3' Introduction to the Book of Job - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

1 / 30
About This Presentation

3' Introduction to the Book of Job


1.1 'As in the case of Qoheleth (Ecclesiastes), the disturbing thoughts of Job ... He drew skillfully on his rich vocabulary and knowledge of the various dialects ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:43
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 31
Provided by: davidchar


Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: 3' Introduction to the Book of Job

3. Introduction to the Book of Job
1. Title and Place in Canon
  • 1.1 As in the case of Qoheleth (Ecclesiastes),
    the disturbing thoughts of Job did not prevent
    its acceptance in the biblical canon. An
    occasional rabbinic dissent against the
    historicity of the character Job has survived
    (Baba Bathra 15a), and one Christian thinker,
    Theodore of Mopsuestia, questioned the books
    sacred authority. The sequence of writings varied
    at first, Job being placed between Psalms and
    Proverbs in the Talmud, and in Codex
    Alexandrinus, but preceding Psalms and Proverbs
    in Cyril of Jerusalem, Epiphanius, Jerome,
    Rufinus, and the Apostolic Canons. Jewish
    tradition designates the two different sequences
    by the acrostic abbreviations )mt (truth) for
    Job ()iyob) Proverbs (misle), and Psalms (
    tehill_m ), and t)m (twin) for Psalms, Job,
    and Proverbs. The Council of Trent fixed the
    order with Job in the initial position. James
    L. Crenshaw, Job, Book of, Anchor Bible
    Dictionary, CD-Rom Edition (New York Doubleday,
    1992, 1997)

1. Title and Place in Canon
  • 1.2 The LXX placed all the poetical books after
    the historical writings but before the prophets,
    with the result that Psalms, Proverbs,
    Ecclesiastes, and Canticles preceded Job. This
    order was altered somewhat in Codex Alexandrinus,
    which placed Job between Psalms and Proverbs,
    while some of the early Fathers, including Cyril
    of Jerusalem, Epiphanius, and Jerome, knew of a
    canon in which Job preceded the Psalter and
    Proverbs. R. K. Harrison, Introduction to the
    Old Testament, (Grand Rapids Wm. B. Eerdmans,
    1969), 1022
  • 1.3 The Syriac Peshitta places Job after
    Deuteronomy in honor of the tradition that Moses
    was its author. John E. Hartley, The Book of
    Job, The New International Commentary on the Old
    Testament, (Grand Rapids, Michigan William B.
    Eerdmans, 1988), 3

1. Title and Place in Canon
  • 1.4 Talmud, Baba Bathra 14b . . . The order of
    the Hagiographa is Ruth, the Book of Psalms, Job,
    Prophets, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs,
    Lamentations, Daniel and the Scroll of Esther,
    Ezra and Chronicles. Now on the view that Job
    lived in the days of Moses, should not the book
    of Job come first? We do not begin with a
    record of suffering. But Ruth also is a record of
    suffering? It is a suffering with a sequel of
    happiness, as R. Johanan said Why was her named
    called Ruth? Because there issued from her
    David who replenished the Holy One, blessed be
    He, with hymns and praises. Who wrote the
    Scriptures? --Moses wrote his own book and the
    portion of Balaam and Job. . . .

1. Title and Place in Canon
  • 1.5 Tamud, Baba Bathra 15a . . . You say that
    Moses wrote his book and the section of Balaam
    and Job. This supports the opinion of R. Joshua
    b. Levi b. Lahma who said that Job was
    contemporary with Moses. The proof is that it
    is written here in connection with Job, O that
    my words were now written and it is written
    elsewhere in connection with Moses, For wherein
    now shall it be known. But on that ground I might
    say that he was contemporary with Isaac, in
    connnection with whom it is written, Who now is
    he that took venison? Or I might say that he was
    contemporary with Jacob, in connection with whom
    it is written, If so now do this or with Joseph,
    in connection with whom it is written, Where they
    are pasturing? --This cannot be maintained The
    proof that Job was contemporary with Moses is
    that it is written in continuation of the above
    words of Job, Would that they were inscribed in
    a book, and it is Moses who is called
    'inscriber', as it is written, And he chose the
    first part for himself, for there was the
    lawgiver's portion reserved.

2. Text and Versions
  • 2.1 General Summary
  • Textual problems abound in the book, and the
    much shorter Greek versions seldom resolve the
    difficulties. Often merely a paraphrase, the
    Greek text sometimes elucidates a theological
    bias in the present MT, for example the
    repointing of a negative particle in 1315 to
    affirm trust in God even when faced with the
    prospect of death at the deitys hand. The Syriac
    Peshitta assists in clarifying obscure meanings
    of the Hebrew text. Enough of the Targum from
    Qumran has survived to confirm the same disorder
    in chaps. 2427 as that in the Hebrew. One
    surprising feature of the Targum is its
    termination at 4211 instead of 4217. Jeromes
    Latin translation of the Hebrew text of Job was
    influenced by the Greek translations of Aquila,
    Theodotion, Symmachus, and the Alexandrian
    version as mediated by Origens Hexapla.

2. Text and Versions
  • 2.2 MT
  • 2.2.1 The many rare words and textual
    disturbances make the Hebrew of Job one of the
    most obscure in the OT. The ancient versions
    testify to the fact that many passages were
    unintelligible even to the earliest translators.
    Hartley, The Book of Job, 3
  • 2.2.2 As in other books of the OT, so in Job
    variants that materially affect the sense,
    whether between existing MSS of ? or between the
    Qre and Kethib, are not numerous but ? is
    rendered peculiarly difficult in Job by the fact
    that the version is often free and periphrastic
    and the use of ? for determining the original
    text of ? is greatly limited by the fact that
    much of that text was not rendered at all.
    Driver Gray, A Critical and Exegetical
    Commentary on the Book of Job, lxxi

2. Text and Versions
  • 2.3 LXX
  • 2.3.1 The Greek text (LXX) is essentially a
    faithful translation of the Hebrew. A few variant
    readings bear witness to a different Hebrew text
    but many of these variants are attempts to cope
    with an obscure text. Though the translator
    fluctuated between literal renderings and
    paraphrases, in a extensive analysis of the LXX
    Orlinsky has demonstrated that its translator
    strove to render the Hebrew into Greek as
    accurately as possible. His work leads him to
    reject the view that the translator was
    frequently governed by his theological bias in
    his translations. Nevertheless, this translator,
    like any other, was influenced by his theological
    outlook, e.g., on occasion he slated the
    translation toward Gods exalted, unassailable
    perfection. The most remarkable feature of the
    oldest Greek text is that it is shorter than the
    MT by some 400 lines.

2. Text and Versions
  • 2.3 LXX
  • 2.3.2 Driver-Gray Line list

2. Text and Versions
  • 2.3 LXX
  • 2.3.3 One explanation for these omissions is
    that the book of Job has been translated into
    Greek before its development was complete. But
    because the number of omissions increases
    significantly in the trite third cycle and in the
    wordy Elihu speeches, and because many of the
    lines omitted are recurring lines and thoughts, a
    more likely explanation is that the Greek
    translator abridged the speeches intentionally.
    Hartley, The Book of Job, 3-4

2. Text and Versions
  • 2.4 Targums
  • 2.4.1 The Targum, the Aramaic translation and
    paraphrase, follows the MT closely but has some
    of its own idiosyncrasies, e.g., interpreting
    some verses in the light of Israels history and
    adding theological explanations (e.g., 1.6, 15
    20.26-28). Hartley, The Book of Job, 4
  • 2.4.2 There are two mss of targums (Aramaic
    translations) to the book of Job among the Dead
    Sea Scrolls found at Wadi Qumran a substantial
    text found in Cave 11, consisting of about 20
    percent of the book in 38 fragmentary cols
    (11QtgJob) and two small ms fragments from Cave
    4, essentially comprising about a dozen
    fragmentary lines from two cols (4QtgJob). The ms
    do not overlap the Cave 4 fragments preserve

2. Text and Versions
  • 2.4 Targums
  • text from chaps. 35, while the Cave 11 material
    preserves intermittent text from 1714 to the end
    of the book. Because of the lack of common text
    and, even more, because the Cave 4 Targum is so
    little preserved, it is an open question as to
    whether these two texts preserve the same or
    distinct Aramaic versions of Job. In any case,
    neither of these targums appears to show any
    direct relationship to the standard targum found
    in the Rabbinical Bible and available, for
    example, in the edition of Lagarde.Bruce
    Zuckerman, Job, Targums of, Anchor Bible
    Dictionary, CD-Rom Edition (New York Doubleday,
    1992, 1997)

2. Text and Versions
  • 2.5 Peshitta
  • 2.5.1 The Syriac Peshitta, which was translated
    directly from the Hebrew, offers insight into
    some obscure words and difficult passages. As the
    textual tradition of the MT becomes more fully
    understood, the Peshittas value in the textual
    studies will increase. Hartley, The Book of
    Job, 4
  • 2.6 Latin
  • 2.6.1 After having translated Job into Latin
    from the Greek at the end of the 4th century AD,
    Jerome decided to improve the translation by
    working directly from the Hebrew text. To help
    him with this task he engaged a rabbi of Lydda,
    who opened the rabbinic tradition to him.
    Therefore, the Vulgate offers some assistance in
    determining the original Hebrew text of Job.

3. Language
  • 3.1 The language of the book of Job is notable
    for its numerous rare words and unique examples
    of morphology and syntax. Many suggestions have
    been made to account for its singular nature.
    Since the story may have an Edomite setting, it
    has been suggested that the author was an
    Edomite, a descendant of Esau, Jacobs brother
    (Gen 25.23-24). Since Edom was famous for its
    wisdom (cf. Obadiah), it is possible that Job is
    an example of that wisdom tradition. The lack of
    any significant literary documents from that
    region prevents the testing of this hypothesis.
    Hartley, The Book of Job, 5

3. Language
  • 3.2 From the time of Ibn Ezra (12th cent AD)
    some scholars have thought that Job was
    translated into Hebrew from another language,
    perhaps Arabic or Aramaic. . . . While scholars
    frequently resort to Arabic to help explain some
    of the obscure words, the insights are not
    frequent enough and consistent enough for the
    book to have been composed in Arabic. In another
    effort to account for the peculiarity of the
    language of this book, Tur-Sinai posits that the
    MT arose from a partial translation into Hebrew
    of a lost Aramaic original. In his opinion, the
    translator left many Aramaic words and phrases
    untranslated because of their closeness to
    Hebrew. In addition, the author mistranslated
    various words. Tur-Sinai identifies the language
    as the Babylonian Aramaic of the 6th century B.C.

3. Language
  • Furthermore, he posits that the Masoretes added
    to the confession by incorrectly vocalizing many
    words. Working with these hypotheses, Tur-Sinai
    makes many new and unique interpretations of the
    MT of Job. But because he goes so far in his
    efforts, his ingenious insights are buried amidst
    many wild speculations. . Hartley, The Book of
    Job, 5
  • 3.3 It is clear that the author wrote in a
    dialect distinct from the Hebrew of Jerusalem, in
    which much of the OT is composed. His dialect was
    closer to Aramaic. The author may also have been
    multilingual, as are many inhabitants of a region
    in which many related languages are spoken. He
    drew skillfully on his rich vocabulary and
    knowledge of the various dialects of Hebrew to
    probe the depth of his subject. Hartley, The
    Book of Job, 6

4. O.T. Parallels Proverbs
4. O.T. Parallels Psalms
4. O.T. Parallels Psalms
4. O.T. Parallels Lamentations
4. O.T. Parallels Other Books
4. O.T. Parallels Other Books
4. O.T. Parallels Isaiah
5. Authorship
  • 5.1 The author of Job hides nameless in the
    background of his work while demonstrating
    overwhelming sensitivity to the human plight,
    capacity for massive theological understanding,
    grasp of vast areas of culture and learning,
    insight into deep struggles among opinionated
    persons, and skill in literary craftsmanship.
    Rarely in the history of artistic endeavor has
    anyone left such a noble legacy yet so little
    evidence of his identity, circumstances, or
    motive. William Sanford LaSor, David Allan
    Hubbard and Frederic Wm. Bush, Old Testament
    Survey The Message, Form, and Background of the
    Old Testament, (Grand Rapids Wm B. Eerdmans,
    1982, 1st edition), 562

6. Literary Genres Used
  • 6.1 Lament
  • description of suffering 6.2-4, 11-13 7.3-6
    9.25-28 10.1 16.6-17 17.1-2, 6-9 19.13-20
  • apprehensive fear
  • of death 13.28 14.18-22 17.11-16
  • of God 23.15-17
  • sorrow at general human suffering 7.1-2 14.1-12
  • justification of lamenting 6.5-7
  • complaint
  • against friends 6.14-27 12.2-6 13.1-3 16.2-5
    17.10 19.2-6 21.34 26.2-4.
  • against God 7.7-10, 11-21 9.17-18, 21-24
    10.2-7, 13-17 16.7-14 19.7-12

6. Literary Genres Used
  • 6.2 Lawsuit
  • with the friends 13.4-12
  • with God 9.2-4, 14-16, 19-20, (28b), 29-33
    13.13-17 (purposed), 18-27 23.3-7 (wish)
  • 6.3 Petition
  • to the friends 6.28-29 19.21-22
  • to God
  • wish to die 6.8-10 7.15
  • wish for some relief before death 7.7-10, 16-21
    10.18-22 14(5-6), 13-17
  • request for the easing of his suffering so that
    he can dispute with God 9.34-35 13.20-21
  • plea for vindication 16.18 17.3-4 19.23-24
  • plea for deliverance form enemies 27.7-10

6. Literary Genres Used
  • 6.4 Hymnic lines in praise of God 9.5-13
    10.8-12 12.13-25 23.8-9, 13-14 26.5-14
  • 6.5 Avowal of innocence 6.28-30 16.17
    23.10-12 27.2-6
  • 6.6 Affirmation of trust in God 16.19-22
    19.25-27 23.6-7
  • 6.7 Wisdom instruction 12.7-12
  • 6.8 Warning to friends 17.5 19.28-29
  • 6.9 Disputation on the success of wicked
    21.2-33 24.1-17 (followed by a curse on the
    wicked, 24.18-24, and a challenge to be proven
    wrong, 24.25)

7. Structure of Job
  • 1. Prologue 1.1-2.10
  • 2. Discourses 2.11-31.40
  • 2.1 Setting 2.11-13
  • 2.2 Job Curses the Day of his Birth 3.1-26
  • 2.3 The First Discourse Cycle 4.1-14.22
  • 2.3.1 Eliphaz Speech 4.1-5.27
  • 2.3.2 Job Speech 6.1-7.21
  • 2.3.3 Bildad Speech 8.1-22
  • 2.3.4 Job Speech 9.1-10.22
  • 2.3.5 Zophar Speech 11.1-20
  • 2.3.6 Job Speech 12.1-14.22

7. Structure of Job
  • 2.4 The Second Discourse Cycle 15.1-21.34
  • 2.4.1 Eliphaz Speech 15.1-35
  • 2.4.2 Job Speech 16.1-17.16
  • 2.4.3 Bildad Speech 18.1-21
  • 2.4.4 Job Speech 19.1-29
  • 2.4.5 Zophar Speech 20.1-29
  • 2.4.6 Job Speech 21.1-34
  • 2.5 The Third Discourse Cycle 22.1-31.40
  • 2.5.1 Eliphaz Speech 22.1-30
  • 2.5.2 Job Speech 23.1-24.17
  • 2.5.3 Bildad Speech 25.1-6 26.5-14
  • 2.5.4 Job Speech 26.1-4 27.1-7
  • 2.5.5 Zophar Speech 27.8-23 24.18-20, 22-25

7. Structure of Job
  • 3. A Hymn to Wisdom 28.1-28
  • 4. Job Speech 29.1-31.40
  • 5. The Words of Elihu 32.1-37.24
  • 6. God Answers Job out of the Whirlwind 38.1-42.6
  • 6.1 Gods First Answer 38.1-40.5
  • 6.2 Gods Second Answer 40.6-42.6
  • 7. Epilogue 42.7-17
Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
About PowerShow.com