Attention%20Deficit%20Hyperactivity%20Disorder%20(ADHD) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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... isn't as much sustaining attention as it is sustaining ... This is the logic behind using Stimulant medications as a first line treatment for the disorder. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Attention%20Deficit%20Hyperactivity%20Disorder%20(ADHD)

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
  • Tips for Understanding and Managing ADHD in the
  • Presented by Brett L. Patterson, M.A.

Goals for This Presentation
  • Provide a basic understanding of what ADHD is,
    and what it is not.
  • Attempt to answer any questions and dispel any
    myths that many people have regarding ADHD.
  • Introduce some guiding principles for dealing
    with ADHD behaviors.

ADHD Exposed
  • ADHD is identifiable via behavioral, not physical
    characteristics, making it more likely to be
  • Misperceptions
  • Behaviors that directly result from ADHD are not
    primarily attributable to poor parenting, lack of
    discipline, low motivation, or intentional
    trouble making.
  • Not everything that fidgets and/or behaves
    defiantly is ADHD.

What Is ADHD?
  • Neurobehavioral disorder marked by
  • Inattention
  • Difficulties controlling impulses
  • Excessive motor activity (hyperactivity)
  • Be awarethe mere presence of these behaviors
    does not mean the child has ADHD.

Indicators of ADHD as a Developmental Disorder
(Barkley, 1995)
  • Seen in early child development
  • Behaviors clearly distinguish child from non-ADHD
  • Occurs across several situations (though not
    necessarily in all of them)
  • Behaviors persistent over time
  • Child not able to perform at age-appropriate
  • Not accounted for by environment of social causes
  • Related to brain function
  • Associated with other biological factors that can
    affect brain function (i.e. head injuries,

Things We Can See (aka, Common Complaints)
  • Difficulties sustaining attention
  • Daydreaming
  • Child doesnt listen
  • Always losing things
  • Forgetful
  • Easily distracted
  • Needs constant supervision
  • Child doesnt finish anything he/she starts

Common Complaints (contd)
  • Problems with impulse control
  • Impatient/Difficulties waiting for things
  • Always interrupting others
  • Blurts out answers
  • Doesnt take turns
  • Tries to take shortcuts on many tasks (including
    chores, homework, etc.)

Common Complaints (contd)
  • Hyperactivity
  • Always on the go
  • Squirmycant sit still
  • Talks too much
  • Frequently hums or makes odd noises
  • Unable to put the brakes on motor activity
  • Child has two speeds asleep and awake

What Do These Behaviors Have in Common?
  • Problem isnt as much sustaining attention as it
    is sustaining inhibitionthis is the hallmark of
  • Inhibition a mental process that restrains an
    action (behavior) or emotion
  • Problems of inhibition are not a matter of
    choice, but are instead a result of what is (or
    is not) going on in the childs brain

ADHD and the Human Brain
  • Portions of brains frontal lobe are responsible
    for Executive functions
  • Consolidating information from other areas of the
  • Considers potential consequences and
    implications of behaviors
  • Puts brakes on (inhibits) impulsive reactions
  • Initiates appropriate response to environment

ADHD and the Brain (contd)
  • Research suggests that in in children with ADHD,
    these executive areas of the brain are
  • Increasing the activity level in these areas of
    the ADHD brain have been shown to decrease
    behavioral symptoms. This is the logic behind
    using Stimulant medications as a first line
    treatment for the disorder.

Common Stimulant Medications
  • Methylphenidate (Ritalin)
  • Dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine)
  • Amphetamine/ Dextroamphetamine (Adderall)
  • Pemoline (Cylert)

Things That Look Like ADHD
  • Depression
  • Anxiety
  • Hearing problems
  • Visual problems
  • Seizure disorder
  • Oppositional defiant disorder
  • Autism
  • Learning disabilities
  • Parenting problems
  • Substance use
  • Medication side-effects
  • Lead poisoning

Ten Guiding Principles for Raising a Child with
ADHD (Barkley, 1995)
  1. Give your child more immediate feedback and
  2. Give more frequent feedback
  3. Use larger and more powerful consequences
  4. Use incentives before punishment
  5. Strive for consistency

Ten Guiding Principles for Raising a Child with
ADHD (contd)
  1. Act, dont yak!
  2. Plan ahead for problem situations
  3. Keep a disability perspective
  4. Dont personalize your childs problems or the
  5. Practice forgiveness

In Using These Principles, It Is Important That
the Parent
  • Pause before reacting to the child
  • Use the ensuing delay to remember all 10 guiding
    principles (post them around the house if
  • Choose a response that is consistent with the

Additional Tips for Managing ADHD Behaviors
  • Pay positive attention to your childcatch them
    being good
  • Give effective commands
  • Short, sweet, and straightforward
  • Limit the number of tasks to 1-2 per command
  • Maintain clear and consistent expectations
  • Communicate realistic consequences for inability
    to meet expectations

Tips for Managing ADHD (Contd)
  • Manage the childs environment
  • Limit distracting influences during times when
    child is asked to be on task (i.e. homework)
  • Maintain a regular and predictable daily
  • When eliciting childs input, limit (but dont
    eliminate) the number of choices available to
    him/her to 2-3 options

Tips for Managing ADHD (Contd)
  • Be patient
  • Be persistent
  • Be understanding
  • Most importantly, remember to differentiate the
    behaviors from the child
  • Bad behaviors are not synonymous with a bad child

Resources Available to Parents
  • Children and Adults with ADD (CHADD) a family
    support organization that provides a variety of
    services. ( or the Central OK
    chapter phone number is 405-722-1233
  • There is a plethora of readings available to
    those interested in obtaining more information on
    ADHD. One that I have found particularly useful
    in working with parents is Taking Charge of ADHD
    The Complete Authoritative Guide for Parents, by
    Russell A. Barkley, Ph.D. (1995)
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