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The Role of the Student Assistance Professional in the New Era of RtI


The Role of the Student Assistance Professional in the New Era of RtI. Dee Kempson LSW, ACSW ... must recognize the whole gamut of human potentialities, and so ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Role of the Student Assistance Professional in the New Era of RtI

The Role of the Student Assistance Professional
in the New Era of RtI
  • Dee Kempson LSW, ACSW
  • IDOE School Social Work Consultant
  • Amanda Snobarger MS
  • IDOE School Counseling Consultant

Overview of Presentation
  • What is RtI?
  • Legal Authority and Policy Support for RtI
  • The Framework
  • Implications for Student Assistance Professionals
  • Resources

Presentation Goals
  • Increase your understanding of RtI and the
  • opportunities this process will create for
    student service providers.
  • Allay concerns about implementation
  • Seek your feedback so that we can develop
    resources that will assist you in this process

Definition of RtI
  • Response to Intervention is, simply put, a
    process of implementing high-quality,
    scientifically validated instructional practices
    based on learner needs, monitoring student
    progress, and adjusting instruction based on the
    students response.
    Bender Shores, 2007

Where did it come from?
  • Presidents Commission on Excellence in Special
    Education Report
  • Commission formed in 2001
  • Held 13 hearings across the country.
  • Published A New Era Revitalizing Special
  • Education for Children and their families
    (July 2002)
  • http//

Commissions Key Findings
  • Too often, simply qualifying for special
    education becomes the end-point not a gateway
    to more effective instruction and strong
  • The current system uses an antiquated model that
    waits for a child to fail, instead of a model
    based on prevention and intervention.
  • General education and special education share
    responsibilities for children with disabilities.
    They are not separable at any level cost,
    instruction or even identification.

Commissions Key Recommendations
  • Identify and Intervene early
  • Implement research-based, early identification
    and intervention programs to better serve
    children with learning and behavioral
    difficulties at an earlier age.
  • Include early screening, prevention and
    intervention practices to identify academic and
    behavioral problems in young children.

Commissions Recommendations
  • Incorporate Response to Intervention
  • Implement models during the identification
    and assessment process that are based on response
    to intervention and progress monitoring. Use data
    from these processes to assess progress in
    children who receive special education services.

No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 PL 107-110
  • (9) promoting school-wide reform and ensuring
    the access of children to effective,
    scientifically based instructional strategies and
    challenging academic content (January 2002)
  • http//

Individuals with Disabilities Education
Improvement Act (IDEIA)2004August 14, 2006 Final
  • Sec. 300.307. Specific Learning Disabilities. A
    State must adopt criteria for determining whether
    a child has a specific learning disability. Those
  • (a) Must not require the use of a severe
    discrepancy between intellectual ability and
  • (b) Must permit the use of a process based on the
    child's response to scientific, research-based
    intervention and
  • (c) May permit the use of other alternative
    research-based procedures.

511 IAC 7Article 7
  • Indianas Interpretation of the
  • Federal Special Education Legislation
  • (IDEIA 2004)
  • http//

511 IAC 7-40-2 Comprehensive and Coordinated
Early Intervening Services
  • (b) In implementing comprehensive and coordinated
    early intervening services under this section, a
    public agency may carry out activities that
    include, but are not limited to, the following
  • (1) Professional development (which may be
    provided by entities other than public agencies)
    for teachers and other school staff to enable
    such personnel to deliver scientifically based
    academic and behavioral interventions, including
    scientifically based literacy instruction, and,
    where appropriate, instruction on the use of
    adaptive and instructional software.
  • (2) Providing educational and behavioral
    evaluations, services, and supports, including
    scientifically based literacy instruction.

511 IAC 7-40-5 Conducting an Initial Educational
  • (g) For a student with a suspected learning
    disability, the educational evaluation report
    must include
  • 2 (A) whether the student
  • (i) does not achieve adequately for the
    students age or meet state grade level
    standards in one or more of the areas identified
    in 511 IAC 7-41-12(a)(1), when provided with
    learning experiences and instruction appropriate
    for the students age or state grade level
    standards and
  • (ii) meets the criteria in sub-items (AA) or
    (BB) of this item.

  • (AA) The student does not make sufficient
    progress to meet age or state grade level
    standards in one or more of the areas identified
    in 511 IAC 7-41-12(a)(1), when using a process
    based on the students response to scientific,
    research-based intervention.
  • (BB) The student exhibits a pattern of strengths
    and weaknesses in performance, achievement, or
    both, relative to age, state grade level
    standards, or intellectual development, that is
    determined by the multidisciplinary team to be
    relevant to the identification of a specific
    learning disability. The multidisciplinary team
    is prohibited from using a severe discrepancy
    between academic achievement and global cognitive
    functioning to meet this requirement.

RtI Core Principles
  • Principle 1 We believe that we can effectively
    teach ALL children.
  • Principle 2 We believe that effective leadership
    is essential to support student success.
  • Principle 3 We believe in the use of an
    effective and collaborative decision making
    process that utilizes assessment data.
  • Principle 4 We believe it is essential to
    intervene at the first indication of academic,
    social-emotional, or behavioral needs.
  • Principle 5 We believe in providing an
    integrated and focused system of instructional
    interventions and resources that is applied to
    successfully meet all students academic,
    social-emotional, and behavioral needs.
  • Principle 6 We will use research and
    evidence-based instruction and interventions that
    are implemented with fidelity.

The Promise of RtI will be Influenced by
  • Correlates of Highly Effective Schools
  • Leadership
  • Family and Community Partnerships
  • Cultural Responsivity
  • Assessment, Data-driven Decision Making,
    Progress Monitoring
  • Evidence-based Core Curriculum and Intervention

  • Key to
  • Consensus Building
  • Developing an Infrastructure
  • Implementation
  • Leadership and learning are indispensable to
    each other. --John F. Kennedy

Family and Community Partnerships
  • Partnerships are about building relationships
  • individuals or groups that are characterized by
  • cooperation and responsibility as for the
    achievement of a
  • specified goal. -American Heritage
    Dictionary, 2000
  • Implications for
  • Family involvement
  • Community Partners

Cultural Responsivity
  • Changing demographics
  • What are the implications for schools?
  • How do schools determine if they are culturally
  • What additional resources may schools need?
  • If we are to achieve a richer culture, rich in
    contrasting values, we
  • must recognize the whole gamut of human
    potentialities, and so
  • weave a less arbitrary social fabric, one in
    which each diverse human
  • gift will find a fitting place. -Margaret Meade

Assessment, Data-driven Decision Making,
Progress Monitoring
  • School-wide
  • Data Collection and Analysis
  • Goal Setting
  • Intervention
  • Review
  • Targeted
  • Data-driven decision making
  • Collaborative problem-solving
  • Goal Setting
  • Intervention
  • Ongoing progress monitoring

Evidence-based Core Curriculum and Intervention
  • School-wide
  • Examples Olweus Bully Prevention and PBIS
  • Targeted
  • Example Student Success Skills
  • http//

A New Framework for Student Assistance?
  • Early intervening services may be new to general
    special education but are not new to Student
  • The process for student service delivery is
    articulated in IAC 4-1.5-5, which authorizes that
  • (a) School corporations shall provide student
    assistance services at the elementary and
    secondary school levels.

Article 4 The Student Services Rule
  • This rule prescribes what those services must
    consist of and who must provide them. 511 IAC
  • Services
  • a. prevention
  • b. assessment
  • c. intervention
  • d. referral
  • Professionals- Student assistance services shall
    be coordinated by a
  • (1) certified school counselor
  • (2) certified school psychologist or
  • (3) certified school social worker (masters

Article 4 Health Services
  • Health Services
  • a. prevention
  • b. assessment
  • c. intervention
  • d. referral
  • Professionals- Health Services shall be
    coordinated by a registered nurse.

How do student service professionals enact this
legislation in schools to better serve students
and improve performance?
  • Provide appropriate behavioral instruction and
    prevention programs.
  • Analyze school and student data to identify
    impediments to academic and behavioral
  • Use a multi-disciplinary team to identify
    learning, behavioral, and health difficulties for
    those students not meeting standards.
  • Use a problem solving method to determine most
    appropriate intervention for those students.
  • Provide research-based social, emotional, and
    behavioral supports as needed
  • Progress monitor , document, evaluate, and adjust
    interventions in light of the students response.

Implementation of Article 4 and Article 7 (RtI)-
the overlap
  • RtI is a general education intervention process
    for all students.
  • Both laws require services that include
  • - prevention
  • - assessment
  • - intervention
  • - referral
  • Both are implemented by highly qualified
  • The standards for both require a problem solving,
    progress monitoring process.

RtI and Article 4 Align with Student Service
Professional Standards
School Counselor Performance Standards Aligned
with ASCA National Model
  • Standard 1 Program Organization
  • Designed to meet the needs of the school
  • Standard 4 Responsive Services
  • Individual and group counseling Targeted
  • Referral Process
  • Standard 8 Use of Data
  • School-wide Prevention Programs
  • Classroom Guidance
  • Targeted Interventions

School Counselor Performance Standards cont.
  • Standard 9 Student Monitoring
  • The Professional School Counselor develops
    appropriate interventions for students as needed
    and monitors their progress.
  • Standard 11 Results Evaluation
  • Evaluate Guidance Program Share results
  • Standard 13 Infusing Themes
  • The Professional School Counselor uses data to
    recommend systemic change in policy and
    procedures that limit or inhibit academic

Indiana Program Standards for School Counseling
  • Standard 2 Data-based Accountability
  • Standard 3 Student Guidance
  • Standard 4 Student Counseling
  • Standard 5 Student Advocacy
  • Standard 6 Program Management
  • http//

Indiana Standards for School Counseling
  • School Counseling Professionals are leaders who
    promote educational success for all students by
    developing and managing school counseling
    programming related to academic, career, social,
    and emotional growth.
  • School Counseling Professionals collaboratively
    design, coordinate, implement, and evaluate
    student assistance services.
  • School Counseling Professionals collaboratively
    design, coordinate, implement, and evaluate
    education and career services.
  • http//

NASW Standards for School Social Work Services
  • Standard 11
  • School social workers shall maintain accurate
    data that are relevant to planning, management,
    and evaluation of school social work service.
  • Standard 12 School social workers shall conduct
    assessments that are individualized and provide
    information that is directly useful for designing
    interventions that address behaviors of concern.
  • http//

NASW Standards for School Social Work Services
  • Standard 13 School social workers shall
    incorporate assessments in developing and
    implementing intervention and evaluation plans
    that enhance students abilities to benefit from
    educational experiences.
  • Standard 9 As leaders and members of
    interdisciplinary teams and coalitions, school
    social workers shall work collaboratively to
    mobilize the resources of local education
    agencies and communities to meet the needs of
    students and families.

School Psychology Standards
  • Eleven domains of professional practice
    articulated by the National Association of School
    Psychologists (2000). Available at
  • Indiana adopted these national standards for the
    Indiana School Psychologist standards.
  • Of the 11 domains, 4 are especially relevant to
    the provision of student services.

Key School Psychology Standards
  • 2.1 Data-based Decision Making Accountability
  • School psychologists use such models and methods
    as part of a systematic process to collect data
    and other information, translate assessment
    results into empirically-based decisions about
    service delivery, and evaluate the outcomes of
  • 2.2 Consultation Collaboration
  • School psychologists have knowledge of
    behavioral, mental health, collaborative, and/or
    other consultation models and methods and their

Key School Psychology Standards
  • 2.4 Socialization and Development of Life Skills
  • School psychologists, in collaboration with
    others, develop appropriate behavioral,
    affective, adaptive, and social goals for
    students of varying abilities, disabilities,
    strengths, and needs implement interventions to
    achieve those goals and evaluate the
    effectiveness of interventions.
  • 2.7 Prevention, Crisis Intervention, and Mental
  • School psychologists provide or contribute to
    prevention and intervention programs that promote
    the mental health and physical well-being of

  • The
  • Response to Intervention
  • Framework

Levels of Assessment Intervention (RtI
Services across tiers are fluid and data-driven
  • Tier 3
  • Few Students
  • Increased Frequency
  • Longer Duration

Intense, Individualized Support
District/Community Team Building Core Team
  • Tier 2
  • At-Risk Students
  • Small Group

Building Core Team
Targeted, Supplemental Supports
  • Tier I
  • All Students
  • Preventative,
  • Proactive

Grade Level Teams Building Core Team School
Improvement Team
Core Curriculum, Instruction, and Learning
Addressing Barriers to Learning Through Tiered
Prevention Intervention A Student Assistance
Core Team Approach
Assessment Supports
Tier III Intensive Interventions School
Community resources for students who did not
respond to Tier II interventions. Research
predicts approximately 5 of GSP will be served
in Tier III.
  • Examples
  • Frequent Progress Monitoring
  • Referrals to Multi-Disciplinary
  • Examples
  • Strengths-Based Needs
  • Functional Behavioral Analysis
  • Curriculum-Based
  • Progress Monitoring
  • Examples
  • Examples
  • Relevant Special Ed.
  • Systems of Care
  • Linked Support Services
  • Examples
  • Small Group Instruction
  • Educational Support Groups
  • Parent Consultation
  • Individual / Group Counseling

Tier II Targeted Interventions School
Community Resources for students who
have been identified as in need of support. At
least two-thirds of students referred to Tier II
are expected to respond well. Research
predicts approximately 15 of GSP will be served
in Tier II.
Student Assistance
Core Team Process
Tier I Prevention / Baseline Interventions Schoo
l Community programs and supports available to
all students, specifically students across
all socio-economic, cultural, and gender
groups establishing a positive learning
environment. Research predicts approximately 80
of general student population (GSP) will be
served in Tier I.
Collaborative Problem Solving Data based
problem solving is on-going with team membership
that is responsive to individual student need.
Needs AssessmentSchool community data
collection to identify needs and resources
Reference US Office of Special Education
Delivery of Student Assistance Services Tier 1
  • Tier One /School-wide/ 80 needs met
  • - for all students based on school data
  • - research-based school-wide prevention
  • - examples
  • Positive Behavioral Interventions and
    Supports (PBIS)
  • Olweus Bullying Prevention
  • - see research-based library of
    interventions at
  • http//

Tier 1/Primary Prevention (School-Wide)
Successful Programs Summary
  • Building Student Competencies Comprehensive
    Guidance Curriculum
  • Improving Safety PeaceBuilders
  • Supporting Learning Biological and Environmental
  • Career Development Education NAVIGATION 101
  • Center for School Counseling Outcome Research

Targeted Tier 2
  • Tier Two/Targeted/15 needs met
  • - targeted interventions
  • - for students identified by individual data
    as being in need
  • of supplemental interventions /supports
  • - student data triggers a Core Team
  • - Student Plan includes identified
    measureable goal (s)/progress
  • monitoring/a given time frame including a
    review date
  • - parent informed consent
  • - examples
  • Student Success Skills individual
    counseling group counseling
  • See research-based library of targeted
    interventions at
  • http//

Tier 2/Secondary Prevention (At-Risk) Successful
Programs Summary
  • Academic Skill Development Peer Tutoring
  • Small Group Guidance Student Success Skills
  • Possible Selves Groups
  • Center for School Counseling Outcome Research

Intensive Tier 3
  • Tier Three/Intensive/5 needs met
  • - intense individual support
  • - intensive supplemental interventions
  • - possible referral for special education
  • - parent informed consent
  • - possible referral to community services
  • -possible increase in intensity of Tier Two
  • services i.e. time, duration.

Tier 3/Tertiary Prevention (High Risk)
Successful Programs Summary
  • Case Management
  • Individual Counseling Cognitive-Behavioral
    Therapy and Solution-Focused Brief Therapy
  • Behavior Education Program
  • Center for School Counseling Outcome Research

Referral for Special Education and Related
Services 511 IAC 7-40-4
  • Section 4
  • (a) Either a parent or a public agency may
    initiate a request for an educational evaluation
  • (b) If a student has not made adequate progress
    after an appropriate period of time, as
    determined by the parent and the public agency,
    when provided with appropriate instruction .
  • (c) (1) provide the parent .. with written
  • (2) obtain parental consent ..
  • Section 5
  • (d) (1) After obtaining written parental consent,
    the public agency must evaluate the student and
    convene the case conference committee within
    twenty (20) instructional days.

Referral for Special Education and Related
Services 511 IAC 7-40-5
  • Sec. 5
  • (d) The initial educational evaluation must
    be conducted and the case conference committee
    convened within fifty (50) instructional days of
    the date the written parent consent is received
    by licensed personnel.
  • Eligibility criteria other than SLD are listed
    under 511 IAC 7-
  • 41-1. These may not be appropriate for the
    response to intervention
  • process prior to identification.

How does this model work?
  • The Core Team Process

Core Team Definition
  • The multidisciplinary problem solving team
    which meets to assess needs and develop
    strategies to meet those needs, using data, the
    problem solving method, and progress monitoring
    to remain accountable.

Core Team Function
  • Compiles and analyzes the referral information
    through the problem solving process
  • Develops a student plan that includes
  • identification of needs and strengths both
    academic and behavioral
  • short and long term goals
  • a timeline for review
  • a progress monitoring process
  • the identification of all necessary resources
  • a plan of implementation including the
  • a documentation protocol
  • Communicates with parents as partners in the
    early intervening
  • service process.

Core Team
  • Recommended Members
  • School Counselor
  • School Social Worker
  • Teachers
  • Special Education Representative
  • School Nurse
  • Administrator
  • School Psychologist

Problem Solving Method
Defining the Problem Is there a
problem? What is it? How significant?
Evaluating Progress
Analyzing the Problem Why is it happening?
Did the plan work?
What needs to happen next?
Determining What to Do What shall we do about
Implementing the Plan with Fidelity
What will this mean for Student Assistance
Supporting the RtI Process
  • Existing Services include (Article 4)
  • Prevention
  • Assessment
  • Intervention, and
  • Referral
  • Maintaining existing services with an emphasis
  • Collaboration
  • Proactive Prevention
  • Research-based Interventions
  • Progress Monitoring
  • Documentation

Professional Development
  • Needs may include
  • Data collection and analysis
  • Assessment tools
  • Core Team
  • Problem solving process
  • Research-based interventions
  • Progress monitoring strategies
  • Documentation
  • Technology

Anticipated Outcomes
  • Include decrease in
  • Number of students waiting for services
  • Special Education Identification
  • Discipline Referrals
  • Severe social/emotional/behavioral referrals

Anticipated Outcomes
  • Includes improved
  • Student time on task leading to improved student
    academic outcomes
  • School Climate
  • Student Self-esteem, Self-efficacy
  • Recognition of Student Service Professionals as
    integral to the
  • RtI Process
  • Core Team Process
  • Prevention, Assessment, Intervention, and
    Referral Services for Social/Emotional/Behavioral

Response to Intervention offers the
best opportunity of the past 3 decades to ensure
that every child, no matter how gifted or
challenged, will be equally valued in an
education system where the progress of every
child is monitored and individualized
interventions with appropriate levels of
intensity are provided to students as needed.
Bill East (2007), Preface to RtI Handbook
  • Currently Posted
  • Student Assistance Services Policy
    Considerations and Implementation A Companion
    Guide to Article 4
  • The Role of Student Service Professionals in the
    New Era of RTI Power Point
  • Indiana Student Assistance Initiative
    Collaborating for Student Success 2007
  • Research-Based/Best Practice Prevention and
    Intervention Resources for School Social
    Workers/Counselors (Library)
  • Frequently Asked Questions document
  • IDOE Office of Student Services
  • Response to Intervention for Student Service
    Professionals http//
  • To Be Posted
  • Student Assistance Training Manual
  • Student Assistance Training Power Point
  • Core Team Process Video

Intervention Websites
  • IDOE Library http//
  • Intervention Central http//www.interventioncentra
  • CASEL Collaborative for Social Emotional
  • What Works Clearinghouse http//
  • National Center for School Counseling Outcome
  • http//

Training Components
  • RtI Webpage for Student Student Service
  • Presentations at annual conferences, regional
  • Online Professional Development Series
  • Cohort Training
  • Core Team Training of Trainers

Key Websites
  • Indiana Department of Education Office of
    Student Services Response to Intervention Link
  • IDOE Center for Exceptional Learners
  • http//

Key Websites
Collaborative Problem Solving Project _at_ the
Blumberg Center www.
sp National Center on Student Progress
Monitoring (NCSPM) Natio
nal Research Center on Learning Disabilities
(NCRLD) Research Institute on
Progress Monitoring IRIS
Center http// Florid
a Center for Reading Research http//

Key Websites
Vaughn Gross Center for Reading and Language Arts
http// Center on
Instruction http// Un
iversity of Oregon http//
/curricula Collaborative for Academic, Social,
and Emotional Learning http// OSEP
Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions
Supports http// Kids Count
Indiana http//
Bender, W., Shores, C. (2007). Response to
Intervention A practical guide for every
teacher. Thousand Oaks, CA Corwin
Press. Coleman, M., Buysse, V., Neitzel, J.
(2006). Recognition and response an early
intervening system for children at-risk for
learning disabilities. Retrieved March 18, 2008
from http// Danie
lson, L., Doolittle, J., Bradley, R. (2007).
Professional development, capacity building, and
research needs Critical issues for response to
intervention implementation. School Psychology
Review, 36, 632-637. Kovaleski, J. (2007).
Response to intervention Considerations for
research and systems change. School Psychology
Review, 36, 638-646. Kratochwill, T.,
Volpiansky, P., Clements, M., Ball, C. (2007).
Professional development in implementing and
sustaining multitier prevention models
Implications for response to intervention. School
Psychology Review, 36, 618-631.
Hall, S. (2008). A principals guide
Implementing RTI. Thousand Oaks, CA Corwin
Press. Jimerson, S., Burns, M., VanDerHeyden,
A. (2007). Handbook of Response to Intervention
The science and practice of assessment and
intervention. New York, NY Springer. Fixen,
D., Naoom, S., Blasé, K., Friedman, R.,
Wallace, F. (2005). Implementation research A
synthesis of the literature. Tampa, FL
University of South Florida, The Louis de la
Parte Florida Mental Helath Institute, Department
of Child Family Studies. National Association
of State Directors of Special Education (NASDSE).
Response to Intervention Policy Considerations
and Implementation. (2005). Available from NASDSE
Publications New Roles in
Response to Intervention Creating Success for
Schools and Children (Posted on Munger website)
Contact Information
  • School Counselors Amanda Snobarger
  • School Social Workers Dee Kempson
  • School Psychologists Dr. Leah Nellis
  • or Greg Eaken
  • School Nurses Phyllis Lewis
  • RtI (general information) Tara Rinehart
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