Ch.4 - Chriss, Social Control - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Ch.4 - Chriss, Social Control


Ch.4 from James J. Chriss, Social Control: An Introduction, 2nd ed. (Polity, 2013) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ch.4 - Chriss, Social Control

Chapter 4
  • Medical Control

  • Louisiana, 1851
  • Drapetomania
  • Early example of medicalization
  • Medical social control application of medical
    understandings and terminology to secure
    adherence to social norms
  • Transitions
  • Deviance as ignorance or vice (ancient Greece)
  • Deviance as sin (Middle Ages onward)
  • Deviance as badness (1600 to 1800s)
  • Deviance as illness (mid-1800s, esp. with rise of
    psychiatry by late 1800s)

Parsons Sick Role
  • Illness can be considered a form of deviance
  • But instead of punishment, best response is
  • Must excuse sick person (temporarily) from
    fulfilling role expectations (adaptation)
  • Institutionalization of appropriate responses to
    sickness medical professionals (integration)
  • Agreement that illness is undesirable (latent
    pattern maintenance)
  • Responsibility to seek professional help (goal

Medicine and Social Control
  • Irving Zolas early statement in 1972 (p. 86)
  • Making medicine and the labels healthy and ill
    relevant to more areas of human existence
  • Medicalization redefining more and more social
    problems as medical problems
  • States are concerned with the health and wellness
    of the citizenry
  • Individual level normal medicine (body) and
    psychiatry (mind)
  • Group level public health

Definition of Mental Disorder
  • Has always been hard to define
  • New definition for DSM-V (p. 87)
  • Occurs in an in individual
  • Clinically significant distress or disability
  • Not a reaction to common stressors or losses
  • Reflects an underlying psychobiological
  • But not a result of deviance or conflicts with
  • No single definition can cover all possible cases
  • New additions to DSM should weigh benefits of
    recognition versus harm from labeling

Medicine and Social Control
  • Public Health the art and the science of
    preventing disease, prolonging life, and
    promoting health
  • Can lead to hygienization or even public
  • Governments obsessed with the health and
    well-being of citizens
  • Biggest bang for the buck
  • Utilitarianism, public safety are overriding
  • Even psychiatry moving more to the group level
    (e.g., relational disorders)

More Terms
  • Medicalization redefining more problems as
    medical problems
  • But not a unilinear development, and not
    necessarily pushed by the medical establishment
    (e.g., doctors)
  • Demedicalization earlier medical expertise and
    intervention in certain areas no longer apply
  • The case of homosexuality
  • Remedicalization finding new ways to medicalize
    a condition (e.g., through genetics, cognitive
    science, etc.)

More Terms
  • Biomedicalization tied to advances in medical
  • Renders less relevant the human element in
    medical care and treatment
  • Elevates to prominence the use of pharmacological
  • More social issues or maladies for which you can
    get a prescription drug
  • Tied also to rise of managed care and reliance on
    primary care physicians rather than specialists
  • Drug companies and disease mongering
  • More persons willingly identifying themselves as
    patients, seeking drug treatment
  • General process of pharmaceuticalization

Therapeutic Ethos
  • A cultural orientation in which the self is the
    new sacred object
  • Must pay homage to feelings and emotions
  • Must engage in public confessionals when caught
    in deviance
  • Testifying to the greatness of medical

Therapeutic State
  • Ascendancy of the medical model of disease as the
    prevailing ideology of the modern welfare state
    (p. 97)
  • Indicators
  • Therapeutic Jurisprudence
  • Victims rights
  • Medicalization of welfare
  • Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

Gender and Medicalization
  • Impact of medicalization as it relates to
    sex/gender has passed through three phases
  • Gender neutrality
  • Women as victims explicit attention to
    medicalization of female issues
  • Revival of reductionism explicit attention to
    male health issues

Dark Side of Medicalization
  • Dislocation of responsibility
  • Culture of victimization
  • Type II Error problem judging a well person to
    be sick
  • Domination of expert control
  • Exclusion of evil deviance has worldly causes
    which medicine can ascertain
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