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ProgramLevel Assessment, Evaluation, and Metacognition


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Title: ProgramLevel Assessment, Evaluation, and Metacognition

Program-Level Assessment, Evaluation, and
  • May 26, 2009 AST Instructors Workshop
  • Professionalism has been characterized as
  • "the behavior one manifests when nobody is
  • Joseph B. Long C.S.T.,
  • F.A.S.T., B.A., M.P.A., Ed.D.

How Does Your Mind Work?
  • fi yuo cna raed tihs, yuo hvae a sgtrane mnid
    tooCna yuo raed tihs? Olny 55 plepoe can.i
    cdnuolt blveiee taht I cluod aulaclty uesdnatnrd
    waht I was rdanieg. The phaonmneal pweor of the
    hmuan mnid, aoccdrnig to a rscheearch at
    Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it dseno't mtaetr in waht
    oerdr the ltteres in a wrod are, the olny
    iproamtnt tihng is taht the frsit and lsat ltteer
    be in the rghit pclae. The rset can be a taotl
    mses and you can sitll raed it whotuit a pboerlm.
    Tihs is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed
    ervey lteter by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe.
    Azanmig huh? yaeh and I awlyas tghuhot slpeling
    was ipmorantt!

3 Key Points
  • 1. Evaluation The Individual Student
    Assessment The Program (The Student
  • Metacognition Above/Beyond Cognition
  • 2. Meta-recognition? Meta- can be a prefix for
    many things (maybe recognizing something a
    second time utilizing a different trigger for
    the recognition)
  • 3. Critical Thinking and Creative Thinking

RE Evaluation and Assessment
  • In these two areas there may be much you already
  • That is okay as I believe it is good to
    re-enforce our knowledge in these areas.
  • Maybe there are other tools we need to construct?

Todays Challenge!
  • You challenge your students
  • At least I hope you do!
  • Today, I am asking you to CHALLENGE
  • Learn the Metacognitive Approach to classroom
    interaction, to
  • Get the most out of your students, to
  • Realize greater success for all parties!

Lets Get Our Brains Working! A Little Game,
with A Little Math
  • Think of a number between 2 and 9 (dont tell
  • Okay, youve got that number multiply (in your
    head) that number by 9. Now you have a 2-digit
  • Add that 2-digit number together, to get a single
    number again.

Lets Get Our Brains Working!
  • Next, subtract 5 from that number.
  • Now, take that number and correlate it to a
    number in the alphabet A 1, B 2, C 3, D
    4, E 5, and so on.
  • Next, think of a Country that begins with that

Lets Get Our Brains Working!
  • Now, with the second letter in the name of that
    Country, think of an animal that begins with that
  • There are no ELEPHANTS in DENMARK!

Results (Outcomes) Putting Things Into
Perspective. Rationale
  • Eating too much (fatty foods, sweets, etc.)
  • Outcomes
  • Weight Gain
  • With Exercise weight maintained

Reality Outcome Sometimes Hard to Take!
An Unexpected Outcome!
  • Walter and Ann's Love StoryJust because someone
    doesn't love you the way you want them
    to,doesn't mean they don't love you with all
    they have. 

How Some People Think?And, Perceived
OutcomesHealth Concerns (Maybe a Form of
Creative Thinking?)
  • Q  Should I cut down on meat and eat more
    fruits and vegetables?A  You must grasp
    logistical efficiencies. What does a cow
    eat?  Hay and corn.  And what are these?
    Vegetables. So a steak is nothing  more than an
    efficient mechanism of delivering vegetables to
    your system.
  •    Need  grain?  Eat chicken.  Beef is also a
    good source of field  grass  (green leafy
    vegetable). And a pork chop can give you  100
    of your recommended daily allowance
    of vegetable products.

How Some People Think?And, Perceived
OutcomesHealth Concerns(Maybe a Form of
Creative Thinking?)
  • Q  Are fried foods bad for you?A  Foods are
    fried these days in vegetable oil. In fact,
    they're permeated in it.  How could getting
    more vegetables be bad for you?
  • Q  Will sit-ups help prevent me from getting a
    little soft around the middle?A  Definitely
    not!  When you exercise a muscle, it gets
    bigger.   You should only do sit-ups
  • if you want a bigger  stomach.

How Some People Think?And, Perceived
OutcomesHealth Concerns (Maybe a Form of
Creative Thinking?)
  • Q  Is chocolate bad for me?A  Are you
    crazy?  HELLO .. Cocoa beans .. another
    vegetable!!!   It's the best feel-good
    food  around!
  • Q  Is swimming good for your figure?A  If
    swimming is good for your figure, explain whales
    to  me.

Student Learning Outcomes
  • Knowledge Demonstrate a depth of knowledge and
    apply methods of inquiry in their discipline.
  • Critical Thinking Interpret information, respond
    and adapt to change solve problems and evaluate
  • Communication Communicate clearly and
  • Diversity Skills necessary to live and work in a
    diverse world.
  • Ownership of Learning Understand the need to be
    well informed become life-long learners.
  • Personal and Professional Development Practice
    professional ethics, social responsibility, and
    work effectively as team players.
  • Kansas State University (May 30, 2008)

Graduates from Your Programs
  • Are they prepared for their new-found profession?
  • Have they measured up to outcome expectations?
  • Are they successful in your program, but limited
    in choice of employment?

Graduates from Your Programs
  • Can they pass your program but not measure up on
    standardized assessment tools?
  • Can they fail on the national examination but
    still perform well in the clinical setting?
  • Are our present outcomes working?

Outcomes The Reality
  • Process (The Resources)
  • Outcomes (The Results)
  • Process Outcomes (Focus)

Why Focus on Outcomes?
  • Its in The Plan!
  • Its Our Primary Quality Assessment Measure!
  • Now we have it we must learn to work with it!
  • Is it serving its intended purpose?
  • Lets make it better for EVERYONE!

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At My/Your Institution (Input)
  • While stakeholder interest and our accountability
    efforts focus on the Program Level, much of our
    intensive and detailed work in our programs and
    departments focuses on the individual (specific)
  • By identifying Program-level Outcomes, for ALL
    interested parties, we articulate what Program
    Graduates should know and be able to do.

Outcome-Based Standards
  • Programmatic Assessment determines the extent to
    which graduates have acquired the knowledge base
    and skills.
  • We need to develop measurable outcomes and
    assessment practices, transitioning such tools
    from individual courses to the program level.
  • (Weve done this, right?)
  • We have Outcome-Based Assessment Tools!
  • Do we need more?
  • How are they working?
  • Do they need to be adjusted?

We Can (and must) Still Address the (3) Learning
  • Cognitive (Knowledge)
  • Psychomotor (Skill)
  • Affective (Behavior)
  • Every Year I Learn Something New from My Students!

The Affective Domain is more than Verbal!
Boring He already told us this!
Can I take my mask down?
This is going to take a lot of work!
Im Never Going to Get this!
Ive got to stop working 2nd shift
How Do You Learn?
  • Do we expect students to learn the same way we
    learned in our undergraduate studies.10 years
    ago or maybe longer for most of us?
  • Lecture and re-gurg?
  • Kinesthetic?
  • One way to do things?
  • Critical Thinking?
  • Thinking about How we Think? (Meta-?)

What do you Practice with Students?
  • Have you explored new ways to teaching and
  • Do you hit all of their senses?
  • What do students like best?
  • Hands-on lab?
  • Do you video tape them?
  • Do they role play?
  • Do they understand other roles?

Your Interaction Students and Others!
  • Are you their teacher?
  • Do you lead by example?
  • Wheres the line of demarcation?
  • Are you their friend?
  • Are you their buddy?
  • Have you made roles clear?
  • Are you an enforcer?
  • Do they know who the leader is?
  • Be Mean to Halloween!

The Way WE Start Our Program We Begin with The 3
  • Rigor
  • Relationships
  • Relevance

Evaluation vs Assessment
  • A test may be used as both.
  • Evaluation is the use of a test for purposes of
    assigning a grade.
  • Assessment is for the purpose of measuring
    student learning outcomes how can we improve
    overall student learning?
  • Evaluation for testing
  • Assessment for Compshands-on

Evaluation vs Assessment
  • While many educators use the words evaluation and
    assessment interchangeably, these concepts have
    different definitions and different purposes.
    Whereas evaluation refers to judging the
    worth/value of student work based on criteria and
    typically results in a grade, assessment refers
    to the deliberate collection and interpretation
    of data about student learning, and then using
    that information to both document and improve
    student learning.
  • So..

Evaluation vs Assessment
  • focused on individual students
  • typically summative making a final judgment
  • primarily done to assign grades become part of
    an administrative record
  • used internally and externally for selection
    purposes, e.g., whom to admit into a course, into
    a program, in transfer, etc.
  • focused on aggregates of students
  • often formative gathering information about
    student learning in time to make adjustments or
  • primarily done to improve student learning
  • used internally to improve student learning and
    student academic achievement used externally for
    accountability purposes

Evaluation vs Assessment
  • For many reasons, such as the significant time,
    energy and expertise devoted to grading, the fact
    that grades are insufficient for assessment
    purposes is puzzling and frustrating for some
    faculty. However, it is often the case that the
    grading process is subjective and tends to
    include factors beyond learning outcomes.

Evaluation vs Assessment
  • Grades are an inadequate report of an
    inaccurate judgment by a biased and variable
    judge of the extent to which a student has
    attained an undefined level of mastery of an
    unknown proportion of an indefinite set of
    material Paul Dressel

Evaluation vs Assessment
  • Even if your evaluation/grading practices are
    based on performance criteria for a specific set
    of material, course grades alone are not enough.
  • Walvoord (2004) points out, A letter grade by
    itself does not give enough information about the
    learning that was tested or the criteria that
    were used. . . .you cant just say 73 of our
    students get grades of A or B in the major, so we
    are doing ok.
  • The good news is that its possible to combine
    the two processes

Some Basic Outcome Questions
  • 1. Have you developed program-level learning
    outcome statements?
  • (Sure you have)
  • 2. Have you developed assessment plans?

Assessment Plan Characteristics Overview
  • It should flow from the mission statement.
  • The focus should be on the degree/program not
    the individual courses.
  • The number of critical learning objectives should
    be small.
  • The plan should be a product of the entire
    department (faculty/students).
  • The plan should be integrated into the curriculum
    or services provided.

Assessment Plan Characteristics Overview
  • The plan should be ongoing instead of periodic.
  • The plan should be manageable.
  • The plan should use multiple measures
    (quantitative/qualitative direct/indirect)
  • Students should understand his/her role in
    assessment (how it will be used and how it will
    help them).
  • The results of assessment activities should be
    used by faculty/units for improvement (viewed as
    a means rather than an end).
  • Concordia College Ball State University Higher
    Learning Commission (NCA)

Reliability of Assessment
  • a reliable test may not be valid. Reliability
    is a necessary but not sufficient cause for
    validity. Any departure from the purely
    objective (one correct answer) will introduce
    some degree of unreliability, but it is up to
    those who use the tests to determine the degree
    of tolerance they are prepared to allow
    (Heywood, 2000).

Validity of Assessment OBA
  • It is only in recent years that much more
    attention has been paid to validity. This is the
    result in part of the move toward outcomes
    assessment, in part to the development of
    criterion referenced approaches to its
    measurement and its consequences for
    psychometrics, and in part to a general debate
    about the philosophy of assessment at both school
    and higher education levels (Alverno, 1994
    Brown and Knight, 1994 Gipps, 1994 Messick,
  • Validity is the extent to which assessment
    measures what it is supposed to measure and is
    therefore directly related to accountability
    which checks that agreed objectives have been
    obtained (Hyewood, 2000).

Looking for the Best Answers
  • Transitioning to OBA with
  • Validity in Assessment

Breakdown the Basics
Dimensions of Validity
  • Face Validity The extent to which an assessment
    appears to be measuring the variable it is
    intended to test (visual inspection of the items
    or questions in comparison with the declared
  • Content Validity The extent to which a test
    measures the content (or skill) which it is
    supposed to measure.

Validity of Assessment (cont.)
  • Predictive Validity The extent to which an
    assessment predicts future performance (degree
    grades as a predictor of work performance).
    Criterion Validity is similar.
  • Criterion Validity The comparison of an
    assessment designed to evaluate performance in a
    task with an alternative evaluation (a test
    designed to predict performance compared with
    actual observation by a skilled evaluator).

Validity of Assessment (cont.)
  • Construct Validity The extent to which an
    assessment measures the content, aptitude,
    attitude, and skill it is intended to assess, and
    predicts results on other measures of content,
    aptitude, attitude, and skill as hypothesized.
    It is based on evidence that relies on the
    interpretation of the meaning of test scores.

Assessment How Have We Evolved?
Assessment Defined
  • Though the word assessment did not emerge from
    classroom or campus, it derives from a an idea
    important to educators---that of sitting down
    beside or together (from the Latin ad and
    sedere). In the seventeenth century an assessor
    was one who sits beside or together or who
    shares anothers position. Early uses of the
    word focused primarily on determining the worth
    or value of something in monetary terms, but
    underlying those uses was the idea of expert
    judgment made on the basis of careful
    observation. Assessment was thus a word for
    the tongues of education ---whether humanists or
    scientists. (Loacker, Cromwell, and OBrien,

Assessment in Higher Education
  • In the recent past, terms such as testing,
    examining, and grading were used prior to the
    term assessment arriving on the scene in the
    early 70s before this, the term was generally
    used relative to individuals who had specific
    learning and/or other needs (Heywood, 2000).
  • What assessment appears to have become is a
    catch-all phrase that refers to a wide range of
    efforts to improve educational quality. This
    tendency to use one concept to refer to a handful
    of different (if related) things means that there
    are few shared meanings and little agreement
    about the nature, purpose or content of
    appropriate public policies. Nonetheless,
    upgrading the educational quality of higher
    education---often in the name of
    assessment---will be a growing interest of state
    policy makers and an increasingly important
    challenge to educators in the next decade
    (Hartle, 1986).

Assessment 10 years Later
  • Over the next ten years, the term was used in
    higher education in many ways.
  • First, and at one end of the spectrum, it is
    used as a substitute for the term evaluation
    which is not entirely helpful since we often want
    to evaluate (rather than assess) the reliability
    and validity of assessments. Second, it is used
    in respect of institutions and their mission. It
    is a measure of the effectiveness with which they
    achieve their goals. It is an assessment which
    accrediting agencies use, thus accreditation is a
    form of appraisal. Third, it is used of
    programs. Fourth, in this context it also
    implies the assessment of staff as they teach
    Finally, and most importantly, it is used to
    describe the assessment of student learning
  • (Karelis, 1996).

Assessment and the Individual Student (Evaluation)
  • In Assessment We Must Also explore
  • Ability
  • Aptitude
  • Attainment
  • Achievement
  • (Next Time)
  • What has the student attained?

Is there a problem with Attainment?
  • Maybe the Educators are Doing a Good Job?
  • Maybe the Clay is Difficult to Mold.
  • Might it be that We Need Chlorine in the Gene

Or, Could Something in Our Directions be Flawed?
How do we Develop Program-level Outcomes? Etc.
Next Time
  • The Approach
  • The Steps
  • The Resources
  • The Tools
  • Also
  • Blooms Taxonomy (the higher order thinking
    skills for program-level outcomes)
  • Selecting Assessment Methodologies

Selecting Assessment Methodologies
  • When choosing assessment methodologies, it is
    important to select methods that will enable the
    Program to determine to what extent the learning
    outcomes have been achieved by graduates.

We Need to Stay Focused To a Certain Degree!Do
not be so focused that you lose site of your
We are ALL being Held Accountable! How Do We Win?
  • Accountability through Program-Level
    Outcomes-Based Assessment It is Here, so lets
    use it and embrace it!

This Profession is not for EveryoneI know I am
Preaching to the Choir!But, Can we have Better
  • When students Persist.
  • They Tend to Progress..
  • Which Leads to Success!
  • What more might we do to Realize Greater Success?

How do you view your Students?1st Day of Class
vs GraduationDo some students surprise you?
We Challenge Our StudentsMaybe the Challenge
Should be Elsewhere?Lets Shift the Focus!
  • Do you know how you think and learn?
  • Are you aware of Herrmanns 4 Quadrant Brain
    Learning Styles?
  • Are you open to new ideas, or is your way always
    the best way?
  • Take the Blinders Off!!!!!!!!!!
  • I/We Challenge Students We Need to Challenge
  • Moving Beyond Critical Thinking!!!

A Problem Exists..
  • Everyone thinks it is our nature to do so. But
    much of our thinking, left to itself, is biased,
    distorted, partial, uninformed or down-right
    prejudiced. Yet the quality of our life and that
    of what we produce, make, or build depends
    precisely on the quality of our thought. Shoddy
    thinking is costly, both in money and in quality
    of life. Excellence in thought, however, must be
    systematically cultivated.
  • 2008 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press

What is Critical Thinking?
  • Critical thinking is the art of analyzing and
    evaluating thinking with a view to improving it.
  • 2008 Foundation for Critical Thinking

The Result
  • A well cultivated critical thinker
  • Raises vital questions and problems, formulating
    them clearly and precisely
  • Gathers and assesses relevant information, using
    abstract ideas to interpret it effectively
  • Comes to well-reasoned conclusions and solutions,
    testing them against relevant criteria and
  • Thinks open-mindedly within alternative systems
    of thought, recognizing and assessing, as need
    be, their assumptions, implications, and
    practical consequences and
  • Communicates effectively with others in figuring
    out solutions to complex problems.
  • 2008 Foundation
    for Critical Thinking Press

In Short
  • Critical thinking is..
  • Self-directed, self-disciplined, self-monitored,
    and self-corrective thinking.

How can you use your learning experiences to
enhance your students?
  • Do you like to learn by listening?
  • Do you like to learn by seeing?
  • Do you like to learn by doing?
  • Can you teach beyond your learning style?

How do we learn? Triggers, Tricks, Rhymes,
Music, Acronyms, Repetition..
  • Myotics
  • Contract (action smaller smaller word)
  • Mydriatics
  • Dilate (action larger larger word)
  • The problem the students looked at the wrong
    words (dilate/contract).my bad.

Hang in There Its About to Get Exciting!
Meta-cognitive Teaching and Learning
  • What do we mean by Meta-?
  • From the Greek Beyond, After, Adjacent
  • Meta-knowledge is knowledge about a preselected
  • Other Examples (the meta- prefix)
  • Meta-data are data about data
  • Meta-emotion is a persons emotion about his/her
    basic emotion
  • Meta-memory is an individual's knowledge about
    whether or not they would remember something if
    they concentrated on recalling it.

What is metacognition?
  • Recognition on the part of the learner that
    learning has taken place, or is taking place.
  • It involves understanding and appreciating the
    factors that make learning possible and one's own
    strategies and processes of learning.

Where were You (or what were you doing) when This
Why is metacognition so important?
  • An exercise..

Monitor your thinking as you look at the next
  • What do you see?
  • Whats Happening?
  • What is the Theme of this Picture?

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Metacognition consists of two basic processes
occurring simultaneously
  • monitoring your progress as one learns
  • making changes and adapting strategies if one
    perceives confusion.
  • (Winn, W. Snyder, D., 1998)

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Metacognition and Study Strategies
  • Research shows that explicitly teaching study
    strategies in content courses improves learning.
    (Commander Valeri-Gold, 2001 Ramp Guffey,
    1999 Chiang, 1998 El-Hindi, 1997 McKeachie,
  • Research also shows that few instructors
    explicitly teach study strategies they seem to
    assume that students have already learned them in
    high schoolbut they havent. (McKeachie, 1988).
  • Rote memorization is the usual learning
    strategyand often the only strategyemployed by
    high school students when they go to college
    (Nist, 1993).

Continual Monitoring of Learning
  • Students need to monitor their application of
    study strategies. Metacognitive awareness of
    their learning processes is as important as their
    monitoring of their learning of the course
    content. Metacognition includes goal setting,
    monitoring, self-assessing, and regulating during
    thinking and writing processes that is, when
    theyre studying and doing homework.
  • An essential component of metacognition is
    employing study strategies to reach a goal,
    self-assessing ones effectiveness in reaching
    that goal, and then self-regulating in response
    to the self-assessment.

The On-going Metacognition Process
Why Are Metacognitive Strategies So Important?
  • As students become more skilled at using
    metacognitive strategies, they gain confidence
    and become more independent as learners.
  • Independence leads to ownership as student's
    realize they can pursue their own intellectual
    needs and discover a world of information at
    their fingertips.
  • This is the Buy-In My Friends!

Enhancing the Students Metacognitive
AbilitiesAn Awareness of Three Kinds of Content
  • Declarative factual information that one knows
    (spoken or written)
  • Ex) knowing the formula for calculating momentum
    in a physics class (momentum mass times
  • Procedural how to do something how to perform
    the steps in a process
  • Ex) knowing the mass of an object and its rate of
    speed and how to do the calculation.
  • Conditional knowledge about when to use a
    procedure, skill, or strategy and when not to use
    it why a procedure works and under what
    conditions and why one procedure is better than
  • Ex) recognizing that an exam word problem
    requires the calculation of momentum as part of
    its solution.

Metacognitive Strategies for Successful Learning
  • Awareness
  • Consciously identify what you already know
  • Define the learning goal
  • Consider your personal resources (e.g. textbooks,
    access to the library, access to a computer work
    station or a quiet study area)
  • Consider the task requirements (essay test,
    multiple choice, etc.)
  • Determine how your performance will be evaluated
  • Consider your motivation level
  • Determine your level of anxiety

Metacognitive Strategies for Successful Learning
  • Planning
  • Estimate the time required to complete the task
  • Plan study time into your schedule and set
  • Make a checklist of what needs to happen when
  • Organize materials
  • Take the necessary steps to learn by using
    strategies like outlining, mnemonics,
    diagramming, etc.

Metacognitive Strategies for Successful Learning
  • Monitoring and Reflection
  • Reflect on the learning process, keeping track of
    what works and what doesn't work for you
  • Monitor your own learning by questioning and
  • Provide your own feedback
  • Keep concentration and motivation high

Using Metacognitive Strategies to Study for an
Essay Exam
Get Students to Want to Explore!Maybe Pique
Their Interest in Some Way?How about, Did you
  • It takes food seven seconds to get from your
    mouth to your stomach.
  • One human hair can support 6 lb.
  • The average man's penis is three times the length
    of his thumb.
  • Human femurs are stronger than concrete.
  • A woman's heart beats faster than a man's.
  • There are about one trillion bacteria on each of
    your feet.
  • Women blink twice as often as men.
  • The average person's skin weighs twice as much as
    the brain.
  • Your body uses 300 muscles to balance itself when
    you are standing.
  • If saliva cannot dissolve something, you cannot
    taste it.
  • The human heart creates enough pressure when it
    pumpsout to the body to squirt blood 30 feet.  
  • Banging your head against a wall uses 150
    calories anhour
  • Women reading this will be finished now.
  • Men who read this are probably still busy
    checking their thumbs.

As Educators, What Must We Do?
  • The task of educators is to acknowledge,
    cultivate, exploit and enhance the metacognitive
    capabilities of all learners.

Encourage Metacognition
  • Allow during each session for students to
    consider their thought process about the topic.
  • End most sessions in metcognitive exercises
    builds habit

What should we do?
  • Teach components of metacognition.
  • Deepen student reflection through questioning.
  • Structure metacognitive activities to match tone,
    motivation and needs of learners.
  • Integrate assessment techniques to encourage

Big ideas
  • Metacognition, or awareness of the process of
    learning, is a critical ingredient to successful
  • Metacognitive skills work best when they are
    overlearned and can operate unconsciously.

How do students know when they are
learning?During a Ureterolithotomy.
  • The surgeon frees up and dissects around the
    ureter he is going to need to remove the stone,
    whats coming next?
  • Even before he asks for it, you remember, he
    needs a Babcock clamp
  • How did you remember (recall) this?
  • Knew the clamp but couldnt remember the name
    knew its function (around a structure without
  • Anticipated steps of the procedure
  • Knew that this instrument is whats used
    proximally and distally to the stone prior to
    incising the ureter
  • Lucky Guess? Memory? Repetition?
  • In lab did word association taught yourself,
    Betty Babcock follows Bolder Blocking Bulge .

MetacognitionWhere were you when you first
heard the word Babcock Clamp? How long did it
take you to learn it, and its use? What did you
think about this clamp? What helped you to
remember its name? Where is it located on the
stringed instruments?
  • Once again
  • The task of educators is to acknowledge,
    cultivate, exploit, and enhance the metacognitive
    capabilities of all learners.
  • Still not clear what this is?

Metacognition what is it?
  • The recognition on the part of the learner that
    learning has taken place or is taking place.
  • Making someone aware of how they learn.
  • How you learn what you learn when you learn it.
  • Active Learning to Active Thinking
  • More indepth thinking about how you are thinking
    and how you are learning while you are thinking
    through processes and arriving at formidable
    solutions to problematic situations.
  • Confused? Good. How about the following
  • Meta-cognitive (Thinking above the Thinking)

Metacognition why?
  • It makes greater learning possible.
  • One can develop ones own strategies and
    processes for learning.
  • Allows one to monitor ones progress while
  • Allows one to make changes and adapt strategies
    if some confusion is perceived.

Novice Learner vs Expert Learner
  • Novice Learners don't stop to evaluate their
    comprehension of the material. They generally
    don't examine the quality of their work or stop
    to make revisions as they go along. Satisfied
    with just scratching the surface, novice learners
    don't attempt to examine a problem in depth. They
    don't make connections or see the relevance of
    the material in their lives.

Novice Learner vs Expert Learner
  • Expert learners are "more aware than novices of
    when they need to check for errors, why they fail
    to comprehend, and how they need to redirect
    their efforts."
  • (Ertmer, P.A. Newby, T.J., 1996)

Novice Learner vs Expert LearnerAn Example
  • Take reading for example. We've all experienced
    the phenomenon of reading a page (or a whole
    chapter!) in a textbook and then realizing we
    haven't comprehended a single thing. A novice
    learner would go on to the next page, thinking
    that merely reading the words on a page is
    enough. An expert learner would re-read the page
    until the main concept is understood, or flag a
    difficult passage to ask for clarification from
    an instructor or peers later.

Any Tricks Up Your Sleeve?
  • The colon bacillus, short, plump, gram negative,
    non-spore-forming motile bacilli almost
    constantly present in the the alimentary canal of
  • Using the Ricola Cough Drops Advertisement
  • Eeeeeeeeeeeeee coli
  • A medication antibacterial drug indicated for
    the prophylaxis of infection in patients
    undergoing uncontaminated GI surgery, vaginal or
    abdominal hysterectomies, or cesarean section.
  • When the dog hunt was over, I put me fox in.
  • Mefoxin

Think of this as above everything else Outside
looking In, relative to your cognitive abilities.
  • Critical Thinking developing diverse thought
    processes to arrive at acceptable conclusions
  • Creative Thinking expanding thought processes to
    find acceptable solutions beyond the expected
  • Active Learning interpersonal interaction
    resulting in the gaining of knowledge
  • Metacognition thinking about how you think of
    these things how you think and learn to think
    these ways

The student is directed to find X. Is this
wrong? It is creative!
Why the Metacognitive Approach?
  • It allows you to appreciate the thought processes
    of others how the individuals thinking is
    influenced as they arrive at their specific
  • We need New Learners for today and tomorrow to
    be able to think on their own, think in new ways,
    find new and different outcomes via new ways to
    think and learn.

Did the Student Follow Directions?
Why the Metacognitive Approach? To the Student
  • You will eventually become more and more
    independent as learners as you learn and gain
    more confidence in your understanding on how you
  • You will be able to teach yourself Independence
    leads to ownership a must for the successful
    individual in our culture of life-long learning.

Why the Metacognitive Approach?
  • It Takes the student to a higher level of
  • It Makes them think about their thinking and what
    helps them learn
  • It allows both student and teacher the ability to
    expand their knowledge-base relative to pedagogy
    through creative intellectual interaction

Ready for Clinicals? Lets Do it!What I Tell My
  • NO PAIN - NO GAIN!!!
  • So lets rack the Brain!!!
  • Learn a little each day and build on it!!!
  • Employ those things that help you to learn!!!
  • When you learn something new, take note how you
    learned it build on it!!!
  • You will begin to THINK LIKE A SURGEON
  • But, YOU must put forth the Effort!
  • Hard Skills Soft Skills Total Package (The
    CST Professional)

The Vision of Our Profession and of Self
  • The first step toward creating an improved
    future is developing the ability to envision it.
    Vision will ignite the fire of passion that fuels
    our commitment to do whatever it takes to achieve
    excellence. Only vision allows us to transform
    dreams of greatness into the reality of
    achievement through human action. Vision has no
    boundaries and knows no limits. Our vision is
    what we become in life. Tony Dungy

Can we Envision Greatness for Our Profession?
Lets Use ALL the Tools!
  • We have the Ability to do so!
  • We have the knowledge, skills and domains.
  • We have YOU, the Leaders of Today, Educating
    Health Care Professionals and the Leaders of
  • Let us BELIEVE in Ourselves and Create the Best
    for Our Students as we Explore and Expand into a
    New Tomorrow, as Integral Professionals in the
    Surgical Suite and Beyond!

The Challenge to You!
  • I challenge you to challenge yourselves to become
    better instructors and help all students to
    become better learners, through your expanding
    teaching styles and exploring new approaches in
    the classroom, to assist ALL students in your
    charge to become self-initiated and
    self-motivated life-long learners.
  • By getting the students to the level whereby they
    understand how best they learn, will influence
    them in reaching their maximum potential, and
    provide for them, the continued desire to learn.

New Ways to Learn and New Ways to Teach!
  • I hope you have found this information to be
  • I hope I have made you look at things in a
    different way and I have peaked your interest in
    thinking differently or looking at things
    differently (Meta-cognition).
  • If not.I am sorry.
  • If you are thinking about how you think and
    learn, then you have become open to new ideas on
    how we might address future assessment practices,
    student learning and evaluation, and thus, making
    ANYTHING possible for a Brighter Future!

I Thank You!Find Some Time for Some R R For
  • Joe Long CST/FAST/EdD
  • Academic Team Leader
  • Lansing Community College
  • Lansing, Michigan

Big Brother?
Additional Resources Utilized
  • Brown, A.L., Bransford, J.D., Ferrara, R.A.
    Campione, J.C. (1983). Learning, remembering, and
    understanding. In J.H. Flavell E.M. Markman,
    eds. Vol. 3, Handbook of child psychology
    cognitive development, 177-266. New York Wiley
  • Ertmer, P.A. Newby, T.J. (1996). The expert
    learner strategic, self-regulated, and
    reflective. Instructional Science 24 1-24.
    Netherlands Kluwer Academic Publishers
  • Grabinger, R.S. (1996). Rich environments for
    active learning. In D.H. Jonassen, ed. Handbook
    of research for educational communications and
    technology, 665-692. New York Simon Schuster
  • Ridley, D.S., Schutz, P.A., Glanz, R.S.
    Weinstein, C.E. (1992). Self-regulated learning
    the interactive influence of metacognitive
    awareness and goal-setting. Journal of
    Experimental Education 60 (4), 293-306.
  • Winn, W. Snyder D. (1996). Cognitive
    perspectives in pyschology. In D.H. Jonassen, ed.
    Handbook of research for educational
    communications and technology, 112-142. New York
    Simon Schuster Macmillan
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