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Chapter 9


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Title: Chapter 9

Chapter 9 10Notes B
  • Late Middle Ages
  • 1300-1500 CE

Will the Real Pope Please Stand Up?
  • Pope Gregory XI moved to Rome in 1377 and died.
  • 1378 Pope Urban VI, an Italian was elected as a
    compromise to the angry Roman mob and Italian
  • Urban VI was a HOT HEAD!!
  • He tried to move things along to harshly.
  • French Cardinals slipped out of Rome and went to
    Avignon where they elected another Pope

2 Popes Urban VI in Rome and French Pope in
  • People had to decide for themselves who they were
    loyal to. Who was the real pope?
  • The decision often cam down as a territorial
    choice. Location, Location, Location
  • England, Scandinavia, and Northern France- Roman
  • Rest of France, Spain, and Southern Italy-
    Avignon Pope
  • Germany and Northern Italy- Divided Loyalties

2 Popes for 30 Years! The Great Papal Schism
  • At one point some cardinals from each camp tried
    to solve the problem by electing yet another
  • Neither the French nor the Roman popes would
    resign so then there were 3 POPES!
  • This situation was unbearable!!
  • Finally a Holy Roman Emperor called a general
    church council to settle the matter.

2 Popes for 30 Years! The Great Papal Schism
  • A Roman, Martin V, became the one and only pope,
    ending the schism in 1417.
  • The office of Pope had been terribly weakened
    by all this in-fighting.
  • The bishops began a movement called Conciliarism
    to rival the absolute power and authority of the
    pope, but their movement was not successful!

National Monarchical Power
  • Ferdinand Isabella-united Spain and crushed all
    opposition with the start of the Spanish
  • They were just plain evil toward Jews and
  • The Popes were powerless to stop the cruelty.

Renaissance Popes- Late 1400s
  • Renaissance means Rebirth and what was being
    reborn was the ancient literature, artwork, and
    science of the Greeks and Romans.
  • Popes of the late 1400s commissioned great
    artists to paint churches and to begin the world
    renounce Vatican Library.
  • Michelangelo, Botticelli- were among the greatest
    of those employed by the Popes.

Some Popes lead Double Lives
  • They began the movement that would become known
    as humanism of later centuries.
  • Exaggerated humanism places too much emphasis on
    the importance of human accomplishment and
  • Rather than seeking gospel values, some popes
    indulged their human passions.

The 10 Renaissance Popes
  • Most of them got into office through bribery and
    some had children who were then given high
    positions in the church.
  • Alexander VI the most notorious of these popes
    had 6 children before buying the papacy and
    making his children church leaders.

Politics- 1400
  • The Turks were tearing apart the Byzantine
    empire. Breaking off piece by piece until only
    Constantinople remained.
  • The Patriarch of Constantinople needed military
    help from the West to negotiate a deal he signed
    a statement that at least on paper re-united the
    East with the West and promised loyalty to the
    Bishop of Rome.

East-West Split
  • Could not be mended that easily. The Byzantine
    common folk and clergy still bitterly hated the
    Western Crusaders for what they had done to them
    in looting their churches and abusing their
  • Nevertheless, the pope called for another Crusade
    to fight the Turks.
  • The Turks proved too much for the crusaders who
    lost decisive battles near the Black Sea.
  • Constantinople was left wide open for the Turks
    to take over.

1453 Turks Conquered Constantinople
  • After more than a 100 years of Roman
    civilization, The 2nd Rome fell.
  • The Turks named the city Istanbul.
  • The Byzantine bishops escaped to Russia.
  • Ivan the great considered Moscow to be the 3rd
  • Turkish Sultan appointed a new patriarch to
    govern the Greek church and allowed Christians to
    have a measure of religious freedom.

Byzantine Catholics
  • Those who remained loyal to the Pope were now the
    Greek Catholics.
  • The other Christians who escaped to Russia
    remained separate as the Russian Orthodox Church.

The Renaissance
  • Our book likens the invention of the
    micro-processor chip to the invention of the
    Printing Press both of these inventions had a
    profound effect on all of society after them.
  • Johannes Gutenberg's invention used block
    characters molded from lead could be arranged in
    a base to spell out words. The base was dipped
    into ink and then lowered onto paper by a press
    that resembled the press used for making wine and

The Renaissance continued
  • A long pain-staking process of casting each page
    resulted in the worlds first book The Bible-
  • Within a few years the printing press became an
    industry literacy was increasing as people had
    more access to the printed word.

Bibles First Books
  • Bibles were the first books to be produced, so
    now more people could own a copy. This would lead
    to more people reading the bible and stressing
    their own interpretations of the Bible.
  • The Protestant Reformation would raise the Bible
    to an unprecedented level of authority.

Knowledge Empowered the People
  • Books were used as proof
  • If you thought the Pope was wrong about something
    you could find proof in your own private copy
    of the Bible.
  • Different interpretation of the Bible lead to
    many disputes over the theology of salvation and

Faith Worship
  • People prayed in the cathedrals
  • Public prayer was at Noon and 6 PM
  • The church bells would ring to call people to the
    cathedral for prayer
  • Most people walked to church on Sundays
  • People celebrated Feast days and Holy days as big
    civic events

  • The dogma of the Real Presence of Christ in the
    Eucharist was promulgated
  • Greek philosophy was used to help explain the
    dogma of Real Presence
  • Transubstantiation the bread and the wine
    change into the Body and Blood of Christ and
    remain Christ as long as the form of bread and
    wine remain intact.

Effects of Real Presence
  • People went into churches right at the moment of
    consecration so they could see the magic
  • The Holy Gaze became more important to people
    than actually receiving the Eucharist.
  • Adoration of the Blessed Sacrament became a
    common way to pray.
  • Priests started receiving money to say private
  • Cathedrals had many smaller chapels in them where
    simultaneous masses were being said.
  • Altars to various saints in our churches today is
    reminiscent of the devotional life of the
    Renaissance Christians.

  • When Mass was in Latin, people were reading
    missals in their own languages to fill their
    spiritual hunger.
  • Blessed Mary, Mother of God, was highly honored
    with Feast Days and celebrations.
  • Relics were popular bones, dried blood,
    clothing, and personal items that belonged to
    long dead saints of the church.

1400s 1500s Relics Debate
  • Devotion to relics was out of hand.
  • It was a superstitious hobby of many to collect
    as many relics as possible.
  • People would rather have the spiritual (magical?)
    protection of a saint than to practice holiness
  • Who could say that a relic was authentic?

Indulgences Meritorious Actions
  • Doing good deeds earned merit points with God. If
    you didnt need the points for your self, you
    could sell them to someone else in need. The
    receipt of your transaction was called an
    INDULGENCE. If you had enough merit points you
    could go straight to heaven without spending any
    time in PURGATORY, where it was believed sinners
    paid for the consequences of their sins.
  • Unscrupulous men threatened people with fiery
    images of people suffering in purgatory to
    increase sales of indulgences.

The Renaissance Was Not All Bad
  • There was a lot of Bible reading and prayer
  • Meditation was being practiced in pockets of
  • Great spiritual works were written. For example,
    Thomas a Kempis, The Imitation of Christ,
  • Grassroots spirituality sprung-up and there was a
    lot of spiritual revival among the faithful.
  • Cathedral schools were paving the way for the
    scientific discoveries that would forever change

  • Thomas A Kempis
  • John Wycliffe
  • John Hus
  • Friar Savonarola
  • Ferdinand and Isabella
  • Martin Luther
  • Cardinal Cajetan
  • John Tetzel
  • John Eck
  • Charles V
  • John Calvin
  • Knox
  • Zwingli
  • Anabaptists
  • Henry VIII
  • Sir Thomas More

Thomas A' Kempis
  • 1380-1471
  • Wrote a book called the Imitation of Christ
  • Spiritual reading lead to grasp roots revival

John Wycliffe
  • 1375
  • Zealous priest
  • Attacked unworthy priest and demanded that all
    church possessions to be sold
  • Discredited any dogma that used words that were
    not used in the Bible.
  • There were no other textbooks besides the Bible.

John Hus
  • 1415
  • Young Czech
  • Agreed with Wycliffe but encouraged people to
    drink and eat the bread and wine of Christ.
  • Presented this idea to the council and was burnt
    at the stake.

Friar Savonarola
  • Dominican reformer
  • Got people to rally against the Medici family
  • The Pope sided with the Medici and Savonarola
    accused the Pope of simony and was burned at the
    stake. And died in 1497.

Ferdinand and Isabella
  • Sponsored Columbus in his voyage to try to find a
    way to India going West but finds South America
  • Supported Franciscan Friars and Jesuits.
  • Urged them to spread their religions in the New

Martin Luther Slide 1 of 2
  • Augustinian Priest and a Monk
  • 1483 to 1546
  • His main problem in the church is the selling of
    Indulgences, or buying Gods grace the sin of
  • A Powder Keg is lit by a very small flame or
  • Objects what John Tetzel is doing and creates a
    95 points thesis and posts it to the cathedrals
  • He doesnt intend to have them put in the

Martin Luther Slide 2 of 2
  • German Mob uses these 95 points to separate the
    German Church into two separate churches.
  • Mob is a huge problem in the relationship between
    Martin Luther and the German Archbishop.
  • The Mob puts Martin Luther in charge of their new
    revolution (The Protestant Reformation).
  • On his death bed he says he never intended to
    split the Church and that he was still a Catholic.

Cardinal Cajetan
  • The Pope sends him to try and bargain with Martin
    Luther on his 95 points.
  • Polemic- attacking the politics of another person.

John Tetzel
  • Most famous Friar.
  • He was an Indulgences Salesman
  • Hired by a German Archbishop to get money from
    the people by selling indulgences.
  • The Archbishop needed the money because he owed
    the German Mob money.
  • The Archbishop and Johnny T want to get rid of
    Martin Luther, so they seek a way to
    excommunicate him.

John Eck
  • Corners Luther with a question to try and get him
    to say something heretical.
  • Luther took the bait and said something heretical
    in front of everyone.
  • Therefore John Eck, John Tetzel, and The
    Archbishop now have evidence upon which to
    excommunicate Luther.

King Charles V
  • Emperor of Germany writes a letter called the
    Diet of Worms and sends it to Martin Luther.
  • Charles V in this letter bans Luther from Germany
  • Fredrick (German Prince and friend of Luther)
    kidnaps him and hides him in Germany.

John Calvin
  • Gets a hold of Luthers letters and comes up with
    two new concepts
  • Predestination - God controls and determines
  • Theocracy- Church leaders should be in control of
    the civil government.
  • Geneva - place where Calvin sets up his version
    of Lutheranism.
  • Leaves Geneva and goes to France and starts an
    even more INTOLERIANT form of Lutheranism that
    gets the name Calvinism.

John Knox
  • Takes Calvinism to Scotland and forms Knox

  • Took modern Presbyterianism to Switzerland.

  • Amish, Mennonites, and the PA Dutch.
  • Conservative Christians
  • Not much room for the use of technology.
  • Prefer an agrarian society.
  • More outgoing to other people

Henry VIII Sir Thomas More
  • Henry 8th is the King of England
  • He will form the Anglican Church of England
  • Sir Thomas More is his chancellor, who like
    Becket at the time of Henry 2nd, will choose the
    Honor of God over honor of the king.
  • In fact, Henry 8th will have Thomas More beheaded
    and he will order the destruction of the tomb of
    Thomas Becket to prevent Catholics from
    venerating his remains!

Henry VIII
  • Married to Catherine.
  • Catherine was Henrys Brothers wife. Or simply
    his sister-in-law.
  • She is the daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella
    which were the King and Queen of Spain.
  • In Rome Clement VII is the Pope. Henry VIII wants
    him to authorize a divorce, but Clement refuses.

Henry VIII (side notes)
  • Very large man and probably died because of heart
    failure. Always trying to get a male in his
    family because he needed to pass the throne on to
  • The only son he had died at age 15. So when he
    dies he has to pass the throne onto one of his
    daughters. First one to take it was Bloody Mary
    and then Queen Elizabeth (Virgin Queen)

Henry VIII
  • Henry tries to get his nobles to sign a letter
    denying the Church and to have the nobles call
    Henry the head of the Church of England.
  • His number one man or main man was Thomas More,
    but More refuses to sign the oath.

Sir Thomas More
  • Very wealthy because he is the chancellor of
  • He reason for refusal by telling Henry that his
    conscious is higher than his loyalty to the
  • Henry has him imprisoned and later beheaded.
  • Mores family dies VERY poor. His family did not
    support More the supported King Henry VIII.

Council of Trent
  • 1517- Luther wrote 95 Thesis, but 1545 is when
    the CHURCH responded.
  • The church acted too slowly and took too long.
  • The nature of this council is polemic. The
    division between Catholic and Protestant was
    already set in stone.

Purpose of The Council of Trent
  • 1. Bring Protestants and Catholics back together.
  • The Protestants refused to attend.
  • Trent lasted from 1545 to 1563, therefore it also
    took too long to make a decision.
  • 2. Clearly state Catholic Doctrine.
  • It was successful at stating Catholic teachings.
  • But, condemned everyone who disobeyed.

Dogmas of Trent
  • 1. Christian faith is based on the Bible and
  • 2. Church has the final word on what the Bible
  • 3. Salvation comes from both faith and works.
  • 4. There are 7 and ONLY 7 Sacraments.
  • 5. Real Presence is confirmed.
  • 6. The Mass is a real sacrifice.
  • 7. Mass will remain to be spoke in Latin.

Disciplines of Trent
  • 1. Bishops must live in their diocese.
  • 2. Celibacy is required.
  • 3. Indulgences MAY NOT be sold.
  • 4. The Bishop is in charge of the education of
    the faithful.
  • 5. The Catechism is published.
  • 6. The Index of Forbidden Books is published.
  • 7. Divine Office is required for Religious and

  • Trents teachings were in place for 400 years!
  • This is way many older Catholics thought that
    this is the way it has always been.

Results of Trent
  • Positive
  • 1. Ended Indulgence.
  • 2. Religious orders called back to prayer.
  • 3. Celibacy prevented illegitimate children.
  • 4. Canon Law became very exact, if not outright
  • Negative
  • 1. Failed reunite the church.
  • 2. Sponsored the Spanish Inquisition, which was
    VERY cruel to ALL non-Catholics.

Conclusions to Chapter 10
  • 1. There is a need for dialogue in the Church.
  • 2. Though guided by the Holy Spirit the Church
    remains imperfect.
  • 3. Nationalism and Polemics further separate
    people. Often the Church is behind in Political
  • 4. The Church chose standardization and
    intolerance as its solution to anyone who
    disagreed with her or the Church.
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