Managerial Roles in Organizations: Informational Nature of Management Roles (1) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Managerial Roles in Organizations: Informational Nature of Management Roles (1)


Management is a process of co-ordinating work activities so that they are completed efficiently and effectively with and through other people. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Managerial Roles in Organizations: Informational Nature of Management Roles (1)

Fundamentals of Management
  • 1. Nature of Management

Topic Discussed
1. What is management? 2. Levels of management
3. Functions of management 4. Management
skills 5. Managerial roles
What is Management ?
  • Management is a process of co-ordinating work
    activities so that they are completed efficiently
    and effectively with and through other people.
  • Management involves the efficient and effective
    completion of organisational work activities.
  • Management involves setting and achieving goals
    by exercising related functions co-ordinating
    various resources.

What Is Management?
  • Efficiency
  • Getting the most output from the least amount of
  • doing things right.
  • It seeks to minimise the cost of resources

What Is Management?
  • Effectiveness
  • Completing activities so that organisational
    goals are achieved
  • doing the right things.

Levels of Management
  • Managerial jobs in organisations fall into 3
  • 1. First-line management
  • 2. Middle management
  • 3. Top management

Levels of Management
  • First-line Management
  • Managers at the lowest level of the hierarchy who
    are directly responsible for the work of
    operating (non-managerial) employees.
  • Supervisor, Line manager, team leader.
  • First-line Managers are extremely important to
    the success of an organisation because they have
    the responsibility of seeing that day-to-day
    operations run smoothly in pursuit of
    organisational goals.

Levels of Management
  • 2. Middle Management
  • Develop objectives to implement top-management
  • Organise staffing effort modify company
    structure, increase/decrease number of manpower
    in line with top-management guidelines.
  • Monitor control the results of plans, make
    adjustments to ensure organisations goals are
  • Directly responsible for the work of managers at
    lower levels.
  • They may have titles such as Department Head,
    Plant Manager, or Division Manager.

Levels of Management
  • 3. Top Management
  • Top Managers plan for the entire organisation
    the acquisition of needed resources.
  • Develop organisational values, purpose, long-term
  • Determine long term human resource needs create
    guidelines to govern staffing practice.
  • Create companywide management philosophy, putting
    system in place
  • Evaluate overall company performance, determine
    whether resources are utilised and goals are

Levels of Management
  • 3. Top Management
  • Some examples of the titles include
  • -Chief Executive Officer (CEO)
  • -President
  • -Executive Vice President
  • -Executive Director
  • -Senior Vice President
  • -Vice President
  • -Managing Director

Functions of Management
  • Management is the process of achieving
    organisational goals by engaging in the 4 major
    functions of
  • 1. Planning,
  • 2. Organising,
  • 3. Leading and
  • 4. Controlling.
  • This definition recognises that management is an
    ongoing activity, entails reaching important
    goals, and involves knowing how to perform the
    major function of management (POLC).

Functions of Management
  • 1. Planning
  • Identify goals and establish an overall strategy
    for achieving those goals
  • Assign priorities determine resources
  • 3 matters to be taken into consideration during
  • - Duration and scope of planning
  • - Influences on planning
  • - Flexibility in planning

Functions of Management
  • 2. Organising
  • Focuses on allocating and arranging human and
    non-human resources so that plans can be carried
    out successfully
  • Through organising function, managers determine
  • -what tasks are to be done,
  • -who is to do them
  • -how tasks/jobs are to be grouped into various
    units that make up the structure of the
  • -who reports to whom, and
  • -where decisions are to be made

Functions of Management
  • 3. Leading
  • Involves influencing others to engage in the work
    behaviours necessary to reach organisational
  • Leading includes
  • -coaching employees
  • -motivating employees
  • -directing the activities of others
  • -communicating with others,
  • -resolving conflicts, and
  • -coaching for necessary change and innovation

Functions of Management
  • 4. Controlling
  • Monitoring actual performance
  • Comparing actual performance with pre-set goals
  • Actual performance vs pre-set performance
  • Deviation ?
  • If deviation exists, take necessary corrective

Management Skills
  • Skill
  • An ability to act in a way that allows a person
    to perform well in his or her role.
  • A skill is the ability to engage in a set of
    behaviours that are functionally related to one
    another and that lead to a desired performance
    level in a given area.

Management Skills (Managerial Skills)
  • Skill
  • 3 basic sets of management skills (identified by
    Robert Katz) required by managers
  • 1. Technical Skills
  • 2. Human Skills
  • 3. Conceptual Skills

1. Technical Skills
  • Ability to apply specialised knowledge or
  • It is the understanding proficiency to use the
    tools, procedures, and techniques of a
    specialised field.
  • Technical skills in accounting, finance,
    engineering, manufacturing, or computer science.
  • Technical skills can be gained from
  • -extensive formal education or
  • -develop their technical skills on the job.

2. Human Skills
  • Ability to work with others, either individual or
  • Ability to understand, motivate, communicate,
    inspire, gain trust from others.

3. Conceptual Skills
  • Conceptual skills are skills related to the
    ability to
  • -visualise the organisation as a whole, to see
    how its parts are interrelated and depend on one
  • -understand how the organisation fits into the
    wider context of the industry, community, and
  • -Well-developed conceptual skills equip the
    manager to identify the problem, develop
    alternative solutions, select the best
    alternative, and implement the solution.

Management Skills At Different Hierarchical Levels
  • 1. Conceptual Skills
  • Generally, Conceptual Skills are most important
    at the top management level.
  • Top Managers have the greatest need to
  • -see the organisation as a whole,
  • -understand how its various parts relate to one
    another, and
  • -associate the organisation with the world

Management Skills At Different Hierarchical Levels
  • 2. Technical Skills
  • First-line managers have the greatest need for
    technical skills, since they directly supervise
    most of the technical and professional employees
    who are not managers.
  • Middle managers, too, often need sufficient
    technical skills so that they can communicate
    with subordinates and recognise major problems
  • Even Top managers must have some technical
    skills, particularly when technology is an
    important part of the products or services their
    organisations produce.
  • Otherwise, upper-level managers will have
    difficulty fostering innovation, allocating
    resources efficiently, or devising strategies to
    stay ahead of the competition.

Management Skills At Different Hierarchical Levels
  • 3. Human Skills
  • Not surprisingly, all three levels of management
    require strong human skills because they all must
    get things done through people.
  • Managers who lack sufficient human skills usually
    run into serious difficulties when they attempt
    to deal with individuals inside and outside their
    work units.

Management Skills At Different Hierarchical Levels
Technical Skills Human Skills Conceptual S
First-Line Middle Top Managers
Managers Managers
Managerial Roles
Managerial Roles
  • Henry Mintzberg in the late 1960s attempted to
    categorise the managers various activities into
  • Role
  • -A role is an organised set of behaviors
    associated with a particular office or position.
  • The 3 general types of roles that Mintzberg
    observed are
  • I . Interpersonal Roles
  • II . Informational Roles and
  • III. Decisional Roles

I. Interpersonal Roles
  • Grows directly out of authority of a managers
    position and involved developing and maintaining
    positive relationships with others.
  • All managers are required to perform duties that
    involve people and other duties that are
    ceremonies and symbolic in nature.
  • The three Interpersonal Roles include being a
  • 1) Figurehead
  • 2) Leader
  • 3) Liaison

I. Interpersonal Roles
  • 1) Figurehead
  • Performs symbolic duties of a legal or social
  • Example Receiving important visitors and
    officiating events.
  • 2) Leader
  • Builds relationships with subordinates and
    communicates with, motivates, and coaches them.
  • This role include hiring, training, motivating
    and disciplining employees.

I. Interpersonal Roles
  • 3) Liaison
  • Interact with other internal staff, either same
    department of different department
  • Interact with suppliers and clients
  • Maintain self-developed network of contacts
    informers who provide favours and information.

II. Informational Roles
  • Pertain to receiving, collecting and transmitting
  • The three Informational Roles include a
  • -Monitor
  • -Disseminator
  • -Spokesman

II. Informational Roles
  • Monitor
  • Seeks internal and external information about
    issues that can affect organisation.
  • Monitor the environment to determine what is
    going on. Collects information both directly
    (asking questions) and indirectly (unsolicited
  • Example reading periodical reports, maintain
    personal contacts

II. Informational Roles
  • Disseminator
  • Transmits information internally that is obtained
    from either internal or external sources.
  • The manager must transmit much of the information
    received to subordinates.
  • Spokesperson
  • Transmits information on the organisations
    plans, policies.
  • Example holding board meeting, giving
    information to media.

III. Decisional Roles
  • Involve making significant decisions that affect
    the organisation, which revolve around making
  • The four Decisional Roles include
  • -Entrepreneur
  • -Disturbance Handler
  • -Resource Allocator
  • -Negotiator
  • Entrepreneur
  • Act as initiator, designer, and encourager of
    change and innovation.
  • Manager initiates and oversee new projects that
    will improve the organisations performance.

III. Decisional Roles
  • Disturbance Handler
  • Takes corrective action when organisation faces
    important, unexpected difficulties.
  • Managers take corrective action in response to
    unforeseen problems.
  • Resource Allocator
  • Distributes resources of all types including
    time, funding, equipment, and human resources.
  • Manager are responsible for allocating human,
    physical and monetary resources.

III. Decisional Roles
  • Negotiator
  • Represents the organisation in major negotiations
    affecting the managers areas of responsibility.
  • They discuss and bargain with other groups to
    gain advantages for their own units.
  • Example Participating in Union contract

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