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Globalisation of Knowledge: Challenges


For the first time, a really international world of learning, highly competitive, ... we cannot be complacent...because other international competitors like Australia, ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Globalisation of Knowledge: Challenges

Globalisation of Knowledge Challenges
Opportunities for Higher Education and Higher
Education Institutions
  • Dr Ellen Hazelkorn
  • Dublin Institute of Technology, Ireland
  • Programme in Higher Education and Research
  • University of Lausanne
  • November 2005

  • For the first time, a really international world
    of learning, highly competitive, is emerging. If
    you want to get into that orbit, you have to do
    so on merit. You cannot rely on politics or
    anything else. . .  Research is a core element
    of the mission of higher education. The extent
    to which higher education institutions are
    engaged in research and development activities
    has a key role in determining the status and the
    quality of these institutions and the
    contribution, which they make to economic and
    social development.

  1. Higher Education in a Global Knowledge
  2. Restructuring the University for Change
  3. Challenges and Opportunities for Policymakers and
    Higher Education Institutions

1. Higher Education in a Global Knowledge
  • . we cannot be complacentbecause other
    international competitors like Australia, China
    and India are making big strategic investments in
    their best research and if we do not do the same
    we will slip down the research league (UK
    Department for Education and Skills, 2004).
  • if Europe wants to remain competitive at
    international level, more investments both public
    and private, are going to be required to generate
    scientific and technological that can be compared
    to the performance of the USA or Japan (Rainer,
  • The continued transition to more knowledge-based
    economies, coupled with growing competition from
    non-OECD countries, has increased reliance of
    OECD countries on the creation, diffusion and
    exploitation of scientific and technological
    knowledge, as well as other intellectual assets,
    as a means of enhancing growth and productivity.
    (OECD, 2004a)

Changing Idea of the University
  • Classical University mission and role of higher
    education and academic research distinct from
    commercial activity
  • American Graduate School mission to train the
    next generation of scholar-researchers
  • Polytechnics and New Generation Universities
    new model catering for wider range of
    socio-economic groups and educational

Post-WW2, post-Sputnik era...
  • Economic and demographic boom
  • Significance of scientific discovery
  • Perceived gap between investment and output in
    terms of innovation and contribution to the
    national economy
  • Subdivision of disciplines and professionalisation
    of academic careers
  • Heightened importance of educational attainment

Post-1970s Pressures
  • Fiscal crisis ? management by market forces
  • Knowledge-based economy
  • Sophisticated labour market student demand
  • Restructuring of HEIs ? pressures on the academy
  • Massification and universalisation of higher
  • Accountability and responsibility

Changing HE environment
  • Globalisation and internationalisation
  • Demographics and enrolment patterns
  • Technological revolution
  • Stricter regulatory environment
  • New educational sites and formats
  • Changing nature of the workplace and academic work

New Model of HEI?
  • In contrast to older, traditional universities,
    new HEIs
  • have grown exponentially and now majority of all
    HEIs around the world
  • channelled mass demand away from historically
    elite sector
  • influenced wider debate about institutional and
    research diversity
  • emphasize particular skills and training,
  • accommodate new areas of knowledge via
    innovative courses suited to the new economies
  • engage directly with the wider community
  • support both applied and long-term RD

Restructuring HE systems
  • Traditional institutional boundaries fading
  • Elite vs. Mass
  • Vocational vs. Academic
  • Technological vs. Traditional
  • Undergraduate vs. Postgraduate
  • New binary emerging?
  • Teaching vs Research
  • Third level vs Fourth level
  • Regional/community vs National/international

Higher Education Mission
  • To produce new knowledge
  • To produce new knowledge workers
  • To produce new knowledge producers

Theories Underlying Change
  • Competitive Advantage (Porter, 1990)
  • National Systems of Innovation (Lundvall, 1992
    Nelson, 1993)
  • Triple Helix (Etzkowitz and Leydesdorff, 1997)
  • Mode 2 (Gibbons, et al, 1994 Nowotny et al,
  • Entrepreneurial University (Clark, 1998 Clark,

Competitive Advantage
  • Distinguishes between
  • Comparative advantage inherited factors like
    cheap labour or energy, or natural resources
  • Competitive advantage which is created via a menu
    of institutional or enterprise strategies
  • 4 interlinked factors
  • Factor conditions adequate infrastructure/funding
    , research competence and capability
  • Demand conditions relevance and interest in
    research/academic output
  • Organisational strategy management/organisational
  • Regional/national relations membership/participat
    ion in collaborative networks and partnerships
  • Role of Government critical

National Systems of Innovation
  • Technological advance in advanced industrial
    nations proceeds through the close and complex
    interaction the close interaction between
    science, research and development.
  • Policy focused on creating the environment
    necessary for promoting collaboration and
    interdependence between the different actors
    (universities, private firms, government/public
  • As a result, HEIs are now widely regarded as an
    integral part of the national innovation system.

Triple Helix
  • Transformation of knowledge into wealth requires
    tripartite collaboration or triple helix, which
  • network between university/researchers-industry-go
  • each element recognises the mutual benefit of
    such co-operation
  • evolving networks of communication
  • Boundaries between public and private, science
    and technology, university and industry are in
    flux. Universities and firms are assuming tasks
    that were formerly the province of the other

Mode 2
  • Mode 2
  • Intellectual and strategic importance of
    collaborative and interdisciplinary work focused
    on useful application, with external partners
    including the wider community.
  • Achieves accountability and quality control via
    new knowledge production does so through social
    accountability and reflexivity.
  • Mode 1
  • Disciplinary or curiosity-oriented research
  • Achieves accountability and quality control via
    the peer-review process

Entrepreneurial University
  • Entire universities, and their internal
    departments transforming themselves into
    organisations capable of taking chances and
    earning additional income in the educational
  • Five characteristics
  • Strengthened steering core
  • Expanded developmental periphery
  • Diversified funding base
  • Stimulated academic heartland
  • Integrated entrepreneurial culture

HE Research as Economic Driver
  • Global knowledge-economy ? Strategic importance
    of national research strategy formation of
    human capital
  • National and regional development ? production of
    new knowledge, knowledge transfer and economic
  • Role and mission of HE ? task of growing
    research capability and capacity no longer
  • Innovation, application and knowledge
    specialization ? competitive advantage and
  • Academic knowledge production Innovation
    Economic growth

Governments Examining Future of HE
  • Backing Australias Future, Australia, 2002-2004
  • Higher Education at the Crossroads, Australia,
  • Achieving Excellence Investing in People,
    Knowledge and Opportunity, Canada, 2002
  • Action Scheme for Invigorating Education Towards
    the 21st Century, 2001, China
  • Higher Education Act, Czech Republic, 1998, 2001
  • University Act, Denmark, 2003
  • Higher Education Act, 2000, Hungary
  • OECD Thematic Review of Higher Education,
    Ireland, 2004
  • A New Image of National University Corporations,
    Japan, 2002
  • Shaping the System, New Zealand, 2000
  • The Distinctive Contributions of Tertiary
    Education Organisations, New Zealand, 2004
  • Law of Autonomy of Universities, Portugal,
    currently being debated in parliament
  • Brain Korea 21, South Korea, 2004
  • White Paper 3 on Higher Education, 1994, South
  • Higher Education Act, 1997, South Africa
  • Sustainability of University Research, UK, 2003
  • Review of Research Assessment, UK, 2003
  • Future of Higher Education, UK, 2003.

Factors Influencing Policy Review
Policy Trends (1)
  • Battle for world class excellence via
    concentration of resources around select few
    universities or departments
  • Strong focus on science and technology as
    economic driver
  • Creation of knowledge transfer networks,
    separating teaching and research via feeder
  • Social or institutional contract between
    government and universities
  • Accountability and responsibility
  • Management by market forces
  • Stricter regulatory environment

Policy Trends (2)
  • Differential, competitive or externally earned
  • User pays principle via de-regulated fees

RD Policy Trends
  • Strong focus on science and technology as wealth
  • Designation of a few priority research domain
  • Growing emphasis on knowledge and technology
    transfer activities
  • Emphasis on entreprenurial activities and
    reorganisation of university to enable such
  • Growing separation between teaching and research
    activities and careers
  • Academic salaries pegged to market value.

International Experiences
  • Taiwan three-tiered system lt10
    research-oriented universities, state colleges
    and community colleges
  • Brazil ST investment in well-established
    universities at expense of newer research centres
    in remote parts of country
  • Japan research funding, competition and
  • China 211 policy will develop 100 world-class
  • Baltics merging universities and research
    institutes in drive for competitiveness
  • South Africa merging universities and Technikons
    to create better and more competitive HEIs
  • Russia call for Russell Group of top-rated

International Experiences
  • Denmark/Sweden tradition of research-based
  • Canada Innovation Fund focus on
    innovation/return on investment in research, i.e.
  • UK and Australia Research Assessment Exercise
    provides competitive funding to best research
    departments and institutions, and forcing
    developing of centres of excellence
  • Ireland National Development Plan, Science
    Foundation Ireland and Enterprise Ireland
    developing institutional capacity in
    internationally competitive HE research and
    collaboration with industry
  • New Zealand HE resource allocation driven by
    economy and society and no longer student choice

  • Policy similarities transcend national boundaries
    and political party in power.
  • Ever-widening global knowledge production divide
    between research-rich and research-poor
  • Developing countries operating at huge knowledge
    and technological disadvantage because they lack
    a sufficient pool of trained personnel to perform
    research and development in new technologies my
  • Active and selective use of policy instruments is

Implications for HE
  • Greater competition ? alliances, mergers,
  • Governments and HEIs benchmarking performance in
    international terms
  • Funding tied to measurable outcomes
  • National priority-setting
  • Transversal themes vs. defined technologies
  • Value-added commercialisation vs. simple
    knowledge production
  • Funding based upon outcomes, e.g. UK RAE
  • Regional/local society not identified as priority
  • Declining role of HASS disciplines

Organisational Implications
  • New knowledge production
  • Partnerships with and between other
    knowledge-producing institutions
  • Knowledge production/dissemination conducted in
    diverse contexts and with heterogeneous skills
  • Flatter and more temporary management structures
  • Entrepreneurial model emphasis on autonomous
    units and alternative revenue sources
  • Growing distinction between teaching research

Impact of Policy Changes
Policy Influencing Institution Behaviour
  • universitiesdirect efforts in obtaining parts
    of the earmarked funding whether for research,
    education, knowledge transfer or organisational
    changes. (Denmark)
  • that funding is likely to accrue only to the
    quantum of 3 research will mean massive
    reduction in funding. (UK)
  • continued trend towards formulaic
    performance-based fundingin the mainhas
    benefited us. (Australia)
  • RAE has had huge effect on performancegenerally
    positive. (Scotland)

Summary (1)
  • Globalisation having profound impact on higher
    education and academic research policy
  • Governments and HEIs thinking more strategically
    about academic knowledge production
  • Government policy more pro-active and

Summary (2)
  • Significant system shaping and super-market
    steering to maximise HE role in economic growth
    and performance
  • Small group of internationally-focused
    research-intensive universities
  • Larger group of nationally or regionally-focused
    mainly teaching institutions
  • New binary has implications for government
    efforts to move beyond the elite phase of higher
    education and widen access to the knowledge

2. Restructuring the University for Change
  • Given that research practices are changing and
    the pressures to deliver significant outputs are
    intensifying, the key question is how to
    structure and organise teaching and research in
    the universities (Gibbons et al, 1994).

Strategic Planning and Priority-setting
  • Shape what should do, not simply what can or are
    best equipped to do
  • Optimal use of scarce resources (financial, human
    and physical)
  • Align institutional competencies with external
    environment and national aspirations
  • Balance existing capability with potential and

Institutional Opportunities
  • National and regional economy
  • Institutional history and development
  • Research experience, capability and capacity
  • HE system and role of individual HEIs

Identifying Institutional Mission
  • Teaching-only
  • Research informed
  • Research based
  • Research active
  • Research led
  • Research intensive
  • Research-only

Process of Growing Research
Global knowledge economy National regional
economy HE system investment HEI history
experience Evaluation benchmarking
V-P Research Research KT/TT Office Research
teams centres Science parks Graduate
School HR policies Infrastructure
Strategic plan priority setting Match
competences with niche Investment strategy Align
funding, recruitment to priorities RAM Alliances
Government vs HEI Mission? Teaching vs Research
vs Scholarship? World-class vs National vs
Region? ST vs HASS?
Key Steps
  • Map institutional and researcher priorities and
    competences against external environment/prioritie
  • Identify goals and objectives, institutional
  • Draft strategy and realistic implementation plan
  • Put appropriate structures, finance, support
    services and infrastructure in place
  • Facilitate and encourage faculty, viz.
    reward/award systems, career path,

Priority-setting Process
  • Centralised or top-down priorities and funding
    are determined by Pro-Vice Chancellor for
  • De-centralised or bottom-up priorities set by
    individual researchers or departments
  • Combination priorities set via involvement of
    different vertical levels of university
    personnel, boards and groups

Indicative Research Structure
Research Management
  • Director/Pro-Vice Chancellor for Research
  • Research office
  • Research strategy and management plan
  • Priority-setting and evaluation process
  • Research units/centres with special resources

Research Office
  • Professional One-stop Shop
  • Financial and budget advice
  • Identify funding opportunities
  • Project preparation
  • Project management
  • Research training and mentoring
  • Ph.D. programmes
  • Intellectual property and commercialisation

Technology Transfer Office
  • Professional project and contract management
  • Professional advice regarding
  • Pre-contract
  • Intellectual Property, patents, licensing and
    other forms of exploitation
  • Sourcing new funding opportunities
  • Budget preparation
  • Application writing
  • Researcher and supervisor training
  • Sector intelligence
  • Mentoring
  • Identifying and promoting links, research and
    other projects between academia and industry

Widening Definition of Research
  • Basic vs applied
  • Disciplinary vs interdisciplinary (Mode 1 vs Mode
  • Professional and creative practice
  • Knowledge and technology transfer
  • Research vs Scholarship Research and

Culture of Scholarship
  • Not everyone needs to be involved in research
  • Policies should enhance nexus between research
    and teaching
  • Range of services, awards and rewards to
    encourage and facilitate research should be
  • Wider definition of scholarship, rather than a
    traditional dichotomous view of basic and
    applied, would provide more encouraging

Identifying Priorities
  • Applied research
  • Industry-related
  • Basic research
  • Institutional significance
  • Collaboration
  • Interdisciplinary
  • Regional or local significance
  • New or emerging domain
  • Creative practice

Strategic Alliances
  • Collaboration paramount to developing programmes
    and sustainable research
  • external partners
  • industry/commerce
  • local and/regional economy
  • other and similar HEIs
  • Exploiting particular niche advantages and

Building teams
  • Existing expertise, commitment and mutual
  • Champion at both individual and institutional
  • Deep disciplinary knowledge
  • Support structures, incl. funding
  • Relationship between research and teaching, to
    institutional structures
  • Appropriate management competences
  • How to grow such activity from ab initio status?

Organising Research
  • Determining the teaching (departments) and
    research (structures/units) nexus
  • Distinguishing between discipline oriented and
    problem solving research
  • Linking research/commercialisation to society via
    boundary-crossing units
  • Building collaborative research teams with other
    universities, research labs, industry,
    organisations, etc.
  • Growth of research/commercialisation extended
    peripheries linked with society
  • Collaboration between universities, and
    convergence with external research labs

Reconfiguring the T and R nexus?
Model T-R Nexus Organisation Career
Type 1 T R Inclusive departments Integrated
Type 2 T R Undergraduate units/pgraduate Active Inactive
Type 3 T R Departments autonomous centres Parallel Pathways
Type 4 T ? R University autonomous institutes Separate careers
Growth Strategies HR Issues
  • To what extent should/can everyone be involved in
  • To what extent should reward and award systems
    reflect the multiple missions/disciplines/work/per
    formance of academic staff?
  • What is the balance between research, teaching,
    practice and service? How can this be recognised
    in academic contracts/work?
  • What is the appropriate time-horizon given
    internal realities and external pressures?
  • Is growing research from a fragile base

Building Competence
  • Recruit
  • Re-invigorate
  • Train
  • Re-orient
  • Enable

Incentives and Rewards
  • Greater research time
  • Targeted grants
  • Promotional opportunities
  • Enhanced facilities
  • Internships with industry or other partners
  • Salary increases
  • Sabbatical leave

Financing Research
  • Government funding is declining
  • Rise in competitive external funding
  • Diversify funding base
  • Income generation via consultancy, services,
    commercialisation, IP
  • Investment strategies

Resource Allocation Model
  • Criteria influenced by national/international
  • Institute or faculty assessment panels
  • Peer-review publications, research income,
    citations, PhDs
  • Role of professional or creative practice?
  • Formulaic funding to match institutional/national
    objectives and priorities

Institutional Actions
Types of Actions
Strategic Prioritising, Focusing, Targeting, Resourcing, Partnering, Developing critical mass
Management Supporting, Resourcing, Appointing Heads of Research, Professionalizing the service, Investing
Organisational Research Secretariat, Funding and targeting international programming, Priority-setting
Human Resources Targeted recruitment, International fellowships, Research-only posts, Internationalisation of staff
Other Linking to SME/local government, Benchmarking Mapping resources to strategy
Summary Institutional Best Practice
  • Change from collegial to managerial structures
  • Develop good research strategy, infrastructure,
    supports, training
  • Greater selectivity to support high quality
    research via evaluations
  • Emphasis on inter- and intra-institutional and
    disciplinary collaboration
  • Monitor staff research activity, outputs,
  • Focus on formulaic drivers (research income,
    outputs, completions)
  • Develop Graduate School

Summary Changing Research Practices
  • Distinction between discipline oriented and
    problem solving research
  • Increasing tension between teaching (departments)
    and research (structures/units)
  • Emphasis on research teams and alliances
  • Growth of research/commercialisation extended
    peripheries linked with society and via
    consultancy and other services,
    commercialisation, licensing, etc.

Changes Not Without Controversy
  • University as locus of intellectual debate vs.
    commercialisation/corporatisation of knowledge
  • Academic freedom
  • Individual vs. institutional research agenda
  • Focus on external/private funding
  • Marketisation of higher education
  • Competition for best students and faculty
  • Value for money/return on investment
    applicability to programme development?
  • Academic capitalism
  • Changes in academic work practices
  • Collegiality vs. Meritocracy

  • Bill Readings, The University in Ruins (1996)
    Modern University linked to the nation-state,
    promoting and protecting the idea of a national
    culture. Today, universities are turning into
    transnational corporations, driven by market
    forces, more interested in profit margins than in
  • Shelia Slaughter/Larry Leslie, Academic
    Capitalism (1997)
  • Higher education increasingly obligated to
    extra-academic market rather than the public
    good. As universities are forced to raise
    tuition, faculty are forced to seek outside
    funding, pushing research to become less
    "curiosity-driven" and more market-driven. 
  • Gerard Delahunty, Challenging Knowledge (2001) A
    new role and identity is emerging for university
    around democratisation of knowledge. Because
    knowledge is more important today and emanates
    from more than one source, the university can act
    as a critical avenue of communication.

3. Challenges and Opportunities for Policymakers
and Higher Education Institutions
  • The nature of higher education development is
    not limited by national boundaries, but each
    nation must have the capacity to examine the
    costs and benefits of each new development and
    decide whether it is appropriate for their own
    society or culture..
  • (OECD, Review of Financing and Quality Assurance
    Reforms in Higher Education in the Peoples
    Republic of China, 2003)

Research Excellence
  • Competition for greater share of global knowledge
    production market
  • Government strategic emphasis on
  • research, development innovation
  • formation of human capital through education
  • HE research as engine of economic growth
  • Increasing emphasis on collaborative,
    interdisciplinary and useful knowledge
  • ? Society demanding more from higher education

Creating world class universities two scenarios
  • Few research universities concentrate all world
    class research across all disciplines rest
    concentrate on undergraduate or professional
    teaching with limited locally relevant applied
  • Spread of teaching and research excellence with
    universities as main proximity knowledge
    providers driven to specialise because of
    relevance and competences.

Late-developers and Newcomers
  • Barriers or restricted barriers to entry
  • Disadvantages of starting late from poor base
  • Market forces ? devastating impact on late
    developer or newcomer
  • Close relationship between policymakers and
    dominant groups
  • Criteria and rules for research funding are
    antipathetic to new HEIs

Sheer under-development of profile
  • Not traditionally resourced for research
  • Poor institutional infrastructure
  • Limited scale and critical mass
  • Academic staff often without necessary
  • Academic workload tensions
  • New disciplines without research tradition

Issues and Trends (1)
  • Competitive advantage of older institutions built
    over time
  • Close relationship between policymakers and
    dominant groups
  • Government policy appears to favour established
  • Criteria and rules for research funding are
    antipathetic to new HEIs
  • Insufficient regard for needs of late-developers
    or newcomers
  • Government policy facilitates operational

Issues and Trends (2)
  • Research new binary?
  • Diversification vs. stratification
  • Concentration of Research
  • World Class
  • Classification, ranking and ratings systems
  • Tensions between teaching research nexus
  • T R public good that needs to be proven
  • Research helping to (re)define and (re)structure
    HE systems
  • Definition of university
  • Research university as default version

Intended/Unintended Consequences
  • Ignore or restrict institutional
  • Re-introduce or re-confirm class binary
  • Encourage a single definition of university
  • Privileges traditional definitions of research
  • Accentuate existing uneven playing field
  • Suck innovation out of the regions
  • Endorse self-interested claim of established
    elite HEIs
  • Reinforces/re-introduces binary between

Policy Issues
  • What roles should different institutions play
  • teaching and research within and between HEIS
    research institutes?
  • public and private providers?
  • regional/community and national/international
  • What strategies can help grow and organise
    innovative research?
  • What is the appropriate balance between teaching,
    research and innovation?
  • Should research funding be spread equitably or
    should only a few concentrate on research and the
    rest focus on teaching and training?

Changing Nature of Academic Work
  • Academics under more and new pressures
  • teach larger number of students
  • conduct (more) research
  • change role of teacher to facilitator
  • improve teaching and learning
  • Students demanding better quality and job
  • Change from promotion via seniority to
  • ? Greater emphasis on accountability, performance
    and assessment

Policy Issues
  • Teacher vs Researcher integrated or
    complementary careers?
  • Should reward and award systems reflect
    differences among academic staff
  • teaching and research?
  • performance?
  • Can workloads or career structures be
    sufficiently flexible to change/be negotiated
    over ones career?

Teaching-Research Nexus (1)
  • 4 Trends causing disconnect between T and R
    (Clark, 1995)
  • Massification of higher education
  • Increased labour market demand for professional
  • Increasing gap between frontier knowledge and
    teachable codified knowledge
  • Increasing government patronage and supervision
  • Most studies unable to confirm direct or simple
    correlation between teaching and research
  • T reinforces R, opening up new areas for
    consideration, enabling testing of ideas (Shore,
    Pinker, Bates, 1990)
  • Separating T from R does not necessarily increase
    teaching quality (Ramsden and Moses, 1992)
  • T and R difficult to measure quantitatively
    former measured via student assessments and
    latter measured by outputs. (Brew and Boud, 1995)

Teaching-Research Nexus (2)
  • Problems arise from perception that T and R are
    competitive and mutually exclusive, but
  • evidence suggests that undergraduates select
    universities on the basis of their research
    reputation or that of their professors because
    this reputation is the best assurance of a good
    job or admission to a preferred graduate or
    professional school after graduation. (Brooks,
  • Students come to research universities preferring
    to listen to the great men who wrote books and
    articles which others only interpret. (Lipset,
  • While preparation for research work is research
    centred, preparation for professional practice is
    increasingly research informed. (Clark, 1995)

Policy Issues
  • Teaching vs. Research or Teaching Research?
  • Is there a contradiction between trends of
    intensive research and mass education?
  • If not engaged in research, is it possible to do
    advanced level teaching?
  • Given international competitiveness and funding
    restrictions, does it make sense to distinguish
    between research and teaching HEIs?
  • Do institutional contracts which separate T R
    undermine each activity or facilitate them?

University-Industry Relations
  • HEIs now seen as playing critical role in
    economic growth
  • Increasing emphasis on triple helix relations
  • Focus on commercialisation of university research
  • Universities re-organising selves to enable this
  • Internships, sabbaticals, etc.


Challenges (1)
  • Proximity matters for university-industry
  • Reduced research capacity has knock-on
    consequences for regional economic performance
    and technology innovation
  • SMEs find it difficult to work with research
    departments on other side of the country
  • Technology foresight studies can narrow fields of
  • Implications for new ideas and new theories
  • Implications for arts, humanities and social

Challenges (2)
  • Industry and university have different missions,
    needs and timetables
  • Mission of university is to produce new knowledge
    not new products and services
  • Short-term applied knowledge needs of research
    buyers vs. research as discovery
  • Research and teaching vs. research and
  • Requirement for peer-review vs. need for
  • Research is dependent upon individual
    researchers creativity and commitment

Challenges (3)
  • Managing economic/commercialisation expectation
  • Academic knowledge production Innovation
    Economic growth?
  • Spin-off numbers and commercialisation
    possibilities often inflated
  • IPR policies can inhibit or enable exploitation
  • Ability to earn significant third stream income
    to overcome decline in public funding

Challenges (4)
  • Assuring the integrity productivity of research
  • Research integrity vs. Patron productivity
  • Public/government vs. private/industry funding
    does the piper play the tune?
  • Does emphasis on return on investment value
    for money undermine research as experimentation
    or discovery?
  • Does commercialisation of publicly funded
    research potentially conflict with putting the
    public interest ahead of institutional benefit?
  • Managing ethical concerns, e.g. conflict of

Policy Initiatives (1)
  • Widen funding mechanisms to
  • Underpin
  • diverse university missions
  • collaborative, inter-organisational research
  • research across all disciplines and research
  • Reward improvements and potential
  • Underpin link between research and teaching,
    especially postgraduate level
  • Encourage innovation networks, learning regions,
    community engagement, innovation and
    knowledge/technology transfer
  • Investment strategy to grow research capability
    and capacity

Policy Initiatives (2)
  • Overcoming late development
  • Head-start grants
  • Staff development, mobility and HR strategies
  • Support research training and career development
  • Strengthen institutional/research management and
  • Appropriate reward and award systems
  • Researcher career structures
  • Build critical research infrastructure

Policy Initiatives (3)
  • Widen evaluation metrics to
  • Reward research (basic and applied) across all
    disciplines, and knowledge and technology
    transfer activities
  • Support diverse institutional missions
  • Encourage and reward potential
  • Re-examine legislative or other constraints which
    may impede the operation and development of new

Institutional Strategic Choices
  • Disciplinary vs interdisciplinary/applied vs
    basic research?
  • Individual researchers vs research teams?
  • Recruit or grow?
  • TR vs T/R?
  • Targeted/niche vs seed-corn/universal funding?
  • Institutional funding vs competitive funding?
  • Decentralised vs centralised management structure?

Basic vs Applied Research?
  • Widening the definition of research
  • Boyer 4 scholarships
  • Gibbons Mode 2
  • Creative and Professional Practice
  • Consultancy
  • Service

Individual vs Research Teams?
  • Research is dependent upon individuals but is
    no longer an individual activity
  • Shift locus of activity away from individuals
    and towards clusters
  • Emphasis on critical mass of scholars based
    around interdisciplinary teams with
    grant-awarding reputations and timely outcomes

Recruit or Grow?
  • Should an institution recruit new faculty or help
    existing faculty develop new or enhanced skills?
  • ability to recruit good researchers
  • availability of competence
  • available funding
  • responsiveness of faculty

Teaching vs Research?
  • Academic contracts usually include requirements
    to teach and conduct research
  • Research activity is a key criteria in
    appointment and promotion
  • Dual career paths?

Specialisation vs Comprehensive Research
  • Creating competitive advantage
  • Priority setting activity
  • Competitive funding opportunities
  • Resource allocation models
  • Identify research active faculty
  • National or institutional priorities

Institutional vs. Competitive Funding
  • Selective use of institutional funding
  • Seed-fund new, potential or weaker fields
  • Underpin research active
  • Focus on research priorities
  • Matching funding
  • To what extent should researcher be
  • Denied institutional funds
  • encouraged to seek competitive funds

Decentralised vs Centralised management?
  • Layer-decision making institute, faculty,
    department, centre
  • Professional management
  • Research office
  • Institutional research committee
  • Role of individual researchers?

Recommendations (1)
  • Investment Strategy Align budgets to support
    research, research active staff competitive
  • Organisational Structures Establish research
    office and designated positions, including a
    graduate school
  • Performance Indicators Use benchmarks to shape
    priorities, funding, recruitment, etc.
  • Priority-setting Map competences and niche
    specialisation against national/international

Recommendations (2)
  • Research Centres Grow research groups capable of
    winning external funding and recognition.
  • Align Priorities with teaching, funding and
  • Strategic Alliances Link with other HEIs and
    public/private organisations to match priorities
  • Leadership Ensure Strategy is endorsed by
    President, senior management and boards of

Summary (1)
  • Today, new knowledge produced
  • by a multiple of organisations in the public and
    private spheres
  • in partnership between these spheres
  • Higher education is only another player in a
    complex global knowledge industry
  • HEIs (re)examining mission, strategies and
  • RD is both an institutional and national
    strategic concern

Summary (2)
  • Research capacity and capability influencing
    institutional status and future
  • Institutions need to make choices about their
    future and the role of research in that future
  • New knowledge production requires new structures

Summary (3)
  • New HEIs are dynamically redefining the
    university for the 21st century
  • Professionalising new disciplines, introducing
    new teaching practices and broadening research
  • Lack demonstrated capacity and strong resource
    base of more established institutions. 
  • Experience barriers to success which are unlikely
    to be overcome without a change in government

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