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How Property Managers can Use Green Initiatives in their Business Practices


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Title: How Property Managers can Use Green Initiatives in their Business Practices

How Property Managers can Use Green Initiatives
in their Business Practices
Presented by Sandra Leibowitz Earley, AIA,
LEED AP Principal Sustainable Design Consulting,
LLC October 15, 2009
  • What we do
  • Green Building Process Management
  • LEED Project Guidance
  • LEED Process Management
  • Green Design Guidance and Research
  • Green OM Guidance Research
  • Policy, Plan, Program Reviews
  • Advisory Services to Property Managers
  • Lectures, Workshops Trainings
Why Green Buildings and Green Operations
Its the right thing to do . . . For the
environment . . . For the economy . . . For
Current Impacts of Buildings
  • On the Environment
  • U.S. Building Impacts
  • Source USGBC

Current Impacts of Buildings
  • On the Economy
  • A Buildings Life Cycle Costs

2 design construction
6 operations maintenance
92 occupant salaries
Current Impacts of Buildings
  • On People
  • Americans spend 90 of their time indoors.
  • 30 of new and renovated buildings have poor IAQ
  • Indoor levels of pollutants 2 - 5 times higher
    than outdoor levels.
  • More than 20 million people, including over 6
    million children, have asthma.

What is a Green Building?
  • green
  • high performance
  • environmentally-friendly
  • sustainable
  • healthy
  • Green or sustainable building is the practice of
    creating healthier and more resource efficient
    models of construction, renovation, operation,
    maintenance, and demolition.

Benefits of Green Buildings
  • Environmental benefits Enhance and protect
    ecosystems and biodiversity Improve air and
    water quality Reduce solid waste Conserve
    natural resources

Source USGBC
Benefits of Green Buildings
  • Economic benefits
  • Reduce operating costs
  • Enhance asset value and profits
  • Improve employee productivity and satisfaction
  • Optimize life-cycle economic performance

Benefits of Green Buildings
  • Health and community benefits Improve air,
    thermal, and acoustic environments Enhance
    occupant comfort and health Minimize strain on
    local infrastructure Contribute to overall
    quality of life

Typical Property Green Goals Drivers
  • Goals
  • Reduce Energy Use
  • Reduce Potable Water Use
  • Reduce Solid Waste
  • Reduce Carbon Footprint
  • Green Procurement Practices
  • Green Cleaning Practices
  • Green Landscape Practices
  • Green Construction/Renovation Practices
  • Green Stormwater Management Practices
  • Improve occupant comfort
  • Improve occupant health

Typical Property Green Goals Drivers
  • Drivers
  • Maximize operational efficiency while minimizing
    environmental impacts
  • Reduce utility costs (energy, water, )
  • Reduce maintenance costs
  • Establish recognized leadership in the green
    building sector
  • Be a Green Advocate in the Community
  • Help raise the public awareness
  • Marketing exposure through USGBC Website, case
    studies, media announcements

Brief History of USGBC
  • The U.S. Green Building Council is the nation's
    foremost coalition of leaders from across the
    building industry working to promote buildings
    that are environmentally responsible, profitable
    and healthy places to live and work.
  • Organized in 1993
  • LEED 1.0 (1998)
  • LEED 2.0 (2000)
  • LEED 2.1 (2002)
  • LEED-EB (2004)
  • LEED-CI (2004)
  • LEED-EB (2005)
  • LEED-NC 2.2 (2005)
  • LEED-CS (2005)
  • LEED-S (2007)
  • LEED-Homes (2008)
  • LEED 2009

Put LEED into Perspective
Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design
  • LEED Is . . .
  • A means to an end.
  • A measure of the achievement.
  • A widely accepted benchmarking tool.
  • A voluntarily performance standard.
  • Point-based.
  • LEED Isnt . . .
  • The end in itself.
  • A Building Code.
  • Perfect

LEED-EB OM Existing Building Operations and
  • - Voluntary performance standards for sustainable
    ongoing OM
  • - Building NOT undergoing major renovations
  • - Periodic upgrades of building systems
  • - Minor space-use changes
  • Focus is on building processes
  • Based on actual operating performance, NOT design
  • Performance Period
  • Recertification every 5 years

LEED-EB OM Existing Building Operations and
  • Recognize achievement in 6 categories
  • SS Sustainable Sites
  • WE Water Efficiency
  • EA Energy Atmosphere
  • MR Materials and Resources
  • EQ Indoor Environmental Quality
  • IO Innovation in Operations

LEED-EB OM Existing Building Operations and
4 Levels of Certification
LEED-EB Registered Participants By Building Type
The Process Five Phases
  • Audit
  • Plan
  • Program Development
  • Performance Period/ Certification
  • Education/ Recertification

  • Perform Gap Analysis
  • Compare assess decision-maker policy with LEED
  • Meet key roles in facility
  • Collect relevant data
  • Document outcomes in matrix
  • Perform Initial cost-benefit analysis
  • Obtain decision-maker buy-in
  • Discuss matrix
  • Define drivers
  • Make recommendations

  • Hold charrette with LEED team
  • 5-6 people optimum team
  • Refine cost-benefit analysis
  • Write plan
  • Project team tasks
  • Critical plan elements Optional best practices
  • Timeline/Milestones
  • Obtain decision-maker buy-in
  • Scenarios, next steps, timing, investment
  • Register the project, assign roles LEED-Online
  • Repeat audit as needed

Program Development
  • Verify critical plan elements
  • Energy efficiency, Water efficiency, Ventilation
  • Initiate best practices elements of the plan
  • Energy Audit, Green Cleaning, IAQ Best Practices,
    Solid Waste, Transportation, Innovation?
  • Collect data
  • Measure continuous improvement
  • Timeline for reaching goals
  • Evaluate obstacles with decision-maker
  • Complete set goals
  • LEED-Online confirm timing of performance
  • Review cost-benefit

Performance Period/ Certification
  • Initiate performance period
  • Monitor performance analyze data
  • Communicate with team
  • Perform final analysis compilation of data
  • Upload to LEED-Online submit to USGBC
  • Complete Review period
  • Preliminary Review
  • Team responds to Preliminary Review
  • Final Review
  • Project Team accept or appeal
  • Appeal review
  • Certification or denial

Dont forget The Greening Process Takes a Team
and Everyone Can Help Green Properties
  • Owner
  • Facility Manager
  • Building Engineer
  • Property Manager
  • Groundskeeper
  • Custodial Staff
  • Occupant
  • Green Building / Energy Consultants

USGBC Resources
  • LEED Reference Guide
  • USGBC Web site http//
  • LEED Online http//

Online Green Resources
  • Environmental Building News
  • http//
  • The Costs and Financial Benefits of Green
  • http//
  • Department of Energy (energy efficiency)
  • http//
  • Whole Building Design Guide (green design
  • http//

Sustainable Strategies
Sustainable Site Management
  • Building Exterior and Hardscape Management Plan
  • Integrated Pest Management
  • Erosion Control Plan
  • Landscape Management Plan
  • Alternative Transportation Plan
  • Protection and Restoration of Open space
  • Stormwater Management Plan
  • High-Emissivity Paving and Roofing Materials
  • Light Pollution Reduction

Building Exterior and Hardscape Management Plan
  • Intent To encourage environmentally sensitive
    building exterior and hardscape management
    practices that provide a clean, well-maintained
    and safe building exterior while supporting
    high-performance building operations.
  • Required Employ an environmentally sensitive,
    low-impact building exterior and hardscape
    management plan that helps preserve surrounding
    ecological integrity. The plan must address all
    of the following
  • Maintenance equipment
  • Snow and ice removal
  • Cleaning of building exterior
  • Paints and sealants used on building exterior
  • Cleaning of sidewalks, pavement and other

Building Exterior and Hardscape Management Plan
  • Strategies
  • Have in place low-impact site and green building
    exterior management plan that addresses overall
    site management, chemicals, snow and ice removal,
    and building exterior cleaning and maintenance.

Integrated Pest Management, Erosion Control and
Landscape Management Plan
  • Intent Preserve ecological integrity, enhance
    natural diversity, and protect wildlife while
    supporting high-performance building operations
    and integration into the surrounding landscape
  • Required Have in place an environmentally
    sensitive management plan for the sites natural
    component. The plan must address all of the
    following operational elements
  • Outdoor integrated pest management (IPM)
  • Erosion and sedimentation control
  • Diversion of landscape waste from waste stream
    via mulching, composting or other low-impact
  • Chemical fertilizer use reduction through the use
    of locally adapted plants that require no
    artificial chemicals, or other low-impact
  • For projects urban site with little or no
    building setback, credit may be earned using
    vegetated roof surface which covers at least 5
    of the LEED project site area

Integrated Pest Management, Erosion Control and
Landscape Management Plan
  • Strategies
  • Have in place low-impact site and green building
    exterior management plan that addresses the
  • Overall site management
  • Chemicals and fertilizers
  • Landscape waste
  • Pest management.
  • The building owner, facility manager, property
    manager, and groundskeepers should all be
    involved. Prior to construction projects, the
    project team should work with a civil engineer or
    landscape architect to develop a site-specific
    erosion and sedimentation control plan to address

(No Transcript)
Alternative Transportation
  • Intent Reduce pollution and land development
    impacts from conventional automobile use for
    commuting trips.
  • Required Demonstrate a reduction in
    conventional commuting trips. Performance
    calculations are made relative to a baseline case
    that assumes all regular occupants commute alone
    in conventional automobiles
  • 10 reduction
  • up to
  • 95 reduction

Alternative Transportation
RCCT Reduction in Conventional Commuting Trips
Stormwater Management
  • Intent Limit the disruption of natural hydrology
    by the building and grounds.
  • Required
  • During the performance period, implement a
    stormwater management plan that infiltrates,
    collects and reuses runoff or evapotranspirates
    runoff from at least 15 of the precipitation
    falling on the whole project site both for an
    average weather year and for the two-year,
    24-hour design storm.

Arlington County Government Center
Stormwater Management
  • Strategies
  • Collect and reuse stormwater for non-potable uses
    such as landscape irrigation, toilet and urinal
    flushing and custodial uses.
  • Specify the use of alternative surfaces (ie.
    vegetated roofs) and nonstructural techniques
    (ie. rain gardens) to improve imperviousness.

Water Management Conservation
  • Intent Reduce/Eliminate the need for potable
    and waste water infrastructure as well as
    recharging the local aquifer
  • Low-Flow Plumbing Fixtures
  • Rainwater Harvesting
  • Water-Efficient Landscaping
  • Irrigation
  • Water Metering

Water Performance
  • Intent Measure building and subsystem water
    performance over time to understand consumption
    patterns and identify opportunities for
    additional water savings.
  • Required
  • Metering Install permanent water meter(s).
  • Sub-metering In addition, install permanent
    metering for one or more of the following water
  • Irrigation
  • Indoor plumbing fixtures and fittings
  • Cooling towers.
  • Domestic hot water
  • Other process water

Additional Indoor Plumbing Fixture and Fitting
  • Intent Maximize indoor fixture and fitting water
    use within buildings to reduce the consequent
    burdens on potable water supply and wastewater
  • Required
  • Reduction in potable water use compared with
  • 10 reduction
  • up to
  • 35 reduction

Water Efficient Landscaping
  • Intent Limit or eliminate the use of potable
    water or other natural surface or subsurface
    resources available on or near the project for
    landscape irrigation.
  • Required
  • Reduction in potable water use compared with
  • 50 reduction
  • up to
  • 100 reduction

Water Efficient Landscaping
  • If providing permanent irrigation
  • Use high-efficiency technologies
  • Explore capturing mechanical condensate
  • Explore cisterns to capture rainwater
  • Explore graywater reuse
  • Note that landscaped area for calculations must
    remain constant between Base and Design case

Cooling Tower Water Management
  • Intent Reduce potable water consumption for
    cooling tower equipment through effective water
    management and/or use of nonpotable makeup water
  • Required
  • Chemical Management Develop and implement a
    water management plan for the cooling tower that
    addresses chemical treatment, bleed-off,
    biological control and staff training as it
    relates to cooling tower maintenance.
  • or
  • Nonpotable Water Source Use Use makeup water
    that consists of at least 50 nonpotable water.
    Have a measurement program in place that verifies
    makeup water quantities.

Energy Management Conservation
  • Energy Use Analysis / Audit
  • Building energy systems
  • Retro-commissioning / Ongoing Commissioning
  • Building Operating Plan / Sequence of Operation
  • Building Energy Performance
  • Preventative Maintenance Plan
  • Refrigerant
  • Energy Metering
  • On-Site and Off-Site Renewable Energy
  • Emission Reduction Reporting

Energy Efficiency Best Management Practices
Planning, Documentation, and Opportunity
  • Intent Promote continuity of information to
    ensure implementation of energy-efficient OM
    strategies and provide a foundation for training
    and system analysis.
  • Required Property / facility manager, or
    building engineer shall
  • Document sequence of operations
  • Develop building operating plan that details OM
  • Develop brief building systems narrative
  • Create narrative of the preventive maintenance
    plan for equipment described in the systems
  • Document the preventive maintenance schedule
    during the performance period

Energy Efficiency Best Management Practices
Planning, Documentation, and Opportunity
  • Continued
  • External commissioning agent or building
    operations staff shall
  • Conduct a ASHRAE Level I, walk-through
  • analysis (Preferably during the
  • performance period)
  • If Level I assessment was more than 2 years
    before LEED application submittal but within the
    last five years, the audit report will have to be
    updated integrate any significant changes in
    operating practices, building systems and/or
    energy costs.

Energy Efficiency Best Management Practices
Planning, Documentation, and Opportunity
  • Preliminary energy analysis / ASHRAE Level I,
    walk-through analysis
  • Assessment of a buildings energy consumption
  • (i.e. breakdown of total annual energy
    consumption by major end uses or applications )
  • and buildings energy performance
  • (i.e. summary of the projects site energy
    utilization index)
  • through the analysis of energy bills and a brief
    visual survey of the building

Energy Efficiency Best Management Practices
Planning, Documentation, and Opportunity
  • Initial assessment of savings potential
    (cost-benefit analysis of low-cost or no-cost
    energy efficiency and conservation
  • Examples of Energy Conservation Opportunities/
  • Install Compact Fluorescent Lamps
  • Install Occupancy Sensors
  • Adjust Heating/Cooling Temperatures
  • Increase Pipe Insulation
  • Train and educate occupants on energy saving
  • measures

Building Energy Performance
Project Eligible for Energy Star Rating ?
CASE 2 Alternative Score
Project already Energy Star Rated?
Year(s) of energy data
CASE 1 Energy Star Rating
CASE 2 Option 2A Streamlined Baseline
CASE 2 Option 2B Energy Baseline Including
Historical Data
CASE 2 Option 2C Energy Baseline Including
Historical Data plus Comparable Buildings
Energy Star provided by Portfolio Manager
Projects Eligible for Energy Star Rating
  • More than 50 of the building area must be
    defined by one of the following space types

Energy Star Rating - Eligibility
  • Additional eligibility requirements
  • The prior list is not exhaustive. Please refer to
    the ENERGY STAR Portfolio Managers Website
  • http//
  • Building Designation
  • Combined floor area of Other spaces 10 of
    Building GFA
  • Combined floor area of Multifamily spaces 10
    of Building GFA
  • Operating Characteristics
  • GFA 5,000 sf, except Hospital 20,000 sf
    Bank 1,000 sf

How to Calculate Energy Performance Rating, i.e
How Does Your Facility Perform?
  • Portfolio Manager
  • Rate building energy performance on a scale of
    1100 relative to similar buildings nationwide
  • Rating based on Commercial Building Energy
    Consumption Survey (CBECS)
  • Rating of 50 building consumes less energy
    than 50 of all similar buildings nationwide
  • Buildings rating 75 or greater may qualify for
    the ENERGY STAR Label.
  • http//

How to Use Energy Performance Rating
  • Source Julio Rovi, The Cadmus Group, Inc, ENERGY
    STAR Portfolio Manager

Projects Eligible for Energy Star Rating
  • EPA ENERGY STAR Energy Performance Rating
  • Projects can apply for the ENERGY STAR label

Improving Building Energy Performance
  • Should occur preferably
  • during performance period

Existing Building Commissioning Investigation
and Analysis
  • Intent Investigate and analyze building energy
    systems operation and options for improving
    building energy performance
  • Required
  • Commissioning Process OR ASHRAE Level II Energy
  • OPTION 1 Commissioning Process External
    commissioning agent or by members of the building
    operations staff shall
  • Develop a commissioning plan
  • Perform site assessment and commission energy
  • Document the breakdown of energy use in the
  • Investigate analyze operating problems and
    potential operational changes that will solve
  • Identify capital improvements that will be
    cost-effective based on the LCC and document
    associated cost-benefits

Existing Building Commissioning Investigation
and Analysis
  • Information to be included in a Commissioning
  • General building information
  • Scope of commissioning effort
  • Members of commissioning team, tasks and
  • responsibilities
  • Building systems narrative
  • Building operational plan
  • Timetable for completion and cost estimate

Existing Building Commissioning Investigation
and Analysis
  • OPTION 2 ASHRAE Level II Energy Audit
  • Conduct a ASHRAE Level II, Energy Survey and
    Analysis (Preferably during the performance
  • Document the breakdown of energy use in the
  • Perform a savings and cost analysis of all
    practical energy-efficient measures - and
    associated effects on operations and maintenance
    procedures - that meet the owners constraints
    and economic criteria
  • Identify capital improvements that will be
    cost-effective based on the LCC and document
    associated cost-benefits

Existing Building Commissioning Investigation
and Analysis
  • ASHRAE Level II Audits look not just at simple
    measures that offer quicker paybacks such as
    ASHRAE Level I, but in addition include more
    capital intensive measures
  • Information to be included in a ASHRAE Level II
    Energy Audit
  • Summary Energy Use (by Major End Use)
  • Building Systems Description
  • Rejected Energy Efficiency Measures
  • Recommended Energy Efficiency Measures
  • Table of Estimated Costs
  • Overall Project Economic Evaluation
  • Recommended Measurement Verification Methods
  • Potential Capital Improvements for Level III

Existing Building Commissioning Implementation
  • Intent Optimize building energy performance by
    implementing minor improvements and developing a
    capital plan to establish long-term priorities
    for major maintenance, upgrades, and investments
  • Required
  • Property / Facility manager or building engineer
  • Implement no-cost or low-cost energy conservation
    measures (ECMs) during the performance period

Existing Building Commissioning Implementation
  • Develop a capital plan for major retrofits or
  • Provide training on sustainable building
  • operation measures
  • No minimum requirement. USGBC
  • recommends 24 hrs per staff person
  • per year
  • Demonstrate the observed and/or anticipated
    financial costs and benefits of measures that
    have been
  • implemented
  • Update the building operating plan and system
    narrative in EAp1 as necessary

On-Site Renewable Energy
  • Eligible systems
  • Photovoltaic
  • Wind energy
  • Solar thermal
  • Biofuel-based
  • Untreated wood waste, including mill residues,
    agricultural crops or waste, animal waste and
    other organic waste, landfill gas.
  • Geothermal energy (but not GSHP)
  • Low-impact hydroelectric power
  • Wave and tidal power

Off-Site Renewable Energy
  • Green Power procured from a Green-e
    Energy-certified power marketer or a Green-e
    Energy-accredited utility program, or through
    Green-e Energy-certified tradable renewable
    energy certificates (RECs) or the equivalent.
  • At least a 2-year agreement and commitment to
    purchase Off-site Renewable Energy on an ongoing
    basis beyond that.

Emissions Reduction Reporting
  • Intent Document the emissions reduction benefits
    of building efficiency measures.
  • Required
  • Identify building performance parameters that
    reduce conventional energy use and emissions
  • Track and record emissions reductions delivered
    by energy efficiency, renewable energy and other
    building emissions reduction measures
  • Report emissions reductions using a third-party
    voluntary reporting or certification program
  • e.g. - U.S. EPA Climate Leaders,
  • World Resources Institute /
    World Business Council for
    Sustainable Development

Green Materials Procurement
  • Sustainable Purchasing Policy

Reused Materials
  • Intent Reuse building materials and products in
    order to reduce demand for virgin materials and
    to reduce waste.
  • Examples include
  • Flooring
  • Bathroom partitions
  • Doors and Frames
  • Furniture
  • Cabinetry
  • Brick
  • http//

Recycled Content Materials
  • Post-consumer material Waste material generated
    by end-users of the product
  • Steel If no info. available, assume 25
    post-consumer recycled content
  • Pre-consumer material Material diverted from
    waste stream during manufacturing process
  • Fly ash and slag (cement replacements)

Recycled Content Materials
  • Materials with Recycled-Content (typical)
  • Metals
  • Concrete
  • Acoustic tile
  • Carpet
  • Ceramic tile
  • Insulation

Regional Materials
  • Intent Increase demand for building materials
    and products that are extracted and manufactured
    within the region

Rapidly Renewable Materials
  • Typical rapidly renewable building products
    (10-year cycle or shorter)
  • Bamboo (flooring, cabinetry, wall paneling)
  • Strawboard, sunflower, wheatgrass (cabinetry,
    wall paneling)
  • Wool, cotton (wall covering, insulation)
  • Linoleum (flooring, wall covering)
  • Soy (cabinetry, wall covering, insulation)

Certified Wood Materials
  • Intent Encourage environmentally responsible
    forest management
  • Required Wood-based materials that are
    certified by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)

Solid Waste Management
  • Develop and implement policies for
  • Waste Stream Audit
  • Ongoing Consumables
  • Durable Goods
  • Facility Alterations or Additions

Indoor Environmental Quality
  • Ventilation Systems
  • Smoking Policy
  • Green Cleaning Policy
  • Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Management Plan
  • Air Filtration
  • Construction IAQ Management Plan
  • Occupant Comfort (Indoor Condition Metering,
  • Building Cleanliness
  • Lighting controllability
  • Daylight and Views

Building IAQ Management Program
  • Intent To enhance IAQ by optimizing practices to
    prevent the development of indoor air quality
    problems in buildings, correcting indoor air
    quality problems when they occur and maintaining
    the well-being of the occupants.
  • Required Develop and implement on an ongoing
    basis an IAQ management program based on the EPA
    Indoor Air Quality Building Education and
    Assessment Model (I-BEAM), EPA Reference Number
    402-C-01-001, Dec 2002.

IAQ Best Management Practices
  • IAQ management program based on I-BEAM
  • Source EPA
  • Flow hood used to measure the supply air flow
    from the supply register in a space

IAQ Management for Facility Additions and
  • Intent To prevent IAQ problems resulting from
    any construction or renovation projects to help
    sustain the comfort and well-being of
    construction workers and building occupants.

IAQ Management for Facility Additions and
  • If alterations/additions occurred during the
    performance period, provide photos highlighting
    the IAQ Management Plan practices.

Occupant Comfort Survey
  • Intent To provide for the assessment of
    building occupants comfort as it relates to
    thermal comfort, acoustics, IAQ, lighting levels,
    building cleanliness and any other comfort
  • Required
  • Implement an occupant comfort survey and
    complaint response system to collect anonymous
    responses about occupant comfort issues. Survey
    must be collected from at least 30 of total
    occupants and must include an assessment of
    overall satisfaction with building performance
    and identification of any comfort-related

Occupant Comfort Survey
  • Continued
  • Document survey results and corrective actions to
    address comfort issues identified through the
  • Conduct at least 1 occupant survey during the
    performance period.
  • Source Demand Response Research Center
  • Survey results from office building in California

  • Post-Occupancy Evaluation at The Global Ecology

Daylight Views
  • Intent To provide building occupants with a
    connection between indoor spaces and the outdoors
    through the introduction of daylight and views
    into the regularly occupied areas of the

Green Cleaning Policy
  • Intent To reduce the exposure of building
    occupants and maintenance personnel to
    potentially hazardous chemical, biological and
    particulate contaminants, which adversely affect
    air quality, human health, building finishes,
    building systems and the environment.

Green Cleaning Policy
  • Required Have in place a green cleaning policy
    for the building and site addressing the
    following credits/requirements
  • Purchase sustainable cleaning and hard floor and
    carpet care products.
  • Purchase green cleaning equipment.
  • Establish standard operating procedures
    addressing how effective cleaning the hard floor
    and carpet maintenance system will be
    consistently utilized, managed and audited.

Green Cleaning Policy
  • Continued
  • Develop strategies for promoting and improving
    hand hygiene.
  • Develop guidelines addressing the safe handling
    and storage of cleaning chemicals used in the
  • Develop requirements for staffing and training of
    maintenance personnel appropriate to building
  • Collect occupant feedback and continuous
    improvement to evaluate new tech, process

High Performance Cleaning Program
  • Intent To reduce the exposure of building
    occupants and maintenance personnel to
    potentially hazardous chemical, biological and
    particulate contaminants, which adversely affect
    air quality, human health, building finishes,
    building systems and the environment.

Custodial Effectiveness Assessment
  • APPA Audit Steps
  • Step 1 Assess the building floor plan according
    to APPA space categories.
  • Step 2 Randomly select spaces to be audited,
    ensuring each space is adequately represented.
  • Step 3 Identify the auditor or auditors

Custodial Effectiveness Assessment
  • Continued
  • Step 4 Develop an audit analysis for each space
    type. There are 5 appearance levels
  • Level 1 Orderly Spotlessness
  • Level 2 Ordinary Tidiness
  • Level 3 Casual Inattention
  • Level 4 Moderate Dinginess
  • Level 5 Unkempt Neglect
  • Step 5 Conduct the audit
  • Step 6 Calculate the overall appearance level of
    the building
  • Step 7 Credit achievement/denial

Innovation in Operations
  • Exemplary Performance
  • Significant and Measurable Environmental
    Performance using an OM or system upgrade
    strategy not addressed in LEED-EB OM
  • Documenting Sustainable Building Cost Impacts

Questions ?
Costs and Benefits of Green Building
What do Green Buildings Cost?
  • Cost of Green Revisited Davis Langdon 2007
  • there is no significant difference in average
    cost for green buildings as compared to non-green
  • Construction costs have risen dramatically, but
    projects are still achieving LEED
  • The idea that green is an added feature continues
    to be a problem

Where Green Building Should and Shouldnt Cost
  • It should cost more
  • Time spent up front in goal setting and team
  • Time spent in the Learning Curve, if applicable.
  • Hard first costs for systems and materials with
    high return on investment.
  • It shouldnt cost more
  • Time spent at the end adding green design to
    the project, redoing work because of poor
    communication or reinventing the documentation.
  • Hard first costs for systems and materials with
    low return on investment.
  • Operating expenses should be less!

What does LEED Certification Cost?
  • The cost to achieve LEED certification can depend
    upon a variety of factors and assumptions,
  • Type and size of project
  • Timing of introduction of LEED as a design goal
    or requirement
  • Level of LEED certification desired
  • Composition and structure of the design and
    construction teams
  • Experience and knowledge of designers and
    contractors or willingness to learn
  • Process used to select LEED credits
  • Clarity of the project implementation documents
  • Base case budgeting assumptions.
  • (Source Managing the Cost of Green Buildings,
    October 2003)

What does LEED Certification Cost?
  • The average reported cost premium for all 33
    buildings studied is somewhat less than 2.
  • (Source The Costs and Financial Benefits of
    Green Buildings, October 2003)

What does Green Building Save?
  • An upfront investment of lt 2 of construction
    costs yields life cycle savings of over 10 times
    the initial investment.
  • For example, an initial upfront investment of up
    to 100,000 to incorporate green building
    features into a 5 million project would result
    in a savings of at least 1 million over the life
    of the building, assumed conservatively to be 20
  • (Source Costs and Financial Benefits of Green
    Buildings, October 2003)

What does Green Building Save?
  • (Source Costs and Financial Benefits of Green
    Buildings, October 2003)

What does Commissioning Save?
  • State of Oregon Office of Energy study of direct
    energy savings for two buildings after completing
    a commissioning plan.
  • The results showed that commissioning increased
    energy efficiency by 5-10.
  • In the 110,000 sq. ft. office building, energy
    savings of 12,276 per year (0.12 per square
    foot) were realized.
  • In a 22,000 sq. ft. office building, the energy
    savings were 7,630 per year (0.35 per square
    foot) (LEED-NC 2.1).
  • (Source If You Build It Green, They Will Come,

What does Commissioning Save?
  • The study also estimated indirect costs
    associated with complaints about temperature and
    lighting, two very common indoor environmental
  • The results showed that if 20of building
    occupants expended 30 minutes per month
    complaining about lightening or temperature
    conditions, the employer would lose 0.10 per
    square foot in annual productivity. For a 100,000
    sq. ft. building, this equates to a loss of
    10,000 per year.

What does Commissioning Save?
  • Continued
  • This estimate only relates to time spent
    complaining and not to costs from lost time due
    to employee illness, tenant turnover, vacant
    office space, liability associated with poor
    indoor air quality (IAQ) and building repairs
    (LEED-NC 2.1).
  • (Source If You Build It Green, They Will Come,

Why Bother with Benchmarking?
  • Potential Savings
  • Commercial Office Buildings in the United States
  • Use over 28 billion kWh for cooling each year
  • Consume 15 of all energy at a cost of over 85
    billion annually
  • Half of that energy may be unnecessarily wasted
  • Cool roofs alone on ½ of buildings could save 1.6
    billion kWh annually, or approx 130 million

Great Seneca Creek (Northwest 7) Elementary
  • Owner Montgomery County Public Schools (MCPS)
  • Mechanical Geothermal
  • Est. Energy
  • Savings 35 over ASHRAE 90.1
  • Achieved LEED-NC Gold
  • Original goal LEED-NC Gold
  • Size 88,000
  • Premium 0 budgeted
  • Process Spec LEED

(Source MCPS)
Little Bennett (Clarksburg/ Damascus 7)
Elementary School
  • Owner Montgomery County Public Schools (MCPS)
  • Original goal LEED-NC Certified (not pursued)
  • Size 88,000
  • Premium 0 budgeted
  • Process Northwest was the prototype
  • Specs were greened
  • Result No Cx
  • Higher energy use than Northwest 7

(Source MCPS)
Getting the Word Out
  • Websites
  • News Releases
  • Blogs
  • Building Tours
  • On-site building Workshops

Continuing Education
  • Career-long training in latest advancements
  • LEED Green Associate training, exam and
    professional credential
  • Green Building Operations Maintenance (GBOM)
    training, exam and professional credential
  • CEU programs by IFMA, BOMA, ASHRAE, IIDA, AIA,

Career Opportunities
  • Green building positions in government
  • Green property management opportunities
  • Green industry research

One and Two Potomac Yard Project Information
  • Two towers, each 12 stories tall
  • 9 floors of office, 650,000 sf total
  • 6 levels of garage(3 above grade, 3 below)
  • EPA is lead tenant withmore than 405,000 sf
  • Construction start May 2004
  • Completed March 2006

Potomac Yard The Story
  • Originally conceived as a pair of conventionally
    designed, speculative office buildings, had
    already gone out to bid.
  • GSA released a Solicitation for Offers (SFO) for
    400,000 square feet for the U.S. EPA. This
    incentive effectively changed everything and
    threw everyone into the mixing bowl of delivering
    green buildings.
  • The GSA/EPA SFO required LEED Silver
    certification, but it also required Federal green
    building standards.
  • The team embarked upon a lengthy process of
    building trust and building team expertise.

Project Goals and Objectives
  • Goals
  • Sustainable Development Meet needs of the
    present without compromising ability of future
    generations to meet their needs
  • Crescent Resources Mission Statement
    Care for the environment and the communities we
  • Objectives
  • EPA Meet lease requirements
  • LEED Earn at least Silver Rating for each

EPA Lease Requirements
  • Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Testing during
    construction and before occupancy
  • Low-VOC materials
  • Energy savings of 20 and ENERGY STAR building
  • Recycled-content products according to EPAs
    Comprehensive Procurement Guidelines (CPG)
  • Construction-waste management program
  • HVAC-system performance standards, including
    airflow and filter requirements
  • Bicycle storage and changing and shower
  • Recycling rooms

Sustainable Sites Land Use Strategies
  • Prereq 1 Erosion Sedimentation Control
  • Plan per Arlington County VA regulations
  • Credit 1 Site Selection
  • Site without sensitive elements or restricted
    land types
  • Credit 2 Development Density
  • Site surrounded by dense development
  • Credit 3 Brownfield Redevelopment
  • Former rail yard
  • Credit 4 AlternativeTransportation
  • 2 WMATA bus lines, Metro, VRE
  • Bicycle storage changing shower facilities
  • Electric-vehicle fueling stations
  • Parking at 50 of marketcar van pool spaces

Site and Building Design Challenges and
  • Multi-faceted design and specification revisions
    prior to construction start
  • Overlay of LEED and EPA criteria, along with
    County requirements, etc.
  • Role of LEED Consultant as guide through the maze
    of LEED options and nuances

Sustainable Sites Site Design Strategies
  • Credit 5 Reduced Site Disturbance (Two Potomac
    Yard Only)
  • Restore land adjacent to development
  • Credit 6 Stormwater Management
  • Followed Arlington County / Chesapeake Bay
  • Stormwater treated by sand filtration system
  • Credit 7 Heat Island Effect
  • Design of non-roof and roof areas mitigate
    negative effects on microclimate
  • Roof canopy required by Arlington complicated
    achievement of this
  • Credit 8 Light Pollution Reduction
  • Minimized light trespass, but not enough for
    the LEED point

Water Efficiency Site and Building
  • Credit 1 Water-Efficient Landscaping
  • Drought-resistant plants eliminate need for
    irrigation systems
  • Credit 3 Water UseReduction
  • Occupied buildings useover 40 less water
    thanbuilding baselines
  • Reconfirmation of dual-flush toilet
    permissibility with Arlington County

Energy and Atmosphere
  • Prereq 1 Fundamental Building Systems
  • Independent commissioning agent
  • Prereq 2 Minimum Energy Performance
  • ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-1999
  • Prereq 3 CFC Reduction in HVACR Equipment
  • CFC-free HVAC refrigeration systems
  • Credit 1 Optimize Energy Performance
  • Energy over 20 costs belowASHRAE/IESNA Standard
    90.1-1999 baseline
  • Credit 3 Additional Commissioning
  • Additional review of construction
    documents,commissioning manual, OM staff

Energy Star Certification also required for both
Energy and Atmosphere (cont.)
  • Credit 4 Ozone Protection
  • HCFC- Halon-free HVAC refrigeration systems
  • Credit 5 Measurement andVerification(One
    Potomac Yard only)
  • Continuous metering equipment
  • Meeting EPA requirements in
    Potomac Yard, but not enough for the LEED point
  • Credit 6 Green Power
  • EPA elected to pay for more than the total amount
    required of Green-E-certified power

Materials and Resources Design, Selection and
  • Prerequisite Storage Collection of Recyclables
  • Credit 2 Construction-Waste Management
  • Almost 75 of construction debris diverted from
  • Credit 4 Recycled Content
  • Value of post-consumer recycled content ½
    post-industrial recycled content 10 of value
    of all materials
  • Very important to the OSWER!
  • Credit 5 Regional Materials
  • Over 40 regionally manufactured
  • Over 10 regionally extracted/harvested/recovered
  • Credit 6 Certified Wood
  • More than 50 of wood products in buildings use
    wood from FSC-certified forests
  • Source FSC

Indoor Environmental Quality
  • Prereq 1 Minimum IAQ Performance
  • Comply with ASHRAE 62-1999
  • Prereq 2 Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS)
  • No smoking in building, designated outside
    smoking areas away from entryways
  • Credit 1 Carbon Dioxide Monitoring
  • Building-management control systems
  • Credit 3 Construction IAQ Management
  • Comply with SMACNA guidelines
  • Protect absorptive materials
  • Install air filters during construction
  • Replace air filters before occupancy
  • Source JHU Bloomberg School of Public Health

Indoor Environmental Quality (cont.)
  • Credit 4 Low-Emitting Materials
  • Low-VOC adhesives sealants
  • Low-VOC paints coatings
  • Green Label carpet systems
  • No added urea-formaldehyde resins in composite
    wood products
  • Credit 5 Indoor Chemical Pollutant Source
  • Permanent entryway systems to capture
  • Segregation ventilation of chemical-use areas
  • Credit 7 Thermal Comfort
  • Comply with ASHRAE 55-1992
  • Permanent monitoring of temperature
    humidity,and allow operator control
  • Credit 8 Daylight Views
  • Allow direct line of sight to outdoors from 90
    ofoccupied spaces

Innovation and Design Process
  • Credit 1 Innovation in Design
  • 40 regionally manufactured materials
  • Green Housekeeping
  • User Education Plan
  • 40 water use reduction
  • Credit 2 LEED-Accredited Professional
  • At least 8 LEED-Accredited Professionalson
    project team

Green Operations and Maintenance
  • Building One also earned LEED-EB version 2.0
    Gold-level certification in 2008
  • Lease only required Silver
  • Building Two is now beginning pursuit of LEED-EB
  • Team is looking at the possibility of Platinum
  • Energy analysis was performed to ensure new
    tenant equipment usage did not exceed allowance
    for Energy Star certification

Blair Towns Apartments
  • Owner The Tower Companies
    (hands-on committed to
    green design,
    with or without incentives)
  • 78 rental apartment units in
    downtown Silver Spring, MD
  • Urban infill site on existing
    Blair Apartments
  • 3- and 4-story portions
  • User education plan
  • First LEED Certified-level
    apartment community, 2004
  • Currently in LEED-EB OM

Blair Towns Apartments
  • The total green premium was 3
  • 2 soft cost and 1 hard cost, with the soft
    costs being as follows
  • Commissioning                         30,000
  • Environmental Consulting           65,000
    (includes energy modeling)
  • Tracer Gas Testing                      5,000
    (for ETS Control)
  • Outside Air Sealing Inspector       4,000
  • Architect's premium                    10,000
  • Testing Balancing                      1,000
  • Total Premium                         115,000
  • (Source The Tower Companies)

Green Operations Maintenance
  • Tower Companies banned smoking throughout the
  • Blair Towns is now pursuing LEED-EB OM
    certification, possibly at the Platinum level
  • Green OM policies developed for the Blair Towns
    will be in use throughout the existing
    residential, office and retail buildings at the
    Blairs development
  • Green OM can be done for
    residential buildings too!

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Sustainable Design Consulting, LLC The Buggy
Factory 1421 Lombardy Alley, 1st Floor Richmond,
VA 23219 Ph 804-644-3880 Fax 804-644-3881 Sandra Leibowitz Earley,
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