5. Haggai, Zechariah - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

1 / 121
About This Presentation

5. Haggai, Zechariah


... Happy ending: Zeph 3.9-13 looks forward to signs of a 'new life' and the song of ... Yahweh establishes the cosmic, astrological order (3:9-10; 4:1-6a, 10b-14) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:870
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 122
Provided by: DavidC7


Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: 5. Haggai, Zechariah

5. Haggai, Zechariah Malachi
  • BOT535 Postexilic History Literature

Redactional Theology of the Twelve
  • A. First Edition
  • 1. Hosea, Amos, Micah, Nahum, Zephaniah and
  • 2. "The cultural setting for such a production
    would have been the preaching and liturgical
    prayers as developed in the assemblies of the
    Jews in exile. The mood in such gatherings varied
    from resigned acceptance and regret in the early
    years to hope and determination, even optimism,
    as time went by." Collins, The Mantle of Elijah
    The Redaction Criticism of the Prophetical Books,
  • 3. Dated between 587-538 BCE

Redactional Theology of the Twelve
  • B. Second Edition
  • 1. Haggai, Zechariah (1-8) Zephaniah expansion
    (3.9-20), Jonah and possibly Joel
  • 2. "It was especially aimed at maintaining
    enthusiasm for the great undertaking, which was
    apparently in danger of being bogged down in
    frustration and apathy. The setting for these
    developments was presumably that of the prayers
    and reflections associated with religious
    gatherings, but by this time these were located
    firmly around the temple construction in
    Jerusalem." Collins, ibid., 63
  • 3. Dated Between 520-515 BCE

Redactional Theology of the Twelve
  • C. Third Edition
  • a. Joel (if not already included), Habakkuk
    (which had its own redactional history), Malachi
    and some "eschatological additions to other
    sections especially Zephaniah.
  • b. "Reading between the lines of the various
    biblical texts relevant to this period
    (especially Malachi), we get the impression that
    enthusiasm for the religious aspects of the
    restored national life had become the faith of a
    minority who increasingly thought of themselves
    as a beleaguered band of the righteous in the
    midst of a nation of unfaithful sinners. Hope in

Redactional Theology of the Twelve
  • the future became combined with pessimism about
    the present and produced a king of
    "eschatological" thinking, which affected The
    Twelve.... The result was further revision of the
    book that was more agonizingly introspective in
    its questions, more wildly optimistic in it
    visions of the future and more bitterly resentful
    of the enemy within and without." Collins,
    ibid., 64
  • c. Dated middle of the fifth century BCE

Redactional Theology of the Twelve
  • D. Final Edition
  • Zechariah 9-14 and the appendices to Malachi
    (Mal. 4.4-6).

Theology of the Redacted Twelve
  • "The principal themes of the whole book are those
    of covenant-election, fidelity and infidelity,
    fertility and infertility, turning and returning,
    the justice of God and the mercy of God, the
    kingship of God, the place of his dwelling
    (Temple / Mt. Zion), the nations as enemies, the
    nations as allies. For the post-exilic audience
    the message of The Twelve was primarily
    theological. At the same time the book also
    embodies a strongly political and ideological
    element in its vision of the future the ideal
    Israel is to be the restored Judah, a
    religious-political state in which all citizens
    will recognize the authority of the Lord, live
    according to his Law and give priority to the
    right and acceptable

Theology of the Redacted Twelve
  • worship of the Lord in his temple in the holy
    city free from all defilement. The book is
    ambiguous in its international views, especially
    as to whether or not the nations will ever attain
    sufficient freedom from defilement to permit them
    to participate in this religious-political
    system, but any role envisioned for the nations
    in The Twelve is definitely subordinate."
  • Terence Collins. The Scroll of the Twelve,
    The Mantel of Elijah The Redaction Criticism of
    the Prophetical Books, Sheffield Academic Press,
    1993, 65

Theology of the Redacted Twelve
  • It appears that the books are ordered as they
    are so that the main points of the prophetic
    message will be highlighted. In fact, the Twelve
    are structured in a way that demonstrates that
    the sin of Israel and the nations, the punishment
    of the sin, and the restoration of both from that
    sin. These three emphases represent the heart of
    the content of the prophetic genre. The Twelves
    external structure therefore reflects its
    literary type.
  • Paul R. House. The Unity of The Twelve,
    Sheffield, The Almond Press, 1990, 68

Principles of Organization Hosea
  • A. Hos 1-3
  • 1. Chapters 1-3 were fashioned into a unit,
    possibly at an early stage in the transmission of
    the poetry, and were positioned as an opening to
    the Hosea collection. In this way they function
    as an introduction to Hosea and provided a
    guideline for its interpretation. However, the
    placing of Hosea at the beginning of a larger
    book gave these chapters a new role. They now
    function as an introduction to The Twelve, which
    presents a great panoramic survey of Old
    Testament prophecy up to its official finishing
    line shortly before the time of Ezra. Collins,
    ibid., 66

Principles of Organization Hosea
  • 2. "The story in Hos 1-3 is one of election,
    infidelity and rejection but also of restoration
    after punishment. As such it is a summary of the
    message of The Twelve, not just the Hosean part
    of it." Collins, ibid., 66
  • 3. Collins argues that the Hosea marriage story
    was intended to symbolize the northern kingdom,
    but via 1.7 and 1.10-11 it included both Judah
    and Israel. The paralleling of marital
    relationships and religious covenant
    relationships envelopes the Twelve The
    interesting thing is that we find an echo of this
    same imagery at the end of the book in Mal
    2.13-16, which calls for faithfulness to the
    covenant between you and the wife of your
    youth. Collins, ibid., 66

Principles of Organization Hosea
  • B. Hos 4-14
  • 1. Hos 9.10-14.8 are about turning and returning,
    a theme that was first developed in Hos 2.15-3.5.
    Sinful Israel called to repentance and offered
    forgiveness and healing by a loving and merciful
    God (Hos 11.8-9 2.14-15). Collins, ibid., 67
  • 2. Promise of restoration with rich vegetation
    14.5 after destruction of vegetation in 2.9-13.
  • 3. Hos 14.1-3 uses liturgical language

Principles of Organization Joel
  • B. Joel
  • 1. Joel continues the promise of blessing in
    vegetation terms. Locust, etc. destroy it (Joel
    1.8, 13 2.15-16) and this is lamented
    liturgically in 2.17. This destruction of
    vegetation of the reversal of the end of Hosea
    and a return to Hos 2 4.1-3. Note the words
    grain, the wine and the oil (Joel 1.10, Hos
  • 2. Animals are dismayed in both Hos 4.3 and Joel

Principles of Organization Joel
  • 3. The juxtaposition produces some interesting
    effects, not the least of which is the way the
    older, pre-exilic material of Hosea is redirected
    towards a post-exilic setting through its
    association with the later material of Joel. In
    this new setting considerable emphasis is placed
    on the Jerusalem temple as the location for
    liturgical repentance and penance, so that the
    poetry of Hosea is effectively absorbed into the
    cultic activity of the restored temple.
    Collins, ibid., 68

Principles of Organization Joel
  • 4. Liturgical thrust of Joel the prayers, Joel
    2.17 the answer, Joel 2.18-19ff. (note Hos
  • 4.01 Happy ending of Joel is like Hosea barren
    becomes fruitful, Joel 3.18, but the Temple is
    the source of the blessing!! (1.13-16 2.15-17
    2.23 2.32 3.16-21)
  • 4.02 The temple is the place where the Lord
    dwells, the center of his reassuring presence
    among his people, the holy mountain from which
    life-giving waters flow. Collins, ibid., 68

Principles of Organization Joel
  • 4.03 The connection of Joel 3.16 with Amos 1.2 is
    based on the Zion / Jerusalem roaring of the
    LORD. Also Joel 3.18a and Amos 9.13c the
    mountains shall drip sweet honey.

Principles of Organization Amos
  • A. Connections with Joel
  • 1. . . . the dire threats against Israel which
    dominate Amos are softened when read in the light
    of the more optimistic ending of Joel. This,
    however, is a feature which is peculiar to the
    version of The Twelve as found in the Hebrew
    Bible. The idea that it is the result of
    deliberate choice on somebodys part is supported
    by the fact that Greek version does not follow
    the same order but instead places Joel after
    Micah. Collins, ibid., 68

Principles of Organization Amos
  • The theme of Israel and the other nations is a
    connection to Joel 3.1-3. However note The
    significant difference between the two passages
    lies in the fact that, for Amos, the judgment on
    the nations is a prelude to the condemnation of
    Judah and Israel, 2.4ff, whereas in Joel 3 the
    condemnation of the nations is to be a prelude to
    the restoration of the fortunes of Judah and
    Israel. The condemnation of Israel in Amos has
    once again been pre-empted by the more hopeful
    vision of Joel, so that in literary terms the
    force of the blow is softened. Everything is seen
    from a post-exilic viewpoint, and the broader
    context of The Twelve envisages the state of
    affairs after the punishments predicted in Amos
    have been inflicted on Israel and Judah.
    Collins, ibid., 69

Principles of Organization Amos
  • B. Covenant Election The theme of Israel among
    the nations is inevitably linked with the idea of
    covenant election. In Amos this idea is given a
    dark interpretation as something that will count
    to Israels disadvantage when it is judged
    alongside the rest (Amos 3.1 3.9-10 6.2 9.7).
    However, the rejection of Israel which is the
    main burden in Amos is counteracted by the
    forgiveness and restoration which precedes it in
    Joel and even before that in Hosea (esp. Hos
    11.1-4). Collins, ibid., 69
  • C. Amos happy ending, 9.8, 9-10, 11-12, 13-15.

Principles of Organization Obadiah
  • A. Connection with Amos Obadiah focuses on Edom
    which is already mentioned in Amos 1.11-12, and
    especially in the closing 9.12 (note Joel 3.19).
    Edoms guilt is put in the context of strangers
    and foreigners (Oba 11, 15).
  • B. Day of Lord The theme of the day of the Lord
    begins, as far as The Twelve is concerned, in
    Joel 2.1-2, and it is continued in Amos 5.18
    where it is used to convey the idea of a day of
    judgment for Israel. The threat against Israel in
    Amos is counteracted in Obadiah 15ff. which

Principles of Organization Obadiah
  • Gods judgment of the nations and the exaltation
    of Jerusalem to a position of domination not only
    over Edom but also over Philistia, Samaria,
    Gilead, Phoenicia and the Negeb. The conclusion
    of Obadiah thus parallels that of Joel. In
    particular, we can point to the way in which the
    hope of Jerusalem expressed in Oba 21, saviors
    shall go up to Mount Zion to rule Mount Esau and
    the kingdom shall be the Lords matches that of
    Joel 3.20-21.... Collins, Ibid., 70

Principles of Organization Jonah
  • A. Connections
  • 1. Jonah continues to develop the theme of
    Israel and the nations Collins, ibid., 70-71
    Amos 9.7 and Jon 4.11 argues for the other
    nations being recipients of Gods care and mercy.
  • 2. Its contribution comes both from the ideas it
    embodies and from its position after Obadiah to
    which it acts as a counterfoil in its attitude to
    the nations. Collins, ibid., 72

Principles of Organization Jonah
  • B. The Jonah story emphasizes the themes of
    repentance and forgiveness. It is intended to
    illustrate, among other things, the theological
    view that the Lord is a gracious God and
    merciful, slow to anger and abounding in
    steadfast love who repents of evil (Jon 4.2 cf.
    Exod 34.6 Num 14.18), and that consequently the
    exile could not be attributed to any
    unjustifiable impatience on Gods part. Thus the
    Jonah story makes an important contribution to
    the theodicy which is a major element in The
    Twelve. Collins, ibid., 71

Principles of Organization Jonah
  • C. The prayer in Jon 2 influences the message of
    The Twelve. Also that the power of God is not
    limited geographically. This universalism is a
    major element in the overall message of The
    Twelve. Collins, ibid., 71
  • a. Fasting and prayer in Jon 3.5 Joel 1.13-14
    2.15-16 even animals (Jon 3.7-8 Joel 1.20).
  • b. Turn from evil Jon 3.10 Hos 11.8-9 Jon 4.11.

Principles of Organization Micah
  • A. In Micah the pendulum swings back to a
    preoccupation with the sins of Israel, but now
    the condemnations are specifically directed
    against Jerusalem and the sins of its
    inhabitants, especially the corrupt and
    oppressive rulers. Thus Micah marks a sharpening
    of the focus in the progression of The Twelve
    towards the explicit concern with Jerusalem and
    its temple which is one of the main features of
    the book. Collins, ibid., 72

Principles of Organization Micah
  • 1. Mic 3.12 a prediction of the destruction of
    the Temple
  • 2. Mic 4.1-4 (Isa 2.2-4) a prediction of its
  • 3. Mic 1.2 . . . from his holy Temple.

Principles of Organization Micah
  • B. Divine Theophany Mic 1.3ff. first in Amos
    4.13 5.8-9 9.5. Micahs move from threatening
    presence to consolation in Mic 7.14-20 with the
    nations seeing and being ashamed (Mic 7.15-16).
  • C. Mic 7.18-20 ends positively like Jon 4.11 with
    echoes of Gods compassion.

Principles of Organization Nahum
  • A. Connection . . . Nahum . . . returns to the
    menacing aspect of the expected theophany and a
    stress on the Lords jealousy, anger and
    vengeance (Nah 1.2-5). Collins, ibid., 73
  • B. Theophany
  • 1. Becomes apocalyptic in terms of dealing with
    the destruction of evil itself and therefore
    brings a happy future for Judah and its temple.
    (Nah 1.15)
  • 2. The triumphalism of Nahum, i.e., the
    destruction of the wicked and the triumph of good
    over evil is brought into question in Habakkuk.

Principles of Organization Nahum
  • C. Nahum deals primarily with the theme of
    Israel and the nations epitomized in Nineveh,
    which is pictured in a way very different from
    the presentation of the repentant and pardoned
    Nineveh seen in Jonah.... The name Nineveh has
    been turned into a symbol of all that is opposed
    to God, the Lords enemies who in their arrogance
    have raised themselves up against the Lord and
    his chosen ones. This is made explicit in the
    opening lines, The Lord takes vengeance on his
    adversaries and keeps wrath for his enemies (Nah
    1.2). Thus Nahum (along with Obadiah, Jonah,
    Zephaniah 1.17-2.15, Joel 2.30-3.21, Amos
    1.3-2.3) functions in the same way as the Oracles
    on the Foreign Nations in Isaiah and the other
    prophetical books. Collins, ibid., 73

Principles of Organization Habakkuk
  • A. Connections
  • 1. Hab 1.2-4, 12-13 contrasts with the
    triumphalism of Nahum.
  • 2. It is the thematic relationships as much as
    any historical considerations that have
    determined the positioning of Habakkuk in between
    Nahum and Zephaniah. At this point theodicy comes
    to the fore as a major concern in The Twelve, and
    in the question How long? a common chord is
    struck with some of the psalms of complaint (for
    example, Ps 13.1-2), and with the problem of
    Gods silence in Job. Collins, ibid., 74

Principles of Organization Habakkuk
  • B. Theodicy
  • 1. The question of the delay in the fulfillment
    of predictions is a central theological problem
    for biblical prophecy.... The answer which
    Habakkuk supplies to the question of the delay in
    fulfillment is that the righteous must persevere
    in patience, sure in the faith that the vision of
    the triumph of good over evil will be realized in
    Gods own time... (Hab 2.3). Collins, ibid.,
    74-75 i.e., faith in God is the answer.

Principles of Organization Habakkuk
  • 2. N.B. the use of the Theophany in Hab 3.3-16
    Nah 1.3ff.
  • 3. The new element lies in the insistence that
    faith can and should be maintained even in the
    face of a complete lack of any fulfillment of the
    material prosperity (the grain, the wine, the
    oil) traditionally associated with the promises
    about future salvation. Collins, ibid., 75
    N.B. Hab 3.17.
  • 4. In the arrangement of The Twelve the patience
    advocated in Habakkuk is given its reward in the
    eschatological judgment scenes of the following
    Zephaniah collection. Collins, ibid., 76

Principles of Organization Zephaniah
  • A. Connection
  • 1. Zephaniah tales the judgment of Judahs sins
    and gives it a universalistic spin. Therefore
    judgment is a cosmic judgment like Gen 6.5-8
    (Zeph 1.4-13).
  • 2. Zeph 2-3, an Oracles against the Foreign
    Nations will surprisingly include Jerusalem as
    the oppressing city (see Mic 4.11-12 Joel
  • B. Happy ending Zeph 3.9-13 looks forward to
    signs of a new life and the song of rejoicing
    (Zeph 3.14-20) tops it off.

Principles of Organization Zephaniah
  • C. Temple They Zeph 3.9-20 give the fullest
    expression to a theme that has been regularly
    present throughout preceding sections, namely,
    the central role of the temple in the vision of
    the future. The importance of Jerusalem lies in
    the fact that it is the location of the temple,
    the house in which the Lord has chosen to dwell
    (see also Joel 1.9 1.14 2.27 3.16-17 3.21
    Amos 1.2 Oba 21 Mic 4.2 4.7 Hab 2.20 Zeph
    3.5). The glorious future predicted for Mount
    Zion as the center of life for all nations is
    only possible because it can be said of
    Jerusalem, The Lord, your God, is in your midst
    (Zeph 3.17). The central importance of the temple

Principles of Organization Zephaniah
  • thus further established as a keynote in the
    composition of The Twelve, and the ground is
    prepared for the three closing sections (Haggai,
    Zechariah, Malachi), which are primarily
    concerned with the rebuilding of the temple and
    the proper conduct of those chosen to act as its
    custodians. Collins, ibid., 77

Principles of Organization Haggai
  • Temple
  • 1. The main thrust of the Haggai collection lies
    in the assertion that the key to the future of
    Jerusalem is to be found in it status as the
    location of the Temple.... In a nutshell no
    temple, no people, no future. Thus the starting
    points for Haggai are the twin facts that the
    material blessings of the grain, the wine and the
    oil are lacking (Hag 1.11) and that the temple
    has not yet been restored. Collins, ibid., 77

Principles of Organization Haggai
  • 2. When the temple is rebuilt then... (Hag
    2.6-7). Only after the Temples rebuilding will
    the issue of the establishment of a Zerubbabel as
    messiah come into play (Hag 2.20-23).

Principles of Organization Zechariah
  • A. Temple
  • 1. Rebuilding Zech 1.16 2.11 4.9
  • 2. The point of view adopted in Zechariah
    maintains that the exile will not be truly over
    until the temple has been rebuilt. Collins,
    ibid., 80
  • 3. Zech 8 gives the same message in sermon style.

Principles of Organization Zechariah
  • B. Starting to Summarize and Conclude The Twelve
  • 1. Zech 1.2-6 history of prophecy.... The
    composite picture presents the prophets as
    servants of God (Amos 3.7), sent by him (Hos
    12.10 Amos 2.11) with a mission to prophesy
    (Amos 5.15), to rebuke (Hos 6.5 Jon 1.2 Mic
    3.8), to predict disaster (Jon 3.4), and to guide
    and preserve the people (Hos 12.13). Like Moses
    they are filled with the power of Gods spirit
    (Mic 3.8), but must face mockery and hatred (Hos
    9.7-8) and peoples attempts to silence them
    (Amos 2.12 7.13 Mic 2.6). When they are well

Principles of Organization Zechariah
  • received and obeyed as Gods messengers (Hag
    1.12) the result will be prosperity and all kinds
    of blessings in a new world in which all will be
    filled with the power to prophesy (Joel 2.28).
    This composite picture has much in common with
    the Deuteronomist understanding of prophets and
    their role in the history of Israel. Collins,
    ibid., 78

Principles of Organization Zechariah
  • 1. Zech 1.7-17 gives a cosmic view of Gods
    governance of the world. Zech 6 has the four
    chariots patrolling the earth.... Zech 7 then
    turns to a historical survey.... (former
    prophets Zech 7.7-12).
  • C. Zech 9-14 This new ending gives both Zech and
    The Twelve a more futuristic outlook than they
    would otherwise possess.

Principles of Organization Malachi
  • A. The Malachi collection also comes as an
    appendix to Zech 1-8. It was probably attached to
    Zech 8 long before 9-14 were composed, and it
    became separated when that section was
    inserted.... Throughout Malachi there is a strong
    sense of Israels election as Gods people, bound
    to his service in a covenant relationship. The
    tone is set by Mal 1.2, I have loved you, and
    it is continued in 2.5ff. 3.1 and elsewhere in
    language very reminiscent of Deuteronomy....
    Collins, ibid., 81

Principles of Organization Malachi
  • B. The main point of Malachi is an idea that has
    been developed throughout The Twelve, namely,
    that Jerusalem is a holy city, destined to be the
    world center of a universal worship of the Lord
    by all the nations. According to Malachi, the
    fulfillment of this ideal is still impeded by the
    unworthy behavior of the priests in the temple,
    the very place where Gods name should be honored
    most. Collins, ibid., 81

Principles of Organization Malachi
  • C. ...Malachi also brings us back to the themes
    and languages which were dominant at the very
    start of The Twelve. This is evident in the use
    of the father-son relationship as an image of the
    relationship between God and Israel (Mal 1.6-7
    and Hos 11.1-1), and in the fact that both appeal
    to the need for covenant faithfulness in
    marriage, though in slightly different ways (Mal
    2.13-16 and Hos 2.14-19). Collins, ibid., 81

Principles of Organization Malachi
  • D. Mal 4.2-3 The effect of giving the book such
    an ending was that the whole weight of the
    assembled twelve prophets were harnessed and
    redirected towards sustaining the faith and
    religious fervor of the God-fearing minority in
    Judah during the decades before the arrival of
    Nehemiah and Ezra. Indeed the book of The Twelve
    can be said to have played its part in preparing
    the ground for the success of Ezras reforms in
    so far as it provided a source of inspiration to
    those who spoke with one another and put their
    names to the religious pact which seems to be
    referred to in Mal 3.16. Collins, ibid., 83

Principles of Organization Malachi
  • E. The End One of the implicit purposes behind
    the production of The Twelve was to use the
    prophets in support of the call to stricter
    observance of the Law. This is made explicitly in
    the closing verses of Malachi, which probably
    date from the time of Ezra, Remember the law of
    my servant Moses, the statutes and ordinances
    that I commanded him at Horeb for all Israel
    (Mal 4.4). Collins, ibid., 84

Haggai Introduction
  • "The tenth book in the Masoretic ordering of the
    Book of the Twelve (or the Minor Prophets). It
    contains oracles alluding to the harsh
    socio-economic conditions that dominated the tiny
    province of Yehud (Judah) during the reign of
    Darius I. Two factors had influence Judean
    identity at this time the Persian mandate to
    rebuild the temple, and the dyarchic structure of
    governor and high priest approved by the Persian
    authorities. The temple still lay in ruins when
    Haggai began to prophesy on 29 August 520 B.C.E.
    (Hag 1.1) but enormous progress had been made by
    the time he concluded his

Haggai Introduction
  • brief ministry, some three and a half months
    later, on 18 December 520 (Hag 2.10, 20). The
    book of Haggai itself provides vivid testimony to
    the effect of the prophet's words on the people
    as they began the task of rebuilding the temple
    (Hag 1.12-13), supplementing the cursory notes
    provided by Ezra (5.1 6.14)." Meyers, Carol and
    Eric M. Meyers, "Book of Haggai," ABD, III, 20

Haggai Historical Background
  • A "It is clear from the biblical record that the
    First Return encountered such political
    difficulties, and also that it failed to restore
    the temple. The mission of Sheshbazzar did not
    succeed, possibly because as the "first"
    governor, Sheshbazzar did not possess the same
    power as did Zerubbabel and his successors. The
    mission could have failed also because it took
    place so long before there organization of the
    provinces by Darius. Before Darius's
    implementation of the satrapal system, sufficient
    financial support for such an enterprise may have
    been impossible. A lack of tax revenues in an
    impoverished Palestine would have greatly altered
    the effects of Sheshbazzar's visit." Meyers,
    Haggai and Zechariah 1-8 The Anchor Bible, xxxiv

Haggai Historical Background
  • B. "Stronger contingents of people returning from
    Babylonian exile were needed before the
    rebuilding which Cyrus had made possible could be
    carried out. These larger groups of home comers
    probably arrived during the second half of the
    reign of Cyrus's son Cambyses, no doubt in
    connection with his Egyptian campaigns (525-522)
    or they may have come during the transition to
    Darius's rule in 522-521. They were led by
    Zerubbabel, who had been appointed governor of
    Judah (Hag 1.1, 12, 14 2.2, 21, 23 cf. Ezra
    2.2).This offered prophets like Haggai a new
    chance to spur the people on. Hope for the
    rebuilding of the temple flickered up once more."
    Wolff, Haggai A Commentary, 15

Haggai Historical Background
Haggai Historical Background
  • "The date formulas in Haggai, unlike comparable
    material in Kings, Chronicles, or other prophets,
    are tied to the realm of a foreign power. As
    such, they indicate the extent to which Judean
    policies and thinking were geared towards Persia.
    They also suggest prophetic awareness of the
    imminent conclusion of the 70 year period of
    desolation referred to in Jeremiah (Jer 25.11-12
    29.10), Reckoned from the destruction of the
    First Temple in 587-586, the approaching year
    517-516 apparently signaled a new era for Judah.
    This careful reckoning of dates is unique in
    prophecy and accentuates Haggai's views regarding

Haggai Historical Background
  • purposeful control over history. The date
    formulas, which mirror each other by virtue of
    the chiastic arrangement of year-day-month
    language, also constitute another literary device
    by which the overall unity of Haggai and First
    Zechariah is established." Meyers, ABD, III, 21

Haggai as a Prophet
  • A. "Actually, very little is known about Haggai.
    He was a contemporary of Zechariah (Ezra 51),
    and largely through the work of these two
    prophets the temple was rebuilt (614). On the
    basis of Hag. 23 some have supposed that Haggai
    had seen the former temple, but the verse will
    not support this interpretation. More likely is
    the tradition from Epiphanius that he was young
    man who had returned from Babylon with
    Sheshbazzar. His name, which may be compared with
    Lat. Festus or Gk. Hilary, suggest that he was
    born on one of the Israelite festivals (Heb.
    hag)." Bush, LaSor, Hubbard, Old Testament
    Survey, 482

Haggai as a Prophet
  • B. "There is only one person in the Old Testament
    called Haggai.... Haggai was a favorite name in
    the Old Testament world. We have evidence of this
    from Hebrew seals, Aramaic sources, and also
    Akkadian and Egyptian parallels. The reason why
    the name was so widespread was its meaning to be
    born on a feast day (gx) counted as a good omen.
    the name echoes the rejoicing over the child's
    birth "My feast-day's joy!"." Wolff, ibid., 16

Haggai as a Prophet
  • A. Cult Prophet
  • 1. "The most energetic champion of the temple
    party's cause known to us through the surviving
    literature was Haggai." Haggai's oracles
    "comprise a powerful propaganda piece for the
    official restoration program presided over by
    Zerubbabel and Joshua." Hanson, The Dawn of
    Apocalyptic, 173, 176

Haggai as a Prophet
  • 2. The first transmitter of Haggai's sayings once
    emphasizes specially that he was "the messenger
    of Yahweh" (1.13), a title that it otherwise
    applied to a prophet only in Isa 44.26 and 2 Chr
    36.15f. This in itself would be reason enough to
    keep us from seeing him as "cult prophet," even
    though his zeal for rebuilding of the Jerusalem
    temple has led to his being viewed in that light.
    But what speaks against this conclusion is not
    only his frequent use of the classic
    messenger-speech formula (1.2, 5, 7, 8 2.6, 7,
    9a, 11) and the divine-oracle formula ("saying of
    Yahweh," 1.9, 13 2.8, 9, 14, 17 and three times
    in 2.4 and 2.23 respectively) he also confronts

Haggai as a Prophet
  • questions almost as if they are something he
    finds alien (2.11-13). On the other hand, he
    addresses the high priest with as much
    self-assurance as he does the governor (1.1, 12,
    14 2.2, 4). His exertions on behalf of the
    building of the temple are sustained by an ardent
    future expectation (2.6-9, 21f., 23). Haggai
    therefore impressed the postexilic community as
    being a prophet with extraordinary authority. And
    his confidence, firing his critical energy, led
    to success (Hag 1.12-14 Ezra 5.1f. 6.14)."
    Wolff, ibid., 17

Haggai as a Prophet
  • B. A Priest
  • ". . . on the grounds that he appealed to the
    priest to answer a question on one occasion
    (211) that he was vitally interested in
    rebuilding the temple and that his name was
    connected to some of the psalms in the ancient
    versions (LXX, 87, 145-148 Vul. 111, 145 Pesh.
    125, 126 145-148)." Smith, ibid., 147

Message of Haggai
  • A. Effect of Haggai's Message
  • "The total effect of these prophecies was to
    encourage the nation, its governor, its high
    priest, and the remnant of the people to finish
    rebuilding the temple. Known in Jewish
    terminology as 'the Second Temple,' this temple
    was never replaced by a third. The temple which
    Herod the Great rebuilt in the days of Jesus was
    considered to be simply a refurbishing." Bush,
    LaSor, Hubbard, Old Testament Survey, 483

Message of Haggai
  • B. Temple Rebuilding
  • ". . . the book of Haggai serves at least four
  • 1. It memorializes a major cultural achievement,
    the rebuilding of the temple. From its
    perspective, Haggai's words provided the impetus
    whereby reconstruction was carried on.
  • 2. The book highlights the role of Haggai as he
    assisted the people in dealing with the
    restoration of the temple compound - in
    initiating reconstruction, in responding to
    negative perceptions of the temple, in
    facilitating the official restoration of the
    sacrificial cultus.

Message of Haggai
  • 3. The book provides the prospect of future weal.
    Judah is now obeying a prophet's words. Since,
    according at least to the deuteronomistic
    history, disobedience of a prophet's words
    resulted in destruction, obedience to Haggai's
    words should yield prosperity.
  • 4. The temple compound, now in operation, and the
    cultus, recently reinstated, deserve the support
    of the people." Peterson, ibid., 36

Message of Haggai
  • C. Dyarchy
  • "Although Haggai's utterance were for the most
    part addressed to the whole community of Judeans,
    many of whom had only recently returned from
    Babylon (Hag 1.12 2.2). It is clear that his
    words were directed mainly toward the two
    leaders, Zerubbabel, the Davidic governor, and
    Joshua, the high priest. The province of Yehud no
    longer had a Davidic king and Zerubbabel, the
    governor, was officially in charge of the liaison
    in all matters requiring Persian attention.
    Joshua held an office of ecclesiastical authority
    that had clearly been upgraded in the restoration
    (see Zech

Message of Haggai
  • 3.11f). The priesthood in the early postexilic
    period began to assume much of the internal
    political, economic, and judicial administration
    that previously had resided with the royal house,
    although the presence of the Davidic scion
    Zerubbabel as the governor of Yehud encouraged
    occasional eschatological outbursts that focused
    on the future role of the Davidide (Hag 2.21-23
    Zech 4.6b-10a). These future-oriented oracles
    suggest a belief among the

Message of Haggai
  • Judeans that this dyarchic pattern was only
    temporary. The lineage of Joshua, however, was no
    less impressive than Zerubbabel's, though from a
    Persian perspective such an arrangement was
    permanent except in case of rebellion, when any
    kind of home rule would be removed. Persia's
    motives in appointing both a Davidic governor and
    a legitimate priestly officer thus cannot be
    divorced from political purposes establishing a
    loyal following in Yehud that would guarantee
    control of the major road was that skirted the
    Mediterranean and that gave Persia access to the
    W portion of its far-flung empire." Meyers, ABD,
    III, 20

Haggai Outline
  • I. Appeal to rebuild the Temple 11-15
  • A. The summons 11-11
  • B. The beginning of work 112-15
  • II. The glory of the temple 21-9
  • III. Promise and Prediction 210-19
  • A. Holiness and uncleanness 210-14
  • B. A Promise for better times 215-19
  • IV. A Messianic oracle about Zerubbabel 220-23

Kabod Theology
  • A. Kabods Definitions
  • 1. Primarily heaviness or weight. Ringgren, H.
    Israelite Religion, 90-91
  • 2. Weighty that distinguishes a person Honor
    power success i.e., A heavy Person.
    Ringgren, Israelite Religion, 91
  • 3. Yet with reference to YHWH usually associated
    with Light phenomena BDB
  • 4. In Ezek, Ka4bod signifies the resplendent
    majesty of the divine presence. Mettinger, T.,
    The Dethronement of Sabaoth Studies in the Shem
    and Kabod Theologies, 97

Kabod Theology
  • B. Two types of Usage of Ka4bod in Pentateuch
    (Especially in P-Material) Mettinger, ibid.,
  • 1. Gods Presence in Judgment Ka4bod in
    conjunction with crises during Israels
    Wilderness Experience
  • 1.01 Ex 167,10 Manna problem Murmuring
  • 1.02 Num 1410(21, 22) Spy problem Murmuring
  • 1.03 Num 1619 Korah Problem Murmuring
  • 1.04 Num 177(1642) After Korahs death
  • 1.05 Num 206 Waters of Meribah Peoples
    contention with Moses

Kabod Theology
  • 2. Gods Presence in Blessing Ka4bod in
    conjunction with Sinai and the Cult
  • 2.01 Ex 2416,17 Kabod settles on Sinai
  • 2.02 Ex 2943 Kabod will sanctify the Tabernacle
  • 2.03 Ex 4034,35 Kabod fills Sanctuary
  • 2.04 Lev 96, 23 Aarons first sacrifice

Kabod Theology
  • C. Significant Texts
  • 1. Exod 33.18-23
  • 2. Exod 29.43 / 40.34, 35 (N.B. 1 Kgs 8.11)
  • 3. Ezek 8-11 43.1-5
  • 3.01 84 At the North Gate
  • 3.02 93 From the Cherub (sg) to the threshold to
    speak with the man in linen.
  • 3.03 104 From the Cherub (pl) to the threshold
  • 3.04 1018 Return to the Cherub (pl)
  • 3.05 1019 Cherubim move to East Gate
  • 3.06 1122 Above the Cherubim
  • 3.07 1123 Leaves Jerusalem and stations itself
    on the Mount of Olives just east of the city.

Zechariah Introduction
  • A. Length Longest of the Minor Prophets (211
    verses, while Hos. has 197)
  • B. Obscurity "At the beginning of the fifth
    century AD Jerome called Zechariah the obscurest
    and longest of the twelve prophets. In the Middle
    Ages two Jewish scholars called attention to the
    obscurity of this book. Arabanel (d. 1508) said,
    The prophecies of Zechariah are so obscure that
    no expositors however skilled have found their
    hands in the explanation and Solomon ben Isaac,
    better known as Rashi (1040-1105) said, 'The
    prophecy is very abstruse, for it contains
    visions resembling dreams which want
    interpreting and we shall never be able to
    discover the true interpretation until the
    teacher of righteousness arrives.'" Smith, R. L.
    Word Biblical Commentary Micah-Malachi, 166-167

Zechariah as a Prophet
  • 1. The name Zechariah probably means, 'Yahweh
    remembers.' It is a common name in the OT,
    especially among the priests and Levites in the
    post-exilic period. Smith, ibid., 167
  • 2. Statements in Neh 12.4, 10, 16, suggest that
    Zechariah was a priest or a Levite and that he
    became the head of the house of Iddo in his later
    life. However it is not certain that the
    Zechariah in Neh 12 is the same as the prophet in
    the book of Zechariah. Yet it seems evident that
    Zechariah the prophet, like Ezekiel, was from a
    priestly family and was also called to be a
    prophet. Smith, ibid., 168

Multiple Authorship Arguments
  • 1. Preexilic authorship for chaps. 9-14. This
    may have originated because 11.12f. is quoted in
    Matt. 27.9f. as a prophecy of Jeremiah. The
    mention of Ephraim, of Assyria and Egypt as its
    enemies, of Aramean city-states and Philistine
    cities all suggest a preexilic date. However, the
    evidence is not uniform, part dating from before
    Tiglath-Pilesers conquest of the Aramean states
    and portions of Israel, part suggesting a time
    just before the fall of Samaria, and part
    referring only to Judah and seeming to look back
    on Josiahs death. As a result, scholarship has
    become fragmented, with some dating chaps. 9-11
    and 13.7-9 before 721 and the balance of chaps.
    12-14 before 586. Although B. Otzen defends the
    preexilic date of chaps. 9-10, the preexilic
    theory has little support today. LaSor, Hubbard
    Bush, ibid., 492

Multiple Authorship Arguments
  • 2. Post-Zechariah authorship of chaps 9-14. Some
    assign these chapters to a single author, but
    against the view is fragmented. Eissfeldt prefers
    the year 332, if only because the allusion is to
    be found here (v. 3) to the rampart heaped up by
    Tyre, and more precisely to the period of this
    year when Alexander made preparations for the
    siege of Tyre. K. Marti and E. Sellin identify
    the shepherds of 9.8 as Lysimachus, Jason, and
    Menelaus or Simon, Menelaus, and Lysimachus,
    thus bringing the date down to Maccabean times
    (ca. 160). Further, 11.4-17 is taken as
    reflecting events of the Maccabean war the man
    who is killed in 12.10-14 is Onias III (murdered
    in 170 Sellin) or Simon (134 B. Duhm). LaSor,
    Hubbard Bush, ibid., 492

Multiple Authorship Arguments
  • 3. Two or more authors for chaps. 9-14, rather
    than a single Deutero-Zechariah. R. C. Dentan
    dates 9.1-12 to the siege of Tyre by Alexander
    (332) vv. 13-17 in the period of the Diadochoi
    or Ptolemaic rule, 10.3-12 in the period when the
    Ptolemies ruled over Palestine. He rejects a
    Maccabean date based on the mention of the Book
    of the Twelve in Ben Sirachs apocryphal book of
    Ecclesiasticus (49.10 ca. 190) It is hardly
    possible that any extensive additions could have
    been made to this collection after the book had
    attained what was evidently canonical status.
    LaSor, Hubbard Bush, ibid., 492

Single Authorship Arguments
  • Among the various theories in defense of single
    authorship, Archer holds to a date between 480
    and 470 for chaps. 9-14, and accounts for the
    differences in style to the three or four decades
    that separate the two parts of the prophecy.
    Particularly strong is his argument that the
    language throughout is more in keeping with that
    of Haggai and Malachi than with the
    second-century writings from Qumran, and
    remarkably free of Aramaisms. S. Bullough
    maintains that the vision or dream writing of
    the first part, with all its hopes in a new era,
    is the work of a young man (of about thirty) in
    530-518), while the more forbidding and remotely
    hopeful prophecies of the second part are the
    work of an older man (of about seventy), when the
    future of the Persian Empire had become less
    secure. He explains the difference in style and
    treatment between the two parts by the difference
    in the authors age and the changing political
    circumstances. LaSor, Hubbard Bush, ibid.,

The Message of Zechariah
  • A. Theology of the Second Temple
  • 1. ". . . it is significant that each of the
    passages in question centers on the construction
    of the Temple (416 615 214-16). This is also
    central to the night vision Zechariahs vocation
    is to publish the news that Yahweh has returned
    to build his house in Jerusalem (16). Further
    corroboration can be found in the role tradition
    ascribes to Zechariah he and Haggai were
    sustainers of the Temples builders (Ezra
    51-3). Thus the oracular material associated
    with Zechariahs vision, together with what
    little is known of its background, establishes a
    reasonable presupposition that the composition as
    a whole deals with the foundation of the Second
    Temple." Halpern, The Ritual Background of
    Zechariahs Temple Song, CBQ, 40, 1978, p. 168-9

The Message of Zechariah
  • 2. "Zechariahs night vision . . . rehearses in a
    mundane framework the ritual of Temple
    reconstruction, and, in a cosmic or visionary
    framework, extends and elaborates upon this
    rehearsal." Halpern, ibid., 180

The Message of Zechariah
  • B. Divine Warrior Combat-Cycle
  • "Zechariahs night vision, then, assumes the form
    of the combat-cycle. It begins with angels
    pleading for the oppressed and penitent
    Israelites (18-12). Yahweh promises rescue
    (112-17) and dispatches two expeditions, an
    angelic vanguard, as harbingers of his arrival
    (21-9). He calls his people to him (210-11)
    before he spoils the foe (212-13), which will
    lead to his enthronement (214-16). In council,
    he invests Joshua (31-7) and sends Zerubbabel
    against the foe (38). Zerubbabel reduces the
    unassailable mountain (46b-7), earning kingship
    (48-10a). Yahweh establishes the cosmic,
    astrological order (39-10 41-6a, 10b-14),
    executes judgment (55-11 perhaps 61-8). The
    diarchs are enthroned (69-13), and a palace for
    Yahweh is erected (615). The pattern is that of
    the Divine Warrior, a common Semitic legacy,
    refracted through the lens of Israelite culture
    and history." Halpern, ibid., 189

The Message of Zechariah
  • C. A Theology of Restoration
  • 1. "Zechariahs visions comprise the doing of
    theology. In them he is explaining why it is and
    how it is that Yahweh will right earlier
    iniquity why it is that Yahweh will be present
    in Jerusalem how it is that the communitys
    leadership will be organized how it is that the
    problem of human error will be addressed and how
    it is that the contamination of earlier sin and
    unclean existence will be expunged." Petersen,
    Zechariahs Visions A Theological Perspective,
    VT, XXXIV, 2 (1984), 200

The Message of Zechariah
  • 2. "What Zechariah reports in these visions is
    initial restoration within the cosmic order. Once
    Yahweh had decided to act beneficently toward
    what was now Judah, there were certain processes
    which must begin, certain issues which must be
    resolved, certain decisions about community
    organization which must be broached and all this
    before humans could do the mundane work of
    restoration. What we see in the visions is the
    beginning of restoration on a cosmic plane."
    Petersen, ibid., 201-202

The Message of Zechariah
  • 3. Zechariah re-works the Ezekiel plan for
  • 3.01 Scope Israel Cosmic
  • 3.02 Initiation Unclear, pos. the Temple
    Divine decision
  • 3.03 N.J definite without limit
  • 3.04 How restored Glory of Temple No Limit
  • 3.05 Priesthood Zadokite trad. spec. HP with
    cosmic rite
  • 3.06 Order of P collegial activity HP and
  • 3.07 Rule nasi (?) Two anointed ones
  • 3.08 Disorder not presupposed punished with
    cov. curse

The Message of Zechariah
  • D. Apocalyptic Theology
  • 1. . . . Zechariah has elements of an
    apocalypse. The prophet is given a series of
    eight night visions (1.7-6.15). The angel of
    Yahweh explains the visions, acting as mediator
    (1.13f.). The present becomes a symbol of the
    future (vv. 16f.). No direct statement indicates
    that Zechariah is given a vision of some event in
    heaven, but the reference to Joshua standing
    before the angel of the Lord, and Satan at his
    right hand to accuse him (3.1) may suggest a
    heavenly scene (cf. Job 1.6-12). Beyond doubt the
    visions were given to reveal the future,
    including the announcement of the man whose name
    is the Branch (see Jer. 23.5 33.15 see also
    Isa. 11.1), a term which become synonymous with
    Messiah. LaSor, Hubbard Bush, ibid., 494

The Message of Zechariah
  • 2. Recent emphasis has sought to reconstruct the
    socioreligious setting of the apocalyptic
    writings. Hanson analyzes the several states
    within the hierocratic (Zadokite) circles which
    supplied the impetus for the postexilic
    restoration. The interrelationship between the
    historical situation and the language and figures
    of Scripture goes without question. La Sor,
    Hubbard Bush, ibid., 494

Zechariah 1-8 Outline
  • 1. Superscription and first oracle 11-6
  • 2. Eight night visions and oracles 17-68
  • a. 1st - A man on a read horse and oracle 17-17
  • b. 2nd - Four horns and four smiths 118-21
  • c. 3rd - The man with a measuring line and vision
  • d. 4th - The accusation of the HP and oracles
  • e. 5th - A golden lampstand, two olive tress and
    oracles 41-14
  • f. 6th - The flying scroll 51-4

Zechariah 1-8 Outline
  • g. 7th - A woman in a ephah 55-11
  • h. 8th - The chariots and the four winds 61-8
  • 3. The symbolic crowning of Joshua 69-15
  • 4. The question of fasting and morality 71-823
  • a. The question about fasting 71-6
  • b. Reiteration of the words of the Former
    Prophets 77-14
  • c. A Decalogue of promises 81-23
  • (1) Five brief messages of hope 81-8
  • (2) A sermon including two promises and
    exhortations 89-17
  • (3) Three brief messages about the future 818-23

Zechariah 9-14 Outline
  • 1. The 1st Burden 91-1117
  • a. Yahwehs kingdom in Syria, Phoenicia and
    Philistia 91-8
  • b. The coming of a new king 99-10
  • c. Freeing the captives 911-17
  • d. A prophetic admonition 101-2
  • e. Restoration of Judah and Joseph 103-12
  • f. A fable-like taunt song against tyrants 111-3
  • g. The shepherd rejected 114-17

Zechariah 9-14 Outline
  • 2. The 2nd Burden 121-1421
  • a. The attack on Jerusalem by the nations 121-8
  • b. Weeping in Jerusalem over one they had pierced
  • c. Cleansing Jerusalem from sin, idols, and false
    prophets 131-6
  • d. The smitten shepherd, a remnant spared 137-9
  • e. The day of battle for Jerusalem 141-5
  • f. The new Jerusalem 146-11
  • g. The plague on those who war against Jerusalem
  • h. The pilgrimage of the nations to Jerusalem

Structure of Zechariah 9
  • Zechariah 9 is a paradigm example of the
    prophetic adaptation of the league-royal cult
    ritual pattern . . . . Hanson, Paul, The Dawn
    of Apocalyptic, 315-6
  • Conflict - Victory 9.1-7
  • Temple Secured 9.8
  • Victory Shout and Procession 9.9
  • Manifestation of Yahwehs Universal Reign 9.10
  • Salvation Captives released 9.11-13
  • Theophany of Divine Warrior 9.14
  • Sacrifice and Banquet 9.15
  • Fertility of Restored Order 9.16-17

Structure of Zechariah 10
  • Aside from the prefixed rib against the nations
    leaders, the structure of this poem follows the
    ritual pattern of the conflict myth . . . .
    Hanson, Paul, The Dawn of Apocalyptic, 329
  • 10.1-3 (rib vs. leaders)
  • 10.4-6a Combat-Victory
  • 10.4 Yahweh equips himself with Israel as his
  • 10.5-6a Ritual Conquest
  • 10.6b-10 Salvation Restoration of the scattered
  • 10.11 Procession reenacting the victory of the
    Divine Warrior over Yamm (Assyria-Egypt)
  • 10.12 Victory Shout

Structure of Zechariah 11
  • 11.1-3 A Taunt Against Foreign Nations Redirected
    Against Israels Leadership.
  • 11.4-17 A Commissioning Narrative Transformed
    into a Prophecy of Doom.
  • Hanson, Paul, The Dawn of Apocalyptic,
  • The genre of 11.4-17 has been identified as an
    allegory, a parable, a vision, or a report of a
    symbolic act. The verses probably do not fit any
    of those categories precisely. . . . Redditt,
    Paul L., Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi The New
    Century Bible Commentary, 122

Structure of Zechariah 12
  • As a hymn like Psalm 48 indicates, the original
    royal tradition of the unassailability of Zion
    comes to expression in a special form of the
    Divine Warrior Hymn. It includes these basic
  • 1. Attach if the nations against Jerusalem.
  • 2. Yahweh strikes them with panic.
  • 3. Jerusalem is delivered.
  • 4. Celebration of the kings victory.
  • Hanson, Paul, The Dawn of Apocalyptic, 359

Structure of Zechariah 12
  • In Zechariah 12 these major themes form the
    skeleton of the narrative
  • 1. In verses 1-3 the nations come against
  • 2. In verse 4 Yahweh strikes the enemy with
  • 3. In verses 5-9 Jerusalem is delivered.
  • 4. In verses 10-14 a ceremony is described.
  • Hanson, Paul, The Dawn of Apocalyptic, 359

Structure of Zechariah 12
  • The genre of 12.1-9 is neither a prophecy of
    disaster nor a prophecy of salvation, but
    something of both. The basic thrust of the verses
    was the future victory of Jerusalem (and Judah)
    over the surrounding peoples.
  • Redditt, Paul L., Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi
    The New Century Bible Commentary, 128

Structure of Zechariah 13
  • 13.1 Continues the description of that day.
  • 13.2-6 The cleansing of idolatry on that day.
  • 13.7-9 Continues 11.4-17.

Structure of Zechariah 14
  • 14.1-2 Threat gathering of the nations against
    Jerusalem (This motif has been recast in the form
    of a salvation-judgment oracle.
  • 14.3 Conflict and Victory Yahweh intervenes and
  • 14.4-5 Theophany and Procession Yahweh prepares
    a processional way in a mountain-rending
    cataclysm (4-5a) and enters with his holy ones

Structure of Zechariah 14
  • 14.6-8 Shalom A new creation supplants the
    polarities of the old order with the harmony of a
    new order and the fertility of living waters
    flowing forth from Jerusalem.
  • 14.9-11 Manifestation of Yahwehs universal
    reign Yahweh alone will reign (9), and his holy
    mountain will be lifted up over a land (10) which
    will dwell in security (11).

Structure of Zechariah 14
  • 14.12-15 Covenant Curses The enemies of Yahweh
    and his people will be destroyed. (Although the
    theme of the scattering and destruction of the
    enemy is well established in the ancient
    versions of the conflict myth, the unique
    adaptation here takes the form of the curses of
    the covenant.)

Structure of Zechariah 14
  • 14.16-19 Procession of the Nations Yahwehs
    universal reign will be recognized by the
    survivors of the nations.
  • 14.20-21 Sacrifice and Banquet In a sanctified
    Jerusalem sacrifice and celebration will be
  • Hanson, Paul, The Dawn of Apocalyptic, 372

Malachi Date
  • 1. We can only estimate the date of Malachi's
    ministry....we know that the time was post-exilic
    because of the use of the Persian word PHT
    governor (18). The Temple had been rebuilt
    (110 31,10). The Edomites had suffered a
    crushing blow evidently from some invader. Many
    scholars believe that the crushing blow refers to
    the invasion of Edom by Nabatean.... There is
    kinship between the book of Malachi and that of
    Nehemiah. The same social and religious
    conditions prevail in both, and Nehemiah
    instigates a reform to correct some of the social
    and religious abuses perhaps under the impetus

Malachi Date
  • of Malachi ( Mal 35 Neh 51-13). Tithing is
    stressed in both (Mal 37-10 Neh 1037-39).
    Divorce and mixed marriages were a problem in
    both (Mal 210-16 Neh 1030 1323-29)....
    Nehemiah's first return to Jerusalem from Babylon
    can be definitely dated in 444 B.C. Therefore
    Malachi should be dated in the first half of the
    fifth century B.C. Smith, Word Biblical
    Commentary Micah-Malachi, 298

Malachi Date
  • 2. The theme with which Malachi deal and the
    images he paints make it abundantly clear that he
    is a child of the Persian period. Not only has
    the temple been rebuilt (Mal 1.10 3.1, 10), but
    public worship is again carried on in it. At the
    same time, however, there was a loss of earlier
    religious enthusiasm. The return from Babylon
    brought with it none of the ideal glories
    promised by Deutero-Isaiah, and the completion of
    the temple was followed by disillusionment over
    the anticipated prosperity announced by Hag (cf.
    1.7f, 2.7f) and Zech (1.7 2.8).Unlike other

Malachi Date
  • who complain that the people put their trust in
    sacrifice to the detriment of righteousness and
    mercy (cf. Isa 1.11 Hos 6.6 Amos 5.21-24),
    Malachi deplores Israels parsimony both in the
    performance of temple worship (Mal 1.6-8, 12-14)
    and the payment of tithes (Mal 3.8-9). To the
    prophet, these deficiencies signify contempt for
    Yahweh. It is more likely, however, that poor
    harvests (Mal 3.11), trouble from neighbors (Neh
    4.2f), Ezra 7.7f) and the general pov
Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
About PowerShow.com