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Standardisation in RFID


Deputy Director, Auto-ID Lab, Adelaide. General Manager, RFID Automation ... for tag and labels with corrugated manufacturers for control of waste products ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Standardisation in RFID

Standardisation in RFID
  • Alfio Grasso
  • Deputy Director, Auto-ID Lab, Adelaide
  • General Manager, RFID Automation

  • EPCglobal
  • Standards Development Process
  • Workgroups
  • Technical Standards
  • Hardware Action Group
  • Software Action Group
  • Standards Documents
  • ISO Standards
  • 18000-1 to -7
  • Others
  • Regulatory Standards
  • FCC, ETSI, Australian 4W RFID licence

EPCglobal Standards Development Process
EPCglobal structure
Membership May 2005
Working Groups
  • Business Steering Committee (BSC)
  • Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG)
  • Healthcare and Life Sciences (HLS)
  • Transport and Logistics (TLS)
  • Technical Steering Committee (TSC)
  • Hardware Action Group (HAG)
  • Software Action Group (SAG)

Standards Development Process
EPCglobal Workgroups
Fast Moving Consumer Goods
FMCG Working Groups
  • Data Exchange
  • European Adoption Programme (EAP)
  • Pilot and Implementation (PI)
  • Reusable Transport Items (RTI)
  • Strategic Planning
  • Tag and Inlay Standards
  • Asian Adoption Program (AAP)

DE - Charter
  • The objective of this group is to begin to begin
    identifying the EXCEPTIONS to the simple Ship and
    Receive process. These exceptions will be the
    foundation for the track and trace business
    process models. The charter of this group will be
    to explore and document exception processes and
    defining requirements needed of RFID technology
    to meet the objective of streamlining the
    resolution of these processes.
  • This group will also be tasked with identifying
    any business process hurdles that come to light
    as a result of their business process
    definitions, adding some detail and consideration
    around these issues and then passing them on to
    the Pilot Implementation Workgroup for final
    resolution and documentation.

DE - Deliverables
  • Business Process Document
  • Identifying the EXCEPTIONS to the SHIP and
    RECEIVE Process, the pain points that are a
    result of these exceptions, and the requirements
    of RFID technology to streamline the resolution
    of these exceptions.
  • List of Business Process hurdles that need
    further investigation and thought.
  • These should contain detailed descriptions of the
    issues as well as any proposed process
    resolutions (not technology) or technology
  • A summary of the issues/resolutions should be
    forwarded to the Pilot implementation group for
    final resolution/documentation.

EAP - Charter
  • To help European business to extract maximum
    business benefit from the use of EPCglobal
    technology as quickly as possible and with
    minimum problems and without duplicating the work
    of other EPCglobal or EAN.UCC work groups.
  • This will be done by
  • Agreeing and publicising common expectations of
    how EPCglobal technology will be rolled out in
    Europe in order to avoid incompatible approaches
  • Ensuring that European views related to EPCglobal
    are clearly represented to EPCglobal and EAN.UCC
    standards and policy groups.
  • Enabling EAP members to exchange information to
    assist in the practical implementation and
    justification of RFID and EPCglobal technology
    within Europe.
  • Lobbying and communicating with relevant
    organisations including industry and consumer
    groups, government and other regulatory

EAP - Deliverables
  • Technical Implementation
  • Business Processes
  • Radio Regulations
  • Business Case
  • Health and Safety
  • Privacy
  • Environmental Regulations

PI Charter
  • The objective of the Pilot and Implementation
    Working Group is to provide end-user companies
    with practical and timely information needed as
    they prepare for RFID pilot and implementation

PI Deliverables
  • First Set
  • Implementation Guidelines
  • A five-phase EPC adoption framework with
    implementation guidelines and lessons learned.
  • The five phases are Investigate, Experiment,
    Trial, Pilot and Deploy.
  • Share Mechanism
  • Agreement by End Users to share certain levels of
    information and process to elicit information

PI Deliverables Cont
  • Second Set
  • Vendor Profiles
  • A list of EPC/RFID solution providers with
    expertise on hardware, software or services. The
    vendor list will be segmented with brief
    description to help End User companies find the
    services they need
  • Cost/Benefit Tutorial
  • A list of cost variables companies should
    consider as they implement RFID projects.
    Designed like a checklist, this cost list will
    enable companies to select the cost variables
    applicable to their specific occasions or site
  • Company Work Plan Template
  • A work plan template to illustrate key activities
    in every adoption phase

PI Deliverables Cont
  • Third Set
  • Practice Briefing
  • Summarized technical white papers to help explain
    specific implementation issues
  • KPI Directory
  • Listing of industry-accepted measurements

RTI - Charter
  • The overall aim of the WG is to ensure EPC
    tagging will support the efficient management of
    RTIs across the supply chain and provide clear
    links with product tracking requirements
    associated with the movements of assets.
  • A number of the objectives are linked to on-going
    work with other EPCglobal WGs.
  • Wherever possible dialogue will be established
    with those WGs to ensure consistency of approach
    and shared learning.

RTI - Scope
  • Defining the concept of Returnable Transport Item
  • Ensure all possible equipment types relevant to
    the Consumer Goods Sector are included in the WG
  • Confirm and validate existing GS1 standards for
    RTI codification and the relevant EDI messaging
    schemas underpinning the efficient management of
    equipment and product flows
  • GRAI /GIAIValidate the existing code numbering
    standards for identifying returnable assets and
    components are sufficient to meet the needs of
    efficient asset management
  • EDI messaging for RTI management
  • Review and validate existing proposals for RTI
    (and product) tracking. This will build on from
    the prior work of EAN member organizations and
    International Council for RTI (IC-RTI).

RTI Scope Cont
  • Converting to EPC tagging
  • Validate that Tag Data Standard V1.1 meets the
    requirements for RTI tagging and is consistent
    with existing GS1 standards, above.
  • Asset Product Tracking
  • Determine business guidelines for the
    synchronised tracking of assets (GRAI) alongside
    of products (SSCC).
  • This may include
  • Development of requirements for the possible
    encoding of GRAI and SSCC into a single tag.
  • Alternative use of separate asset and unit load
    tags for tracking purposes

RTI Scope Cont
  • Non-unique coding
  • Develop guidelines for the use of identical tags
    for a single RTI (e.g. returnable plastic crate,
    RPC), designed to enhance readability.
  • EPC Data Exchange
  • Propose amendments to existing EPC data exchange
    schemas to include the tracking of RTIs as an
    optional, but integral part of overall EPC data
    exchange for key supply chain processes
  • Future RTI tagging requirements
  • Develop user requirements for tag functionality
    specific to the future needs of RTI applications
    (e.g. read/write, temperature and trauma sensing)

RTI - Deliverables
  • Guidelines
  • EPC application for the management of RTIs and
    product tracking

SP - Charter
  • Ensure that the EPCglobal Strategic Work Plan is
    aligned with End User business priorities
  • Provide collaborative, focused interaction
    between EPCglobal End Users and EPCglobal on the
    work and priorities of the overall Action
  • Capture requirements and prioritize the critical
    path elements needed to support End User
    implementations of EPC and the EPCglobal Network.
  • Recommend the Strategic Work Plan priorities to
    the Business Steering Committee
  • Provide visibility into the prioritization and
    Work Plan process
  • Facilitate a process to assess the delivery of
    EPCglobal Strategic Work Plan elements and
    evaluate the effect of changes

SP - Deliverables
  • EPCglobal Strategic Work Plan that illustrates
    critical path Network elements.
  • Objectives/Requirements
  • Prioritization
  • Scope, Schedule, Resources, etc.
  • Work Plan Change Management process
  • Process to facilitate communication to and from
    EPCglobal End-User community and workgroups
  • Regular meetings with the Business Steering
    Committee to present results and status of
    Strategic Work Plan
  • Miscellaneous research and deliverables requested
    by the Business Steering Committee
  • Glossary of terms

TI - Charter
  • The objective of this WG is to create a Tag and
    Label Standard specification to enable silicon
    RFID chip, inlay, tag, RFID printer, and RFID
    applicator manufacturers to standardize their
    product offerings to meet the end user
    requirements described in the RFID Usability
  • The goal of the Working Group is to complete the
    necessary documentation for the Tag and Label
    specification to conform to EPCglobal

TI Key Objectives
  • Deliver a specification for standard label sizes.
  • Review of RFID Usability document.
  • Review existing label standards EAN/UCC, GSMP
  • Define user requirements for label sizes.
  • Make recommendation for standardize sizes.
  • Develop standard label size specification.

TI Key Objectives Cont
  • Deliver a specification for standard Inlay
  • Define no print areas.Determine if a no print
    area is possible, if it is, define the most
    acceptable location for the user community and
    create a specification.
  • Printer/reader Applicator requirements.Determine
    the Printer/Reader and applicator antenna
    location requirements in combination with 1.1
    above. If an optimum location can be determined,
    seek consensus and publish a specification.
  • Maximum Height of inlay in print areas.

TI Key Objectives Cont
  • Maximum Height for no print areas.
  • Standardize inlay sizes.
  • Other topics TBD
  • Additional Topics TBD. Some may be too
    proprietary to standardize.
  • Chip pad formats
  • Chips sizes
  • Strap designs
  • Antenna design requirement for chips, i.e.
    Capacitance and resistance, etc.

TI Key Objectives Cont
  • Identify the process and format for adding future
    tag and labels standards as new requirements
  • Review the possible requirements for tag and
    labels standards in other industry sectors apart
    from Retail/CPG that may potentially become users
    of EPC technology.
  • Develop a process for adoption of new inlay and
    label standards.

TI Key Objectives Cont
  • Environment and Safety issues of tag design and
  • Review the possible requirements for tag and
    labels with corrugated manufacturers for control
    of waste products in recycling of paper
  • Quantify and make recommendations on material
    usage and effect to the environment.
  • Evaluate existing packaging standards and label
    requirements for use of heavy metals such as
    copper, aluminium and silver. (used in antenna
  • Other medical and safety issues regarding tag and
    inlay materials for child safety, toxicity, etc.

TI - Deliverables
  • Tag and Label Standard V 1.0 document
  • Appendix to describe guidelines
  • Appendix for process template of future scheme

AAP - Charter
  • To help Asian business to extract maximum
    business benefit from the use of EPCglobal
    technology as quickly as possible with minimum
    problems and without duplicating the work of
    other EPCglobal or EAN.UCC work groups.
  • This will be done by
  • Obtain agreement on standards adoption by
    EPCglobal members in the region and publicize
    common expectations of how EPCglobal technology
    will be implemented in Asia in order to avoid
    conflicting approaches
  • Ensure that Asian views related to EPCglobal and
    user requirements in the region are clearly
    represented to EPCglobal and EAN.UCC standards
    and policy groups.
  • Enable AAP members to exchange information to
    assist in the practical implementation and
    justification of RFID and EPCglobal technology
    within Asia.
  • Communicate with relevant organizations including
    industry and consumer groups, government and
    other regulatory authorities.
  • Attract adoption of EPCglobal standards from key
    entities in the region.

AAP - Deliverables
  • Four meetings per annum
  • including presentations, demonstrations and
    information exchange for AAP participants.
  • A clear statement of a common approach to
    EPCglobal roll out in Asia which covers
  • Technical Implementation
  • Business Processes
  • Radio Regulations
  • Privacy

Healthcare and Life Sciences
HLS Working Groups
  • Strategy
  • Policy
  • Process
  • Information
  • Technology
  • Research

Strategy Charter/Objectives
  • Develop and manage the execution of a Strategic
    Work Plan, designed to coordinate and prioritize
    the activities of Work Groups within the HLS BAG.
  • Provide specific input to EPCglobal Technical and
    Business Action Groups, and other
    standards-setting bodies, as appropriate,
    regarding the requirements for
  • standards, policies, and agreements
  • between and among trading partners and regulatory
  • in the extended healthcare and life sciences
    supply chains
  • as related to the application and use of RFID
    technology in general, and the EPCglobal Network,
  • specifically, to track, trace and authenticate
    articles of commerce.

Strategy Charter Cont
  • The development of specific Use Cases, and
    Scenarios, which describe
  • (i) the route traversed by articles of commerce
  • (ii) business interactions involved at each node
    of the supply chain,
  • focused initially on compliance with
    international laws and regulations, State
    pedigree laws and US FDA guidelines

Strategy Charter Cont
  • The development of specific Use Cases, and
    Scenarios, which describe
  • (i) the route traversed by articles of commerce
  • (ii) business interactions involved at each node
    of the supply chain,
  • focused on elements that may include
  • enhancing supply chain efficiencies,
  • improving care provider efficiencies and
    effectiveness, and
  • enhancing the patient/consumer experience,
    compliance, and safe usage.

Strategy - Deliverables
  • Prioritized list of Use Cases and Scenarios,
    accompanied by detailed recommendations
  • A Strategic Work Plan that includes the
  • Objectives/Requirements
  • Priorities
  • Deliverables
  • Scope, Schedule/Timeline, Resources, etc.
  • Work Plan Change Management process

Policy Charter/Objectives
  • The objective of the HLS Policy workgroup is to
  • promote the adoption of RFID and EPC technology
  • within the healthcare supply chain
  • by developing opportunities for the enabling
    regulations, guidelines and mandates
  • to be enacted, promoted or enforced through
    existing industry channels of communication and
    bodies of influence.

Policy - Deliverables
  • Detailed, well-documented reports identifying
    which areas of regulatory compliance, public
    policy, privacy, security, patient and consumer
    education, and business policy
  • A Policy Work Plan that includes the following
  • Objectives/Requirements
  • Priorities
  • Deliverables
  • Scope, Schedule/Timeline, Resources, etc.
  • Work Plan Change Management process

Process Charter/Objectives
  • Develop the business processes that will outline
    the key EPCglobal HLS BAG use cases and define
    the underlying process descriptions
  • Development of specific Use Cases
  • The scope of the Use Case includes all nodes
    beginning at the point of Pharmaceutical
    Packaging and ending at the decommissioning at
    the Hospital or Retail Pharmacy.

Process - Deliverables
  • Detailed RFID enabled supply chain Use Cases and
    Scenarios, Process description, flows and
    information maps
  • A Process Work Plan that includes the following
  • Objectives/Requirements
  • Priorities
  • Deliverables
  • Scope, Schedule/Timeline, Resources, etc.
  • Work Plan Change Management process

Information Charter/Objectives
  • The Objective of the HLS Information WG (IWG) is
    to recommend information business requirements
    and related process for the Healthcare and Life
    Sciences supply chain for use cases.

Information - Deliverables
  • Documents describing
  • Information Access API Specification.
  • Numbering Systems.
  • Data Retention.
  • Data Synchronization and Data Validation
  • Data Ownership, Visibility, and Sharing.
  • Data Security and Privacy
  • EPC Number Assignment

Technology Charter/Objectives
  • The objective of the Technology Working Group
    (WG) is to serve as a technical resource to the
    other work groups inside the HLS Business Action

Technology - Deliverables
  • Prioritized list of Use Cases and Scenarios,
    accompanied by detailed recommendations for
    action by EPCglobal Technical and Business Action
    Groups regarding development of appropriate
  • A Technology Work Plan that includes the
  • Objectives/Requirements
  • Priorities
  • Deliverables
  • Scope, Schedule/Timeline, Resources, etc.
  • Work Plan Change Management process

Research Charter/Objectives
  • Develop requirements for further research as
    defined and prioritized by the Healthcare and
    Life Sciences Business Action Group Strategic
    Planning Working Group.
  • Review and summarize the existing research on the
    effect of RF on products, humans, and the
  • Survey the major stakeholders in pharmaceutical
    applications of RFID technology on the research
    they have performed, the areas in which research
    is continuing, and their willingness to share
  • Coordinate with academic RFID thought leaders to
    assess the state of the art in RFID research,
    including MIT, Michigan State, and the University
    of Adelaide, Australia.
  • Examine and summarize research on the effect of
    Cold Chain on RFID technology.
  • Review research concerning the effect of
    sterilization procedures on tag performance.
  • Determine plausible scenarios and timelines for
    sensor technology development.

Research - Deliverables
  • Annotated survey results showing RFID industry
    research snapshot.
  • Backgrounder document on the state of the art in
    RFID research.
  • Gap assessment of critical research not yet done
    or not yet publicly available.
  • Documents summarizing public use cases on the
    effect of RF on product, humans, and the
    environment. Special consideration will be given
    to the effect of RFID on liquids and biologics.
  • Summary documents on the implications of using
    RFID in Cold Chain and Sterilization
    environments, again based on use cases in the
    public domain.

Transport Logistics
Transport Logistics (NEW)

Hardware Action Group
HAG Working Groups
  • Class 1 Generation 2 (Work completed)
  • Gen 2 Testing Certification
  • Joints Requirements Group for Item Level Tagging
  • Others planned

Software Action Group
SAG Working Groups
  • Reader Protocol
  • Reader Management
  • Filtering and Collection
  • ONS
  • Security
  • Tag Data Translation
  • EPCIS Phase 2
  • Tag Data Standards

Future Working Groups ?
  • Automotive
  • Aerospace
  • Electronics
  • Biologics

EPCglobal Technical Standards
  • Hardware Action Group
  • Software Action Group

EPCglobal network roles and interfaces
Hardware Action Group
  • C1G2 Completed
  • Testing and Certification
  • Requirements Item Level Tagging

HAG - Mission
  • Define the interfaces between hardware components
    (primarily RFID tags and readers) in the
    EPCglobal Network

C1G2 Features
  • Tag must be able to communicate from 860 MHz to
    960 MHz
  • Tags must understand 3 different modulation
  • Double Sideband Amplitude Shift Keying DSB-ASK
  • Single Sideband Amplitude Shift Keying SSB-ASK
  • Phase Reversal Amplitude Shift Keying PR-ASK
  • Coding is by Pulse Interval Encoding (PIE)
  • TgtR data rates 40, 80, 160, 320 and 640 kbits
  • Selection
  • Access Kill Passwords
  • EPC up to 256 bits
  • Dense reader channelised signalling

Interrogator/tag operations and tag state
  • Reader Talks First
  • Sets up communication parameters, defines a round
  • Round Size (Q value), slots are numbered from 0
    to 2Q-1
  • Tags select a slot within a round to offer a
  • Tag States
  • Ready
  • Arbitrate
  • Reply
  • Acknowledge
  • Open
  • Secured
  • Killed

(No Transcript)
Testing Certification
  • UHF Gen 2 Testing and Certification Working Group
  • Approved by EPCglobal legal counsel - 24 March
  • Objectives/Charter
  • Review Gen 2 Certification Test Plans for RF and
    Protocol Testing currently being developed by MET
    Labs and its partner, CETECOM Spain.
  • Provide technical feedback on UHF Gen 2
    Certification Test Plans via comment matrices.
  • Actively resolve all technical feedback through
    comment resolution process.

TC Deliverable
  • Comment resolution matrix for METLabs
    Certification Test plan

  • Conformance Trade Marking
  • Compliance Specification Sheet
  • Owned by EPCglobal
  • Vendor Neutral
  • Keyed to TID, so system can pull compliance
    information from the EPC Network
  • Testing philosophies
  • RF Interface
  • Connector or radiated
  • Interoperability
  • Compatible
  • Parameter Matrix
  • EPC compliant devices will have a matrix
    identifying what parameters were tested

TC - Working Documents
  • Protocol Requirements
  • Requirements of test equipment for C1G2 and
    measurement requirements of both, interrogators
    and tags, for testing operating procedures and
    commands in the Tag-identification layer
  • RF Requirements
  • Requirements of an RF test system for testing the
    physical interactions, i.e. the signalling layer
    of the communication link between C1G2
    Interrogators and Tags
  • Protocol
  • Protocol test system for testing operating
    procedures and commands of the data link layer of
    a layered network communication
  • Design Interoperability
  • Test system for the operating procedures for
    testing end-to-end functionality between two
    communicating RFID devices

Requirements - Item Level Tagging
Requirements Group
  • New Group, established in July 2005
  • Initial Membership limited to
  • 10 members from Fast Moving Consumers Group,
  • 10 members from Healthcare Life Sciences Group
  • 10 members from HAG
  • A member of the Auto-ID Labs
  • A member of the Architecture Review Committee

Proposed Charter
  • To develop requirements for an Item-Level Tagging
    Specification including but not limited to
  • a) Minimum and maximum tag read and, if
    appropriate, write range
  • b) Minimum and maximum tag read and, if
    appropriate, write rate
  • c) Security requirements including general type,
    encryption strength, and key management
  • d) Privacy features, including consideration of
    worldwide regulations
  • e) Memory features, including size and
  • f) Read and write reliability
  • g) Complete description of physical operating
    environments common in the handling of individual
    items in the supply chain needs to reflect
    environments for both HLS and FMCG supply chains
  • h) Other requirements and expectations as decided
    by the JRG

Software Action Group
SAG - Mission
  • The definition of software interface and other
    standards both within the EPCglobal Network
    elements and between these and other elements of
    enterprise systems distributed over a number of
    enterprises and geographies.

Working Groups
  • Filtering and Collection
  • Reader Protocol
  • Reader Management
  • Object Name Service (ONS)
  • EPCIS (Information Services)
  • Security
  • TAG Data Translation
  • EPC Information Services Phase 2
  • Tag Data Standards

(No Transcript)
Filtering and Collection
  • Charter
  • Create a specification for a software application
    programming interface (API), associated data
    specifications, and reporting mechanisms, through
    which clients may obtain filtered, aggregated tag
    read data from a multiplicity of tag read

FC Deliverables
  • Application Level Event Specification (ALE)
  • Filters and Counters (normative document)
  • Report
  • Recommendation of future standards
  • Recommendations for topics to be addressed by
    follow-on WGs to this one
  • Use case coverage
  • Identification of use cases addressed by the
    specification, and not addressed by the
  • Prototyping and acceptance test plan.
  • Certification and compliance requirements.

Reader Management
  • Charter
  • Define a set of standard functions that enable
    configuration, provisioning, monitoring, and
    alarm notification of individual RFID readers.
    It will leverage the standard communication
    protocol defined by the Reader Protocol Working
    Group where applicable. This set of standard
    functions will provide a baseline for management
    operations, will be extensible for future
    revisions, and will provide the ability to
    accommodate vendor specific extensions.

RM Deliverables
  • Reader Management Specification (normative
    document) defining
  • Standard objects that need to be managed by all
    RFID readers.
  • Set of operations that can be performed on the
  • Extensible object model.

Reader Protocol
  • Charter
  • Define the protocol specification for exchanging
    data and commands between hosts and readers,
    supporting functions such as reading tags,
    writing to tags, and killing tags.

RP Deliverables
  • Reader Protocol Specification v1.0 (normative
    document as outlined in the charter)
  • Report
  • Working Group Report On IP
  • Prototyping and Acceptance Test Plan
  • Certification and Compliance requirements

Object Name Service
  • Charter
  • Complete outstanding work concerning the Object
    Name Service. This includes bringing the "Object
    Name Service 1.0" document to the Standard
    Specification level within the EPCglobal
    standards development process. In addition to the
    base protocol specification, the group will also
    specify an application programming interface
    (API) for issuing ONS queries and an operational
    guidelines document that outlines industry best
    practices for the operation of DNS infrastructure.

ONS Deliverables
  • ONS 1.0 Specification
  • Alignment with the published version of the Tag
    Data Standards and the namespaces and DNS
    encoding of those namespaces. It is important to
    note that there is a normative dependency between
    this document and the final publication of the
    Tag Data Standards.
  • Alignment of the NAPTR records Service field with
    the protocol element of the EPCglobal Network.
  • Update of all content to be consistent with the
    new EPCglobal standards development process
  • ONS API Specification
  • A document that outlines the API for interfacing
    to an ONS resolver and returning the output
  • ONS Operational Recommendations
  • A document that references guidelines developed
    by external standards bodies for the proper use
    of DNS infrastructure.
  • Future Issues List for consumption by the TSC
  • A short list of future items that the working
    group identifies as possibly needing future

  • Charter
  • Deliver a set of recommendations to provide a
    security framework to ensure different levels
    (i.e. low, medium, high) of consumer
    information privacy, data authentication,
    integrity for both wireless and wired data
    transmissions, and mutual business confidence for
    collaborative business trading networks
  • Re-charter, so that Security WG can develop the
    EPCglobal Certificate Profile that will be a
    normative document.

Security Deliverables
  • Data Security Recommendations
  • Consumer Privacy Practice Recommendations
  • Report
  • Working Group Report On IP

Tag Data Standards
  • Charter
  • The objective of this WG is to extend the current
    TDS specification to enable it to cope with
    potential issues associated with the expansion of
    subscribers, particularly to other sectors of
  • Provide guidance/methodology as an extension to
    the current TDS specification, to address issues
    that are expected to arise, see next few slides.

Alpha-numeric handling.
  • There are many existing coding schemes that
    require the use of alpha-numeric coding (such as
    GRAI and DoD/UID).
  • EPCglobal need to address the use of
    alpha-numeric coding for the specification.

  • Define pure identification form of URI for
    current EAN/UCC codes.
  • Current TDS 1.1 specification defines the URI
    form presupposing the physical limitation of tag,
    such as bit length.
  • TDS need to define the pure identification form
    of URI stated in TDS 1.1, based on the actual and
    current EAN/UCC coding.

Transition management.
  • TDS need to identify requirements and document
    methods to enable smooth transitions to current
    TDS specifications from prior tag data white
    papers specification published in the Auto-ID
    Center period.

Manufacturer transit codes.
  • TDS need to identify the requirements of the tag
    manufacturers to encode transit codes that make
    tags unique at the time of initial sale, and
    provide guidelines and methodology to address
    such requirements.

Non-unique encodings.
  • TDS need to identify the requirements of
    non-unique encodings, such as non-serial ID and
    longer bit tags which store more than one
    identifier (e.g. pallet tags which have both a
    GRAI and an SSCC encoded in one physical tag) or
    use of two identical tags for single object to
    enhance readability, and provide guidelines and
    methodology to address the use of these encodings.

  • The requirement of synchronization /
    incorporation of ISO data standard structure to
    EPC TDS specification.

New Format
  • Identify and document the required correction and
    enhancement to the current TDS specification, in
    particular to make greater use of tables and
    diagrams and less use of prose-based

Future Formats
  • Identify the process and format for future tag
    data standard scheme requirements.
  • The requirement of tag data in other industry
    sectors apart from Retail/CPG that may
    potentially become users of EPC technology.
  • What kind of data standard is required by Class 2
    tag and beyond? In particular, will the fast
    filter value or even the header (which identifies
    tag length / numbering scheme) need to be
    programmed into the user-writeable part of the
    tag memory?

TDS Deliverables
  • Tag Data Standard V 2.0 document
  • Appendix to describe guidelines
  • Appendix for process template of future scheme

Tag Data Translation
  • Charter
  • Develop the necessary specifications to express
    the current Tag Data Standards encoding and
    decoding rules in an unambiguous machine-readable
    format, which will allow any component in the EPC
    Network technology stack to automatically convert
    between the binary and tag-encoding and
    pure-identity URI formats of the EPC as
    appropriate. The motivation is to allow
    components flexibility in how they receive or
    transmit EPCs, to reduce potential impedance
    mismatches at interfaces in the EPC Network
    technology stack. Reference implementations of
    software that demonstrate these capabilities will
    also be developed.

TDT Deliverables
  • Specifications for an XML data table
    (simultaneously both human-readable and
    machine-readable) to represent the formatting
    structure of the various numbering schemes
    defined in the Tag Data Standards specification.
  • Specifications of an API for a software
    conversion engine or other software that uses the
    XML data table to obtain access to updated
    versions of the data tables, by means of which it
    can update its processing rules, to support
    additional numbering schemes in the future.

TDT Deliverables Cont
  • Specifications for a standard language or data
    type by which applications or any component of
    the EPC Network technology stack can express the
    preferred representation of EPC, which should be
    input/output from that component.
  • A reference implementation of the XML data table,
    which is consistent with the current
    specification of EPC Tag Data Standards.

TDT Deliverables Cont
  • Specifications for a software conversion engine
    which is able to convert between the various EPC
    representations (raw tag information,
    tag-encoding URI, pure-identity URI) and ideally
    also the native representations in the numbering
    schemes, which are included in the Tag Data

TDT Deliverables Cont
  • A reference implementation of the conversion
    engine, which uses the data table to update its
    processing rules. Note that the engine is not
    required to parse the original XML data table for
    each conversion operation. Implementations may
    choose to store these rules in database tables or
    generate programming code based on the XML table.

TDT Deliverables Cont
  • Relevant additional coding schemes for other
    industry sectors should also be considered in the
    design of the table and the computational/processi
    ng functions required of the conversion engine,
    in order that the core functionality of the
    engine anticipates and supports their future
  • This may also include support for alphanumeric
    coding schemes.

  • Charter
  • Produce an informative description of alternative
    interfaces (at a functional, not technical
    implementation level) for capturing, securing,
    and accessing EPC-related data, with supporting
    data model abstractions (metamodels) as
    appropriate to serve as input to BAG WGs to help
    them see "what's possible" as they consider Use
    Cases that leverage EPCIS. Present these
    informative interface descriptions to the
    EPCglobal community including the Architectural
    Review Committee (ARC) for technical direction
    and the BAG for business direction.
  • However, Activities suspended to form and work on
    EPCIS Phase 2.

EPCIS Deliverables
  • An informative description of alternative
    interfaces as defined to include
  • Supporting data model abstractions (meta models)
    as appropriate for understanding
  • Identification of use cases addressed by the
    interfaces, and not addressed by the interfaces
  • Recommendations for topics of follow-on Working
  • Assumptions about interactions with other
    EPCglobal specifications and work groups

EPCIS Phase 2
  • Charter
  • The initial Working Group has completed a
    concise, preliminary functional description of
    EPC IS in the form of a slide presentation, and
    presented that description to BAG. The initial
    Working Group is also in the process of writing a
    more complete, user-level informative document,
    which, when delivered, will end the initial
    working group.
  • This new EPCIS Working Group is chartered both to
    continue user level requirements gathering and
    documentation, and to create technical
    specifications within a narrowly defined set of
    objectives. The motivation for limiting the
    scope of this WG to a narrowly defined set of
    objectives is to expedite the specification
    writing and consensus building process.

Scope of EPCIS2
  • EPC IS version 1.0 will address Data Capture by
    providing an interface specification for
    representing and transferring operational events
    in an EPC network that may include both basic EPC
    data and be augmented with business level
    transaction identifiers and other additional
  • EPC IS version 1.0 will address Data Query by
    providing an interface for querying EPC IS
    information from compliant systems.
  • Access Control and Authentication will be
    addressed, to the extent that it is possible, by
    citing existing well-established industry
    practices for Internet B2B commerce. Access
    Control specifications will be created for
    dimensions that are particular to EPC IS, in the
    context of pair-wise information sharing between
    trading partners having a pre-established

Scope Cont
  • All specifications will seek to adopt the layered
    approach already adopted by the Reader Protocol,
    Reader Management, and Filtering Collection
    Working Groups, in which services are described
    abstractly through a neutral notation such as
    UML, with bindings to specific message syntax and
    transport specified separately.
  • In addition, EPCIS specifications will seek to
    cleanly separate the specification of data from
    operations upon data.
  • The only binding of the abstract service
    descriptions provided in this version of
    specifications will be a binding to a web
    services framework, using WSDL and XSD.

EPCIS2 Deliverables
  • Version 1 of an EPCIS Application Protocol
    Interface specification covering data capture and
    data query.
  • Non-normative Report
  • Recommendation for areas to be considered by
    future Working Groups.
  • Non-normative Report
  • Use case coverage Identification of use cases
    addressed by the specification, and not addressed
    by the specification.
  • Prototyping and acceptance test plan.

Graphical Illustration of roles
Tag Data Standards
An Example of How GTIN Integration Could Work
With the EPC
Illustrative Example (EAN-13) 12 34567 89012 8
Company Prefix
Item Reference Check Digit )
Remove Check Digit
EPC Manager Number
Object Class Number
Serial Number
Tag Data Translation
EPC Event Layers
EPCIS Concepts
Possible Retailer Implementation
Capture Application
Dist Ctr
Dist Ctr
Tagging Station
Operational Apps
Dock Portal
Dock Portal
Dock Portal
Backroom Receipt
Impact Doorway
EPCIS Events
Commission Observe
Observe Aggregate
Observe Shipment
Observe Receipt
Observe Restock
Observe Putaway
Observe Shipment
EPCglobal Standards
  • Up to date as of 29 July 2005

HAG Standards
  • Ratified Standards
  • C1G2 V1.0.9
  • C1G2 Conformance V1.0.2
  • Working Documents
  • C1G2 V1.1.0
  • Testing Certification
  • Protocol Requirements
  • RF Requirements
  • Design Interoperability
  • Protocol

SAG Standards
  • Ratified Standard
  • Tag Data Standards V1.27
  • Proposed Specification
  • The Application Level Events (ALE) Specification,
    Version 1.0
  • Candidate Specifications
  • EPCglobal Object Name Service (ONS) 1.0
  • Tag Data Translation Version 3 June 2005
  • LCWD to Candidate Specification
  • Reader Protocol 1.1

SAG Standards Cont
  • Last Call Working Draft
  • Reader Management 1.0
  • TDS V1.3
  • Working Drafts
  • ALE Futures
  • ALE Compliance
  • Security Working Drafts
  • ALE V2
  • EPCIS V6
  • Reader Protocol V1
  • Reader Management V2
  • ONSV2
  • Security Survey
  • Security White Paper
  • EPCglobal Certificate and Certificate Validation
  • EPCIS Service Binding Interfaces to Backend

SAG Standards Cont
  • Working Drafts
  • EPCIS-User Definition
  • EPCIS_Web Services Definition Language
  • ContainmentProfile.doc
  • AS2 Vs WebServices for EPCIS.doc
  • EPCIS Phase 2
  • EPC Information Services User Definition
  • EPC Information Services
  • TDS V2.0
  • ONS Compliance

ISO Standards
RF Regulations
  • Regulators
  • Classify RFID as Industrial, Scientific and
    Medical use
  • ISM bands
  • 125-134 kHz (ISO 18000-2)
  • 13.56 MHz or HF (ISO 18000-3)
  • 433 MHz (ISO 18000-7)
  • 860 to 960 MHz or UHF (ISO 18000-6)
  • 2.45 GHz (ISO 18000-4)
  • 5.8 GHz (no ISO standard)

Other RFID Standards
  • ISO_IEC_18000-1
  • Reference architecture and definition of
    parameters to be standardized
  • ISO_IEC_TR_18001
  • Application requirements profiles
  • ISO_IEC_18046
  • RFID Tag and Interrogator Performance Test
  • ISO_IEC_TR_18047-2
  • Test methods for air interface communications
    below 135 kHz
  • ISO_IEC_TR_18047-3
  • Test methods for air interface communications at
    13,56 MHz
  • ISO_IEC_TR_18047-4
  • Test methods for air interface communications at
    2.45 GHz
  • ISO_IEC_TR_18047-6
  • Test methods for air interface communications at
    860 to 960 MHz
  • ISO_IEC_TR_18047-7
  • Test methods for air interface communications at
    433 MHz
  • ISO_IEC_19762
  • Harmonised Vocabulary
  • ISO_IEC_24710

Other Relevant ISO Standards
  • ISO_IEC_15418
  • EAN/UCC Application Identifiers and Fact Data
    Identifiers and Maintenance
  • ISO_IEC_15424
  • Data Carrier Identifiers (including Symbology
  • ISO_IEC_15434
  • Transfer syntax for high capacity ADC media
  • ISO_IEC_15459-Parts 1,2 3
  • Unique identification of transport units
  • Part 1 General
  • Part 2 Registration procedures
  • Part 3 Unique Item Identification for Supply
    Chain Management
  • ISO_IEC_15961
  • Data protocol application interface
  • ISO_IEC_15962
  • Data protocol data encoding rules and logical
    memory functions
  • ISO_IEC_15963
  • Unique identification for RF tags

EPCglobal submission to ISO
  • EPCglobal submitted C1G2 V1.0.9 to ISO
  • PDAM to 18000-6 issued 26 Feb 2005
  • Preliminary Draft Amendment
  • C1G2 will be 18000-6 Type C
  • PDAM Ballot Resolution Meeting
  • Singapore, 7 June 2005
  • 174 comments resolved
  • New FPDAM released
  • 15 July 2005
  • FPDAM Ballot resolution Meeting
  • Klagenfurt, Austria, 30 November 2005

Regulatory Standards
  • The UHF tags will be able to be read by readers
    operating within 860 960 MHz range.
  • The readers will be restricted to a small subset
    of this range depending on where in the world
    they are being operated.
  • There are also regulations on the amount of power
    emitted by the readers depending on where the
    readers are being used.
  • Therefore, a tag may be applied to an item and
    shipped anywhere in the world, but a reader has
    to be specifically set up for the region or
  • Latest update on UHF from ISO WG4

Map of the ITU regions
ITU Region 1 (EU and Africa)EN300-220 EN302-208
  • CEPT countries
  • 869.4 - 869.65 MHz 500mW erp DClt10
  • 865.6 - 867.6 MHz 2W erp LBT
  • South Africa
  • 869.4 - 869.65 MHz 500mW erp
  • 915.2 - 915.4 MHz 8 W eirp
  • Note all of the above operate in lt 250kHz

ITU Region 2 (Americas)FCC Part 15.247
  • USA, Canada and Mexico
  • 902 - 928 MHz 4W EIRP FHSS, 500kHz wide
    channels permitted relaxed emission
    requirements within the whole band.
  • Central South America
  • Generally similar to North America but varies
    from country to country.

ITU Region 3 (Asia)
  • Australia
  • 918 - 926 MHz 1W EIRP
  • 920 926 MHz 4W EIRP
  • Experimental
  • Strict conditions apply
  • New Zealand
  • 864 - 868 MHz 4W EIRP
  • Elsewhere in Asia
  • Generally follow CEPT some exceptions below
  • China 917 to 922 2W ERP
  • Hong Kong 865-868 2W ERP 920-925 4W EIRP
  • Japan 952 - 954 MHz 4W EIRP (licensed)
  • Malaysia 919-923 MHz, 2W ERP
  • Singapore 866-869 MHz 0.5W ERP 923-925 2W ERP
  • South-Korea 910 914 MHz
  • Taiwan 922-928 1W ERP (indoor) 0.5W (outdoor)

Australian 4W RFID licence
Experimental Licence
  • The original licence for RFID
  • 1W EIRP, 918 to 926 MHz
  • Experimental 4W EIRP Licence
  • Granted to GS1 Australia
  • 12 July 2005
  • Operates from 920 to 926 MHz
  • Only licence that will be granted
  • Statistics needed to determine possible
    interference to Vodaphone
  • Receiver base station at 915 MHz

GS1 Contact
  • For details contact Fiona Wilson

  • Many RFID related Standards Published
  • Many people working on those standards
  • gt 1500 people within EPCglobal workgroups
  • EPCglobal standards are ratified ONLY after
    artefacts have been validated
  • EPCglobal working on both Technical Business
  • Security is a big focus
  • Multi-vendor support for the standards
  • Conformance documents being published/developed
  • UHF band opening up
  • Many GS1 countries already have band allocations
  • Australia well placed (2nd best in the world)
  • 4W EIRP
  • 12 by 500 kHz wide channels
  • Auto-ID Lab, Adelaide
  • Australasian Adoption Research Initiative
  • RFID Automation

Further Information
  • Alfio Grasso
  • Deputy Director
  • Auto-ID Lab, Adelaide
  • General Manager
  • RFID Automation
  • University of Adelaide
  • Web
  • Email
  • Ph (08) 8303 6473
  • Mob 0402 037 968
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