation, not war
  • Rush-Bagot Treaty, 1817
  • An agreement with Britain to limit Great Lakes
    Naval Forces 1st disarmament treaty

  • Convention of 1818
  • Fixed the U.S. Canadian border west to the
    Rocky Mountains at the 49th parallel

  • Adams-Onis Treaty or the Transcontinental Treaty,
  • Spain ceded Florida to The U.S. for 5 million
  • It defined the southern border of the Louisiana
  • It gave the U.S. territorial claims extending to
    the Pacific
  • Map, p. 257

  • Monroe Doctrine, 1823
  • Written by John Quincy Adams
  • Issued in response to the independence of Latin
    American republics
  • Initially, Britain made a proposal for joint
    action with U.S. Adams rejected this insisting
    that U.S. must act independently to avoid foreign
  • Announced by Monroe in his last message to

  • Monroe said there was to be no more colonization
    of the Western Hemisphere by European nations
  • There was to be no intervention by Europe in the
    affairs of the independent New World nations
  • This was to be the foundation of American foreign
    policy in the Western Hemisphere
  • We werent really strong enough in in 1823 to
    enforce this

Missouri Compromise
  • In 1819 the question of slavery was brought
    before the Congress when Missouri asked to be
    admitted to the Union as a slave state
  • At this time, there were 22 states in the Union
  • 11 states were free Massachusetts, Connecticut,
    Rhode Island Vermont, New Hampshire, New York,
    New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana,

  • 11 states were slave Virginia, Maryland,
    Delaware, Kentucky, Tennessee, North Carolina,
    South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi,
  • Political balance had been kept by admitting
    alternately from 1802 1819, a slave and then a
    free state
  • Even with the 3/5 ratio operating in the slave
    states favor, they only had 81 votes in the
    House of Representatives free states had105

  • And the population of the North seemed to be
    growing faster than that in the South
  • To preserve sectional balance, the South looked
    to its equal vote in the Senate
  • February, 1819, when the House was considering
    admitting Missouri to the Union as a slave state,
    Representative James Tallmadge, Jr. of New York
    offered an amendment

  • The amendment prohibited the further introduction
    of slaves into Missouri and provided for the
    emancipation at age 25 of all slave offspring
    born after Missouri became a state
  • There was bitter debate
  • The House passed the Tallmadge Amendment
  • The Senate struck it from the Missouri bill

  • Missouri was admitted as a slave state and Maine
    was then admitted as a free state to keep the
    balance it was then 12 free, 12 slave

  • Slavery was then forever prohibited in the rest
    of the Louisiana Territory north of 36 degrees,
    30 latitude of Missouris southern border
  • Map, p. 273

  • Many wished to settle in all this new territory
  • It was generally thought that Native Americans
    would have to be displaced
  • As a result of military defeats, there were only
    small pockets of Indians in the Ohio Valley and
    in the N.W. Territories
  • Many Native Americans had already moved west of
    the Mississippi

  • The last stand of Indians in this region was from
    1831-1832 when the Sac and Fox Indians under
    Chief Black Hawk refused to move from their lands
    east of the Mississippi
  • They were pushed west to the rivers edge where
    they were almost exterminated by federal troops
    the Illinois militia while trying to cross and go
    west they were doomed

  • The federal government used a combination of
    deception, bribery, and threats to get the
    Indians to move further west
  • Settlers poured in
  • By 1840, 1/3 of Americans lived beyond the
  • Many bought land for 1.25 per acre
  • People moved in groups looking for something

  • Mountain men like Kit Carson, Jedidiah Smith, and
    Jim Beckwourth struck out on their own pictures,
    p. 258
  • Mountain men would meet up with Native Americans
    and company agents at a Rendezvous in Pinedale,
    Wyoming to trade furs in exchange for food,
    ammunition, and needed goods

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  • There was a growing need for more food to feed
    those in the ever-growing cities
  • So transportation needed to be improved roads,
    railroads, canals
  • These resulted from the Industrial Revolution

Industrial Revolution
  • Did more than just change the way products were
  • Changed peoples jobs, how they lived, and what
    they used in their daily lives
  • Changed transportation systems and created towns
  • Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain in
    1764 when new machines were invented and

  • Spinning Jenny -- by James Hargreaves in 1764
    used for spinning yarn but of poor quality
  • Water Frame -- by Richard Arkwright spun
    multiple strands of yarn at one time was of
    higher quality
  • Steam Engine -- by James Watts used to power
    the inventions so water power was no longer

  • Spinning Jenny

  • Water frame

  • Steam engine

  • By early 1800s, most spinning was being done in
    factories called safe houses
  • Britain tried to keep their technology secret,
    but British immigrants brought their knowledge to
    the U.S.
  • Samuel Slater in 1790 started the first textile
    mill in Pawtucket, Rhode Island

  • Industry really didnt take hold until we were
    cut off from imported goods during the War of
  • Francis Cabot Lowell and the Boston Associates
    set up industry in Massachusetts after visiting
    Britain in 1811
  • Lowell felt the U.S. could set up a better system
    of factories
  • They eventually did in Lowell, Lawrence, and
    Chicopee, Massachusetts used Mill Girls

U.S. was a good place for industry
  • We had a shortage of labor and machines could do
    the work of several men
  • We had natural resources rivers, streams,
  • We had investors
  • We had inventors and inventions
  • Cyrus McCormick and his reaper
  • Samuel F.B. Morse and the telegraph, 1832
  • Charles Goodyear vulcanized rubber,1844
  • Eli Whitney and his interchangeable parts

  • We improved transportation to get raw materials
    to the factories and the finished goods to market
  • We created railroads, roads, and canals
  • Our rivers ran mainly north to south
  • We needed routes from east to west
  • So the Erie Canal was built in New York 1817-1825
  • Artificial water route, 364 miles long

  • It connected Buffalo to Albany and the Hudson
    River, then on to New York City
  • End result was an unbroken water route from the
    Atlantic to the Great Lakes
  • The canal cut transportation costs
  • It also cut the time involved from 26 days to 6
  • Other canals were built, like the C O that
    connects Washington, D.C. with Cumberland, but it
    wasnt as successful

  • Began in Britain in 1825
  • Soon after track were also laid in America
  • By 1830s, builders laid 3,000 lines of track
  • By 1860s, there were 30,000 miles of track
  • Railroads were more reliable than waterways no
  • But there were some problems
  • Different gauge track (different sizes)
  • Railroad bridges took long time to build

  • Roads --- National Road (Rt. 40)
  • Wherever one found roads, railroads, or canals,
    towns would spring up
  • If a town was bypassed, then that town would
    probably become a ghost town
  • Immigrants often supplied the labor for the
    building of these roads, railroads, and canals
  • Irish sometimes the only job open to them
  • Chinese not many job choices open to them

  • Distinct classes began forming
  • Upper Class lived away from factories and town
    centers, belonged to clubs, and had indoor
  • Working Class lived near factories and made low
  • There was a new class emerging, the Middle Class
  • Salesmen, clerks, bookkeepers, accountants,
    other white collar workers

  • The middle class gave hope to the working class
  • One could work his way up the ladder of success
  • Through education
  • Moving west for new opportunities
  • Through the lyceum movement
  • Libraries
  • Museums
  • Life was changing the old world was gone
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