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By Dr. Patrick Onsando Ph.D Moi University
Eldoret Kenya
  • There is an increasing realization that the next
    society will be a knowledge society, enabled by
    the rapidly developing information and
    communications technology.
  • This is despite the fact that the brain drain has
    brought harmful effects to Africa as some of her
    best talents have emigrated resulting into lower
    rates of growth, less productive educational
    investments and poorer health care.
  • The endogenous growth model provides evidence on
    these effects.
  • There has also been a loss of actual and
    potential innovators who might have led the way
    to modernization, as they migrated to educational
    systems and working environments that have
    supported their innovative and creative
  • This study shows that in order to exploit its
    full potential, Africa will have to depend
    increasingly on the acquisition, creation and use
    of knowledge.
  • However having the storehouse of treasure in the
    form of knowledge workers is not enough. In order
    to carry out those functions well, and be on the
    cutting edge, Africa needs an effective
    innovation system, linking up with, innovation
    friendly enterprises the various research units,
    universities, consultants, and other
    organizations that are able to access the growing
    stock of global knowledge and create new
    knowledge and new technologies.
  • We conclude that, the intellectual Diaspora may
    constitute a key resource for Africa, by
    providing contacts of many types, contributing
    know-how and investments and enhancing
    international trade and creation of wealth.

  • Because of low training capacity, a large
    proportion of Africans are still trained outside
    Africa, exposing them to the challenge of the
    Brain drain.
  • Millions of Africa Science and technology
    experts are stuck in western countries as part of
    this brain drain.
  • According to the International Organization for
    Migration (IOM), Africa has already lost one
    third of its human capital and is continuing to
    lose its skilled personnel at an increasing rate,
    with an estimated 20,000 doctors, university
    lecturers, engineers and other professional
    leaving the continent annually since 1990.
  • There are currently over 300,000 highly qualified
    Africans in the Diaspora, 30,000 of which have
  • Africa spends US4 billion per year (representing
    35 of total official development aid to the
    continent) to employ some 100,000 Western experts
    performing functions generically described as
    technical assistance.
  • Africa as a whole counts only 20,000 scientists
    (3.6 percent of the world total) and its share
    in the worlds scientific output has fallen from
    0.5 to 0.3 as it continues to suffer the brain
    drain of scientists, engineers and technologists.

  • The problem of brain drain has reached quite
    disturbing proportions in certain African
    countries, with Ethiopia ranked first in the
    continent in terms of rate of loss of human
    capital, followed by Nigeria and Ghana.
  • Ethiopia lost about 74.6 of its human capital
    from various institutions between 1980 and 1991.
  • While Ethiopia has 1 full-time economics
    professor, there are more than 100 Ethiopian
    economists in the United States.
  • According to the estimates of the Presidential
    Committee on Brain Drain set up in 1988 by the
    Babangida administration, Nigeria, between 1986
    and 1990, lost over 10,000 academics from
    tertiary education institutions alone.
  • Total estimates, including those who left
    public, industrial and private organizations, are
    over 30,000. 64 of Nigerians in the United
    States aged 25 and older have at least a
    bachelors degree.
  • The Zimbabwe National Association of Social
    Workers estimates that 1,500 of the countrys
    3,000 trained social workers left for the United
    Kingdom over the past 10 years.
  • African countries are funding the education of
    their nationals only to see them end up
    contributing to the growth of developed countries
    with little or no return on their investment.
  • In Kenya, for example, it costs about US40,000
    to train a doctor and US10,000-15,000 to educate
    a university student for 4 years.
  • The health sector is particularly affected
    indeed, desperate shortage of health
    professionals is the most serious obstacle as
    Africa tries to fight AIDS and support other
    health programs.
  • Kenya loses on average 20 medical doctors each
  • Ghana lost 60 of its medical doctors in the
    1980s, 600 to 700 Ghanaian physicians are
    currently practicing in the USA alone, a figure
    that represents roughly 50 of the total
    population of doctors in Ghana.

  • The loss of nurses, in particular, is growing
    phenomenon, fueled principally by the shortages
    in developed countries.
  • The United States has 126,000 fewer nurses that
    it needs and government figures show that the
    country could face a shortage of 800,000
    registered nurses by 2020.
  • Because of such shortages, industrialized nations
    have embarked on massive international
    recruitment drives, offering African nurses the
    opportunity to earn as much as 20 times their
  • The 1993 UNDP Human Development Report indicated
    that more than 21,000 Nigerian doctors were
    practicing in the United States alone while
    Nigeria suffers from a shortage of doctors.
  • If we were to add the number of Nigerian doctors
    in Saudi Arabia and the Gulf states, Europe,
    Australia and those in other African countries,
    the figure would be close to 30,000.
  • One third of Ethiopian medical doctors have
    already left the country.
  • In Zambia, the public sector only retains about
    50 out of 600 doctors trained in the countrys
    medical school.
  • The flight of health professionals is not limited
    to doctors and affects nurses, pharmacists and
    social services personnel as well.
  • It is not only the medics that are affected it is
    the entire spectrum of professionals.
  • African is thus fascinated with how it can
    utilize the African Diaspora to improve the lot
    of Africa.

  • To acquire the scientific knowledge and
    technology required for a technological regime,
    Africa will have to strengthen its capacity to
    use wisely a mix of channels, including, copying,
    imitating, duplicating, intelligence gathering,
    resource engineering, licensing, FDI, partnering
    networking with the Diaspora, overseas studies,
    technical assistance and international and
    regional cooperation.
  • Africa may adapt innovation systems based on a
    catch-up model which favors the acquisition of
    advanced technologies from abroad in selected
    sectors rather than a broader strengthening of
    its knowledge base.
  • However, reliance on foreign technology results
    in heavy dependence on foreign sources of
    materials, parts and components. This limits the
    beneficial linkage effects and amplifies
    vulnerability to external shocks.

Endogenous Growth Model and the Brain Drain
  • Endogenous innovation models embrace a
    neo-Schumpeterian framework of endogenous
    technological change based on three premises
    (Gross man and Helpman, 1991, 1994 Crafts, 1996
    Aghion and Howitt, 1998).
  • First, the basic driving force behind economic
    growth is technological change, that is
    improvement in knowledge about how we transform
    inputs into outputs in the production process.
  • Second, technological change is endogenous, being
    determined by deliberate activities of economic
    agents acting largely in response to financial
  • Third, the defining characteristic of
    ideas/knowledge is that once the cost of creating
    a new set of instructions has been incurred, the
    instructions can be used over and over again at
    no additional cost (Romer 1990). Therefore ideas
    are non-rivalries outputs and their use by one
    firm or person does not in any way reduce their
    availability to other firms or persons.
  • The new growth literature therefore suggests
    that, the negative implications of a brain drain
    on the source country are magnified. For example,
    Hague and Kim (1995) posits that the emigration
    of people with high levels of human capital
    reduces the growth rate of the effective human
    capital that remains in the economy, and thus
    generates the reduction of the per capita growth
    in the source country.
  • Under this scenario not only is high skilled
    labour complementary with capital and low-skilled
    labour, but high-skilled workers enhance
    technological innovations and their diffusion.
  • The main implication is that a continuous outflow
    of high skilled labour would deplete the source
    countrys level of human capital and thus reduce
    the capacity of the country to achieve as much
    technological progress as other economies.

Endogenous Growth Model and the Brain Drain
  • Scenarios from the standard model of production
    and endogenous growth models reflect the drain
    of brains view that dominated migration research
    from the 1950s to the 1970s.
  • However, these, two scenarios ignore the fact
    that migration can induce skill formation.
  • The standard and new growth models have been
    challenged in various theoretical papers that
    examine the impact of migration on human capital
    formation within a context of rational migration
    flows (see Beine et al. 2001, and mount fold
  • The theory assumes that workers weigh the costs
    of acquiring skills against prospective market
    rewards for enhancing skills, both at home and
    abroad and thus making optimal decisions.
  • Scherer (1999) advocates that human capital is
    the most important input in the process of
    advancing technology.
  • A growing body of literature has addressed the
    complementarities of human capital and
    technological progress.
  • One of the earliest models developed is by Nelson
    and Phelps (1966), which suggested what the level
    of education, speeds up technological diffusion.
  • Their simple illustration was that of an educated
    farmer, possessing ability to discern profitable
    ideas and thus adopting new processes or products
    more quickly than his uneducated counterpart.
  • Benhabib and Spiegel (2002), using cross data
    obtains results consistent to Nelson and Phelps
    hypothesis and extends the role of human capital
    to be an engine of domestic innovation besides
    being a facilitator of technology adoption.

Endogenous Growth Model and the Brain Drain
  • Romer (1990) challenges and augments the Solow
    neoclassical growth model, which assumes
    technology to be exogenous and hence available
    without limitation everywhere across the globe.
  • In order to explain continuous growth of output
    per worker in the long run the Solow model must
    incorporate the influence of sustainable
    technological progress.
  • Y At KaL1-a (1)
  • Where ? and 1-? are weights reflecting the share
    of capital and labour in the national income.
    Assuming constant returns to scale, and for a
    given technology, At0, output per worker is
    positively related to the capital-labour ratio
    (K/L). We can therefore rewrite the production
    function equation (1) in terms of output per
    worker as shown by
  • Y/L A(t0)(K/L)A(t0)KaL1-a/LA(t0)(K/L)a
  • Letting y Y/L and k K/L, we have the
    intensive form of the aggregate production.
  • yA(t0)ka (3)
  • For a given technology, equation (3) tells us
    that increasing the amount of capital per worker
    (capital deepening) will lead to an increase in
    output per worker.

Endogenous Growth Model and the Brain Drain
Fig 1. Technological progress
The impact of exogenous technological progress is
illustrated in figure 1 by a shift of the
production function between two time periods (t0
gtt1) from A(t0)ka to A(t1)ka, raising output per
worker from ya to yb for a given capital-labour
ratio of ka. Continuous upward shifts of the
production function, induced by an exogenously
determined growth of knowledge, provide the only
mechanism for explaining steady state growth of
output per worker in the neoclassical model.
Endogenous Growth Model and the Brain Drain
  • Continuous upward shifts of the production
    function, induced by an exogenous determined a
    growth of knowledge, provides the only mechanism
    for explaining steady growth of output per
    worker in the neoclassical model.
  • Insights on the impacts of technology on
    production are also provided by (Kumar and
    Rusell) decomposition.
  • This decomposition exploits the assumption of
    constant returns to scale, in which case the
    benchmark technology sets can be drawn in ltk, ygt
    space, where k K/L and y Y/L.
  • Using these hypothetical technologies for two
    periods, as we have already shown, say a base
    period b and a current period c, are drawn in
    figure 2. In this example, the single kink in
    each of the polyhedral technologies would
    indicate that a single economy the only efficient
    economy defines the frontier.
  • The two points (kb, yb) and (kc, yc), represent
    observed values of the two ratios in the two
    periods for some hypothetical economy.

Endogenous Growth Model and the Brain Drain
  • By construction, potential outputs for this
    economy in the two periods are ?b(kb) yb/eb and
    ?c(kc) yc /ec, where eb and ec are the values
    of the efficiency indexes in the two periods,
    calculated as in (2) above.

Endogenous Growth Model and the Brain Drain
. Therefore,
Multiplying top and bottom by ?b(kc), the
potential output-labor ratio at current-period
capital intensity using the base-period
technology, we obtain
This identity decomposes the relative change in
the output-labor ratio in the two periods into
(i) the change in efficiency i.e., the change
in the distance from the frontier (the first term
on the right) (ii) the technology change i.e.,
the shift in the frontier (the second term and
(iii) the effect of the change in the
capital-labor ratio-i.e., movement along the
frontier (the third term).
Endogenous Growth Model and the Brain Drain
The decomposition in (4) measures technological
change by the shift in the frontier in the output
direction at the current-period capital-labor
ratio-from point C to point D in Figure 2 and it
measures the effect of capital accumulation along
the base-period frontier-from point B to point C.
we can alternatively measure technological change
at the base-period capital-labor ratio-from point
B to point E in Figure 2 -and capital
accumulation by movements along the
current-period frontier-from point E to point
D-by multiplying the top and bottom of (3) by the
potential output-labor ratio at base-period
capital intensity using the current-period
technology, ?c(kb), yielding the decomposition,
Endogenous Growth Model and the Brain Drain
  • Thus, the decomposition of (discrete)
    productivity changes (not attributable to
    efficiency changes) into the technological-change
    and capital-deepening components is path
    dependent, and the choice between (4) and (5) is
  • There is no avoiding this arbitrariness, unless
    technological change is Hicks neutral, in which
    case the proportional vertical shift in the
    frontier is independent of the value of the
    capital-labor ratio.
  • It is this assumption (along with constant
    returns to scale) that enabled Solow (1957), and
    the legions of growth accountants who have
    followed his lead, to unambiguously decompose
    productivity growth into components attributable
    to technological change and capital deepening.
  • But without constraining technological change to
    be Hicks neutral, the proportional (vertical)
    shift in the frontier varies in unspecified ways.
  • In fact, this arbitrariness is not, per se,
    attributable to the decomposition itself.
  • It is endemic to the basic task of measuring
    technological change, as is evident in the
    necessity of normalizing on one of two
    technologies in the (Malmquist) productivity
    index proposed in the pioneering paper of
    Doughlas W. Caves et al. (1982a).

Endogenous Growth Model and the Brain Drain
  • Within this framework it is inferred that
    technological innovation is a chronic disturber
    of comparatives and the rules of the game are
    rapidly changing.
  • The emerging trends have far reaching
    implications for Africas sustainable development
    and competitiveness.
  • Global firms are steadily upgrading their
    technological capacity and performance and
    progressively raising entry barriers to new
  • In this process inefficient producers such as
    African ones, are often squeezed out.
  • Africas competitiveness in its traditional
    areas of comparative advantage is eroding.
  • This is well documented The continents share of
    global export trade fell from 5.9 in 1980 to
    less than 2 at the end of the 1990s, while
    sub-Saharan Africas market share at global
    manufacturing value added (MVA) was halved from
    0.69 in 1970 to a low 0.3 in he 1990s.
  • Globalization and liberalization compel
    companies to compete not only in foreign markets
    in order to prosper, but also in their own
    national markets.
  • Africa, therefore, needs to act promptly to
    counter the possibilities of this double internal
    and external squeeze.

Causes and Impacts of Brain Drain
  • Push factors
  • Pull factors

Causes and Impacts of Brain Drain
  • Focus on those pay, working conditions and
    broader management and governance factors that
    encourage professionals to exit their own systems
    and leave their country.
  • Low and eroding wages and salaries
  • Unsatisfactory living conditions, lack of
    transport, housing, etc
  • Under-utilization of qualified personnel lack of
    satisfactory working conditions low prospect of
    professional development
  • Lack of research and other facilities, including
    support staff inadequacy of research funds, lack
    of professional equipment and tools
  • Social unrest, Political conflicts and wars
  • Declining quality of educational system
  • Discrimination in appointments and promotions
  • Lack of freedom

Causes and Impacts of Brain Drain
  • Direct attention to the factors that encourage
    professionals to move to
  • other countries, including shortages and active
    recruitment from high
  • income countries.
  • Higher wages and income
  • Higher standard of living
  • Better working conditions job and career
    opportunities and professional development
  • Substantial funds for research, advanced
    technology, modern facilities availability of
    experienced support staff
  • Political stability
  • Modern educational system prestige of foreign
  • Meritocracy, transparency
  • Intellectual freedom

Causes and Impacts of Brain Drain
  • The brain drain crises can also be seen as a
    process that Africa can theoretically capitalize
  • Virtually all of Africas major export sectors
    are struggling to compete on world markets, yet
    without any policy effort whatsoever Africa has
    demonstrated its competitiveness in the training
    (or production) of doctors and nurses.
  • Such exports allow Africa to bypass the formal
    trade facilitation challenges (from the world
    trade organization) that so hamper exports.
  • The mobility of highly skilled labour is
    associated with a number of positive feed back
    effects as skilled emigrants continue to affect
    the economy of their origin country.
  • The main benefits are associated with the
    remittance of income, the knowledge and skills
    acquired by returnees, and spillover effects when
    migration increases the urge to obtain higher
    education, increasing the stock of education in
    the source country, with only a proportional of
    this accumulation of skills lost to
    out-migration (see mountfold 1997).
  • An illustration of these spill-over effects is
    the degree in which the educational level of
    applicants in nursing schools in Ghana has risen
    to the equivalent entrance level and the number
    of applicants has also risen sharply, as
    applicants start to view a nursing qualification
    as an investment in leaving the country (Mensah
    et al. 200519).

Managing the Drain.What are the options?
  • The brain drain has brought harmful effects to
    many countries as some of their best talents have
  • Some of the consequences have been lower rates
    of growth, less productive educational
    investments and poorer health care.
  • There has also been a loss of actual and
    potential innovators who might have led the way
    to modernization, as they migrated to educational
    systems and working environments that better
    supported their innovative and creative
  • The conception about the migration of skills is
    now evolving, putting stronger emphasis on brain
    gain, which is based on the idea that the
    expatriate skilled population may be considered
    as a potential asset instead of a definite loss.
  • There are two main options to implement the
    brain gain either through the return of the
    expatriates to the country of origin (return
    option) or through their remote mobilization and
    association to its development (diaspora option)
  • The return option has been successfully realized
    in various new industrialized countries (NICs)
    such as Singapore and the republic of Korea or
    big developing countries such as France and China
    (Charum, Meyes eds, 1999).
  • Strong programmes to repatriate many of their
    skilled nationals abroad have been put in place
    since 1980.

Managing the Drain.What are the options?
  • The experience of the Asian countries like the
    republic of Korea, Singapore and Taiwan, can
    provide very useful lessons from which African
    countries can learn from.
  • These nations did set up incentive schemes and
    mechanisms within a benign socio-economic
    framework that helped to attract back home quite
    a lot of their own highly trained expatriate
    people from the various industrialized countries
    who helped to fuel the revival of agriculture,
    commerce, higher education and hi-tech research
    within these nations and to transform them into
    the so called newly industrializing countries
  • However, the IOM highlights difficulties of
    facilitating return in relation to African
    professionals abroad.
  • The challenges highlighted include prolonged job
    search arising from cumbersome processes, lack of
    trust in African government amongst the diaspora,
    and weak government ownership. (IOM cited in
    WHO/World Bank).

Managing the Drain.What are the options?
  • The diaspora option is based on network
    approaches where a network can be defined as a
    regular set of contacts or similar connections
    among individual actors or groups (Granoveltes
    and Suedberg 19229).
  • These networks of highly skilled expatriates are
    referred to as expatriate knowledge networks.
  • The main feature of the diaspora option is that
    it tries to set up connections/linkages between
    highly skilled expatriates and between them and
    the country of origin.
  • This allows for information and knowledge
    exchange between expatriates and between them and
    the country of origin.
  • It allows expatriates the opportunity to
    transfer their expertise and skills to the
    country of origin without necessarily returning
    home permanently.
  • In this way the country of origin has access to
    the knowledge and expertise of the expatriate,
    but also the knowledge networks that he/she forms
    part of in the host country.
  • A crucial element of the diaspora option is
    therefore an effective system of information to
    facilitate transfer and exchange of information
    between network members and between them and
    their counterparts in the country of origin.
  • Intellectual diaspora members therefore can
    enable and promote collaboration with African
    people, institutions and enterprises

Managing the Drain.What are the options?
  • However Diaspora Option requires good
    organizations of networks to ensure communication
    information exchange and coordinated actions.
  • This is where an interface or coordinating body
    becomes necessary.
  • The function of such a coordinating body would be
    to collect, organize and maintain the information
    needed for the systematic search of partnerships,
    but also o manage and promote the interests and
    actions of the multiple entities in a network of
    this kind.
  • Diaspora option is based on information transfer,
    and studies have shown that, the next society
    will be a knowledge society, enabled by the
    rapidly developing information and communications
    technology. According to Peter Drucker, it will
    have highly competitive characteristics and will
    use knowledge as a key resource.
  • Knowledge has become the most important factor
    for international competitiveness, the creation
    of wealth and the improvement of living
  • The knowledge society will rely heavily on
    knowledge workers, both traditional professionals
    like doctors, scientists and engineers, and also
    "knowledge technologists" such as IT technicians,
    lab analysts and manufacturing experts, who need
    a basis of theoretical knowledge acquired through
    formal education.

Managing the Drain.What are the options?
  • Innovation, a knowledge-intensive endeavor,
    requires creative people to put knowledge to
    work. It also needs a favorable environment.
  • A culture of innovation has indeed become a
    prerequisite of development in the 21st century.
  • "To understand peoples ability to innovate and
    their ability to adapt to change", says a recent
    report from UNESCO, "one has to take into account
    the social and cultural components of innovation,
    our environment - including our belief and value
    systems - shapes the way we view the world around
    us and determines how we react to ongoing change.
  • Technological change has often-overlooked social
    effect or consequence namely, it alters social
    hierarchies and the power structure of groups
    within society and in some cases society itself.
  • In order to understand peoples ability to
    innovate and their ability to adapt to change,
    one has to take into account the social and
    cultural components of innovation.
  • In the end, these factors are the tools that
    enable us to create a culture of innovation".
  • The experience of many countries has clearly
    shown that the loss of high level people cannot
    be stemmed successfully by restricting mobility,
    but rather by a favorable political and economic
    climate together with better work facilities,
    adequate pay and advancement through merit.
  • This helps retain exceptional talents within the
    country and utilize them for the countrys
    benefit. It may also help to bring back some of
    those who had previously emigrated.

Managing the Drain.What are the options?
  • Members of the intellectual Diaspora may be
    induced to participate actively in new,
    innovative productive ventures in the home
  • Emigrants that have accumulated abundant capital,
    developed novel technologies, and generated
    successful enterprises may be willing to create
    new ventures at home on the basis of such
    resources, often in association with a local
    partner, if there is true support for these
  • A promotional mechanism and adequate incentives
    may help here, such as has happened in Korea,
    Taiwan and China, where the respective
    governments have catalyzed and nurtured such
  • Several "brain exporting" countries have become
    aware of these potential benefits, and are
    attempting to organize their intellectual
    Diasporas so as to better utilize their high
    level nationals abroad.
  • This requires a significant effort to survey the
    Diasporas human resources, create an active
    network, and develop specific activities and
  • China, Colombia, South Africa (with the motto
    transform brain drain into brain gain) and to a
    lesser extent other countries are putting efforts
    into this.
  • India has also embarked on a similar enterprise.
  • It has begun the process admirably, and should
    follow up with intensive, creative efforts to
    connect the network in meaningful endeavors in
    order to effectively assist the country.

Managing the Drain.What are the options?
  • Even more can be done by identifying those
    members of the Diaspora who have acquired
    exceptional innovative capabilities, utilizing
    them to spur the home country talents to a more
    innovative level, and providing easier access,
    open attitudes and opportunities to bring about
    meaningful change.
  • Within the intellectual Diaspora, some
    individuals have developed truly innovative
    capabilities. We may call them Diaspora
    innovators having acquired cultural traits and
    specific knowledge that are essential to
    innovation in science, technology, education and
  • "Diaspora innovators" who have studied and worked
    for extended periods in a modern, open innovative
    environment have acquired different beliefs and
    values from those of their original societies.
  • They view the world differently and are able to
    react to ongoing changes in a more flexible,
    dynamic and positive manner.
  • Many have acquired good managerial expertise and
    technological competence, as well as "cultural
    literacy (the ability to recognize and exploit
    social, cultural, lifestyle, and ethnic
    distinctions)" and "a reflexive approach to
    knowledge and practices" (UNESCO).
  • These core competencies are crucial in creating a
    culture of innovation.
  • Diaspora innovators indeed embody a specific
    capital that may be tapped for the purpose of
    building a culture of innovation in the home
    country, and thus contribute to developing a
    knowledge society there.

Conclusions and Policy Implications
  • Supply of well-qualified labour is a key
    ingredient in the generation and diffusion of
    innovation. Increased human capital not only
    raises labour productivity, but also serves as a
    driver of technological progress through a
    significantly positive effect on business
    sector RD.
  • The OECD Growth Study estimated that the long
    run effect on GDP per capital of one additional
    year of education ranges from 4 o 7 (OECD,
  • Governments invest in its citizens human capital
    through training and education and expect a
    return on their investment when the individual
    becomes economically and start paying taxes.
  • Within this perspective migration of highly
    skilled human resources present a loss to the
    sending country, because they loss out on returns
    on the capital they invested in the individual.
  • However, the intellectual diaspora takes a
    fundamentally different stance to traditional
    perspectives on the brain drain in that it sees
    the brain drain not as a loss but a potential
    gain to the sending country.

Conclusions and Policy Implications
  • To realize its full potential, there is need for
    a democratization and domestication of
    science and technology in Africa.
  • All key stakeholders must be involved, through
    national dialogues, in the policy formulation and
    implementation process, so as to transcend
    policies that tend to be too narrowly focused on
    a few number of isolated, ill-equipped and under
    paid researched and academicians.
  • This will contribute to moving a way from
    elitist policies, and to defining and
    strengthening the respective role of public
    institutions, international partners,
    universities, NGOs, women organizations, civil
    society and the private sector.
  • It would also ensure that policies are tailored
    primarily with a view to meeting specific needs
    of end-users and clients.

Annex Reference Tables
Table 1.Emigration of Skilled Africans to
Industrialized Countries
Source IOM
Table 2 Intellectual Diaspora Network
Annex Reference Tables
Table 2 Continuation
Annex Reference Tables
Table 2 Continuation
Annex Reference Tables
Table 2 Continuation
Annex Reference Tables
Table 3 Country of medical school of sub-Saharan
African international medical graduates (IMGs)
in the US and Canada
Source Hagopiuan et al. (2004 5) Noteother 12
countries with at least one graduate in the
United States.
Annex Reference Tables
Table 4 Overseas trained nurses registered per
annum in the UK 1998-2005 (Excluding the European
Annex Reference Tables
Table 4 Continuation
Source NMC (2005). Listed by most numerous
country applicants in 2004-05
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