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Diet, Nutrition


Lifestyle trials designed to lower health risks all produced weight loss. ... More Weight Loss Tips. Reduce total calories from food ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Diet, Nutrition

Diet, Nutrition Weight Loss
  • Eating Healthy Maintaining a Healthy Weight

  • Taste, cost, and convenience are the main reasons
    many people struggle to eat good foods.

Our Culture Of Consumption
  • Excessive weight is a problem of the Westernized
  • Lifestyle trials designed to lower health risks
    all produced weight loss.
  • We live is a world that encourages over
    consumption and discourages physical activity.

Our Culture Of Consumption
  • 27 of meals are eaten outside the home.
  • Food portion sizes have increased.
  • Soda consumption increased from 34.7 to 44.4
    gallons/person/year since 1987.
  • Aggressive marketing
  • Vending machines
  • Channel one

The Number of Larger-Size Portions Introduced by
Fast Food Chains and Restaurants
Overweight vs Obesity Perceptions vs Reality
  • While theres no disputing the growth in the
    populations girth, what people perceive in terms
    of their own weight and health is a long way from
    whats really going on. A new survey commissioned
    by the National Consumer League of US adults
    highlights the disconnect
  • 12 view themselves as obese while self-reported
    height/weight measures indicate 34 (since
    individuals tend to underreport weight, the
    number is likely higher)
  • Of those who view themselves as just overweight,
    82 are in fact obese. The discrepancy between
    perceived and actual overweight-ness isnt
    surprising when you consider the social stigma
    associated with the term obesity

Assessing Your BehaviorNever-rarely-occasionally-
  • Encourage someone to lose weight
  • Encourage someone to diet
  • Tease someone about her food or eating habits.
  • Criticize someone elses eating
  • Admire weight loss diets
  • Admire rigid controlling eating
  • Criticize your own eating
  • Make negative comments about your weight

Assessing Your Behavior
  • Make negative comments about someone elses
  • Disapprove of fatness
  • Say something that presumes that a fat person
    wants to lose weight
  • Say something that presumes fat people eat too
  • Talk about being good and being bad in
    reference to eating

Assessing Your Behavior
  • Refer to good and bad food
  • Talk about your appearance
  • Admire slenderness
  • Talk about someone elses appearance
  • Admire excessive exercise
  • Talk about your weight
  • Talk about calories

Eating Disorders
  • Dieting___________________________________eating
  • Eating Continuum
  • Flexible eating when you are hungry you eat,
    when full you stop.
  • Eating disorder chaotic, irregular eating as a
    coping mechanism, counting calories, exercising

Signs symptoms of disordered eating
  • Feeling guilty of what and when you eat.
  • Fat phobia
  • Skipping meals
  • Vomiting
  • Sneak eating
  • Fear of weight gain
  • Use of laxatives

On a Diet, Off a Diet
  • All diets have two things in common
  • A reduction in the number of calories that are
    eaten and
  • A lot of media hype
  • When you go off the diet, the weight returns.

The solid line shows the typical results of
weight-loss program participants in pounds. The
dotted line would be ideallose weight and keep
it off for years.
Body Mass Index (BMI)
What is your body mass index? ________ Body
Mass Index Categories 1924 Ideal weight, low-risk
2529 Overweight, moderate-risk 30 Obese,
More Weight Loss Tips
  • Reduce total calories from food by 5001,000
    calories to lose 12 pounds per week.
  • Reduce dietary fat intake to less than 30 of
    your total energy intake.

Eat on the Defensive
  • Do nothing else while eating just enjoy your
    food. If you habitually watch TV while you eat,
    you might be tempted to eat each time you turn on
    the TV.
  • Stop eating when you are full. When you eat out,
    you dont have to try to get your moneys worth
    just because you are eating out. Take some home
    in a doggy bag.
  • Dont eat everything on your plate (even though
    your mother told you to). The last thing most of
    us need is to load a plate with food and eat
    everything on it.

Eat on the Defensive
  • When eating out, chose smaller portions or share
    your meal with someone. A couple of appetizers
    are just about as much food as an entrée.
  • Dont bring problem foods home. Out of sight, out
    of mind.
  • You dont have to have dessert at every meal. If
    you do need a dessert, have a small serving or
    some fruit.
  • When you are done eating dinner, remove the
    serving dishes from the table so you arent
    tempted to keep eating.

Taste Trumps All
  • Taste is one of the most important factors to
    consider when you try to adopt a healthy diet.
  • The trick is to find the healthy foods you like
    and make them a regular part of your diet.

  • In 1995, 40 of the money Americans used to
    purchase food was spent on ready-to-eat foods
    away from home.
  • Most fruits are also foods of convenience, but
    they are not as highly promoted.

Meals with Staying Power
  • Balanced meal should contain carbs, protein, and
  • Carbohydrates or starches
  • Time released form of energy
  • Takes longer to digest and reach blood stream
  • Opt for whole grain
  • Protein
  • Helps create more substantial meal
  • Takes body longer to break down protein molecules
  • Fat
  • Helps most to give staying power
  • Stays in stomach longer, making energy available
  • Stimulate enzymes

Meals with Staying Power
  • Fruits/Veggies
  • Many health benefits
  • Filling up on low cal fruit/veggies will not
    force energy intake down
  • Plan to include 4-5 foods each meal
  • 2 grains or starchy type food
  • Protein source
  • Fruit or veggie
  • Milk
  • Fat

Non-Physical Hunger
  • Not all hunger physical
  • Psychological hunger
  • Enticed by TV ad
  • Mindless eating
  • Emotions bored, sad, tired
  • Distinguish between physical and psychological

Nutrition in the News
  • Loading up
  • Fiber
  • Fish
  • Complex carbohydrates
  • Fruits and veggies
  • Calcium
  • Cutting back
  • Fats saturated fats and trans fats
  • Sodium
  • Alcohol
  • Sugar

Fruits and Veggies
  • Source of antioxidants
  • Lowers risk of many chronic disease and
  • Sneak fruits/veggies in your diet
  • Smoothies
  • Mixed veggies with pasta
  • Veggie pizza

  • Bone health prevent osteoporosis
  • Dairy products best calcium sources
  • Aim for 3-4 low fat dairy products a day
  • Plant sources
  • Almonds
  • Fortified foods (OJ, cereals, granola bars)
  • Green leafy veggies
  • Tofu

Fat The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly
  • Choose more often
  • Monounsaturated canola, olive oil, nuts, seeds
  • Omega 3s fatty fish, flaxseed, walnuts
  • Choose less often
  • saturated fats high fat dairy or fatty cuts of
  • Trans fats snack type foods, fried foods

  • Heavy drinkers at increased risk of cancer, high
    blood pressure, liver diseases
  • May play a role in weight gain or overeating
  • Limit consumption of alcoholic drinks

  • Empty calories
  • May increase hunger and lead to overeating
  • Decrease use of added sugars
  • Savor sweets and monitor portions

  • Male hormones keep muscle mass high and fat
    levels low
  • Female hormones tend to do the opposite
  • By the time the two sexes are 20 years old, the
    fat level of girls is 22 percent and that of
    active boys, 10 percent
  • Female hormones alter metabolic pathways to favor
    the storage of body fat
  • Womens metabolism tends to turn more of their
    calories into fat, while mens tends to produce
    more heat from calories.

  • Women burn off fewer calories than men because
    their bodies are smaller and contain a lower
    percentage of muscle.
  • A womans lifestyle contributes to weight gain
    chronic dieting, unbalanced eating, lack of

  • Weight Bearing Exercise Builds both muscle and
    bone mass
  • Aerobic Exercise raises metabolic weight

Benefits of Resistance Training?
  • Increases muscle strength and enhances bone
  • Increases muscle mass range of motion
  • Tones your body helps you lose weight
  • Improves your balance, coordination and posture

Tips For Long-Term Success
  • Eat fewer calories.
  • This can be accomplished by reducing the amount
    of food you eat and eating foods that are more
    likely to promote good health. Most of the
    masters switched to low-fat foods and ate less
    sugar and sweets and more fruits and vegetables.
  • Exercise every day.
  • Most exercised for an hour a day. If you really
    want to keep the weight off, you will have to
    make exercise part of your everyday life.
  • Weigh yourself every week.
  • Set a weight limit and dont exceed that limit.

Healthy Body Weight
  • Healthy body weight represents a healthy body
    composition, which has two dimensions
  • a. Fat-free Mass or Lean Mass (muscle, bones,
    blood, organs, etc.). The Fat-free Mass accounts
    for the vast majority of your total daily energy
    expenditure. It is very important to lose little
    or no FFM when losing weight.
  • b. Percent Body Fat represents the percentage of
    total body weight that is carried as adipose
    tissue in which fuel fat is stored as

General Body Fat Percentage Categories
  • Fat
  • Women Men
  • Essential Fat 10 - 13 2 - 5
  • Athletes 14 - 20 6 - 13
  • Fitness 21 - 24 14 - 17
  • Average 25 - 31 18 - 24
  • Obese 32 - 25 -

Body Mass Index
  • BMI expresses weight relative to height and is
    proportional to fat content.
  • To calculate BMI
  • 1. Divide your weight (lbs.) by your height
  • 2. Divide again by your height (in).
  • 3. Multiply by 704. The result is your BMI.
  • The normal range of BMI is 18.5 to 25.
  • 25
  • BMIthis is controversial.

Keep your BMI low
  • Experts agree that almost everyone with a BMI
    over 25 (except for extremely muscular
    individuals) would be healthier with a lower BMI.
  • But many people with a BMI of 23-25 are not at
    their healthiest weight.
  • The risk of heart disease, diabetes, and high
    blood pressure begins to climb at BMIs of 22 or
  • For a man who is 510, the difference between
    BMIs of 22 and 25 is 21 lbs. For a woman who is
    55, the difference is 18 lbs.

Train to Burn more Fat
  • Train your body to use more fat as a fuel
    source, and save your glycogen for the big hills.
  • a. During aerobic activities, keep your Heart
    Rate below but near your Anaerobic Threshold,
    which will lie somewhere between 50 and about
    85 of your Maximum Heart Rate. AT increases
    with improvement in cardiovascular fitness.
  • b. Utilize Interval workouts and resistance
    training. Both activities will elevate your
    heart rate for several hours after an intense

Fuel Mix vs. Heart Rate
  • Max HR Fuels Burned kcal /
  • 90 - 100 90 carbs 15 - 20
  • 5 fat
  • 80 - 90 70 carbs 12 - 14
  • 25 fat
  • 70 - 80 55 carbs 9 - 11
  • 40 fat
  • 60 - 70 15 carbs 6 - 8
  • 80 fat
  • 50 60 10 carbs 3 - 5
  • 85 fat
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