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Title: Aroma expedition lecture note 5


1
Aroma expedition Lecture note 5 Application of
Aromas
?? ??? ?? I, II
2
???? ??
1) Botanical physiology breeding quality 2)
Entomology pollinator mate seeking 3)
Applications ? Cosmetics, perfumes, shampoo,
soap, deodorant ? Food additives (Flavor) ?
Drug additives ? Aroma therapy ?
Antibacterial agents ? Antioxidatives ?
Insecticides ? Industrial cleaner ?
Environmental refreshing and cleansing ?
Consumer products
3
1) Fine fragrances Extraits parfume oil
30 7hr Eau de parfum 15 20 5hr
Eau de toilette 10 12 4hr Eau
de Cologne 3 5 2hr Splash
(Shower) Cologne 13 1hr 2) Cosmetics and
toiletries Bath oils 3 5 Body
lotions 1 2 Talc 1 2
Creams 0.5 1.0 Shampoos 0.5
Hair conditioners 0.1 0.3
3) Soap and detergents Beauty soaps
up to 5.0 Bar soaps 0.5 2.0
Fabric softeners 0.25 0.5 Heavy-duty
detergents 0.1 0.35 4) Household and
industrial Air freshener (gel) 2 10
Air freshener (aerosol) 0.5 2.0
Automatic dishwashers 0.1 0.5
All-purpose cleaners 0.1 0.3
4
The Oxford English Dictionary, online version,
gives the following quotations referencing
Hungary water 1698 VANBRUGH Prov. Wife V. vi,
Your bottle of Hungary water to your lady. 1706
PHILLIPS (ed. Kersey), Queen of Hungry Water, a
Spirit of Wine fill'd with the more essential
part of Rosemary-flowers. 1727-41 CHAMBERS
Cycl.,Hungary Water,..a distilled water,
denominated from a queen of Hungary, for whose
use it was first prepared..made of rosemary
flowers infused in rectified spirit of wine, and
thus distilled. Roy Genders in Perfume through
the Ages suggests that the recipe may be at least
dateable to the 1600s "The first alcoholic
perfume was obtained from a distillation of
rosemary. . . These initial experiments were made
in Hungary, in 1370, from a recipe given to Queen
Elizabeth of Hungary by a hermit who told her
that it would preserve her beauty until her
death." -- p. 122 Gender's recipe (which is the
source for the recipe for Hungary Water in the
Compleat Anachronist on Cosmetics) is as
follows"Hungary Water's composition consists
of a gallon of grape spirit two ounces of otto
of rosemary one ounce each of otto of balm and
lemon peel a half drachm of otto of mint and
one pint each of extract of rose and orange
flower. Should the orange flower extract proove
difficult to obtain, it can be omitted and the
esprit de rose increased to two pints. Hungary
Water may be applied to the handkerchief and will
refresh a tired mind, but its primary use is as a
face wash or to add to bath water, when it will
act as an invigorating tonic."--p.
122 http//www.lehigh.edu/jahb/herbs/hungarywater
.html
5
Chanel No 5 created by Ernest Beaux in
1921 Marilyn Monroe once when she was asked what
she wore to bed, she replied "Chanel No. 5," I
must confess that unlike the enigmatic Marilyn, I
prefer to wear a little more to bed than just
Chanel 5.
Floral-aldehydic, a bouquet of abstract flowers
with an indefinable femininity.7.5 ml, 15 ml,
30 ml bottles.A drop behind the ear, on the
inside of the elbow, or on the pulse point of the
wrist. Aldehydic, floral.Top notes Neroli
from Grasse (flower of the bitter orange tree),
Ylang-Ylang from the Comoros, Aldehydes.Middle
notes Grasse Jasmine, May Rose.Base notes
Sandalwood note, Vetiver from Réunion, Vanilla
from Réunion (Bourbon Vanilla).
6
What is aromatherapy ?   Aromatherapy is the
skilled and controlled use of essential oils for
physical and emotional health and well being.
Valerie Cooksley Aromatherapy conveys the
concept of healing with aromatic substances.
Robert Tisserand Aromatherapy is a caring,
hands-on therapy which seeks to induce
relaxation, to increase energy, to reduce the
effects of stress and to restore lost balance to
mind, body and soul. Robert Tisserand Aromath
erapy can be defined as the controlled use of
essential oils to maintain and promote physical,
psychological, and spiritual wellbeing.
Gabriel Mojay http//www.naha.org/WhatisAromath
erapy.htm
7
??????(aromatherapy)? "??"? ???? "???(aroma)"?
??? ???? "???(therapy)"? ?????. ????? ?
???????? ??? RenJ GattefossJ ?? ??? ???? 1937? ??
?????. ?? ?? ??? ??? ???? ??? ??? ??(lavender
oil)? ????? ?? ??? ?? 2???? ?? ??? ????? ?? ????
???. ??? ?? ? GattefossJ? ?? ????? ????? ?????.
????? ??? ??? ??? ????? ????? ????, ?? ?? ???
????? ??? ??? ??? ?????? ???? ??. ????? ??? ??
????? ??? ? ??. ?? ??? ?? ???? ??? ??? ????? ???
??. ???? ??? ???? ???? ????? ???? ?????. ??
?????? ??? ???? ?? ?????? ??? ????? ?????? ????
?????? ?????? ??? ????? ??? ???. ??? ????? ?????
?? ??.
8
??? ???? ?? ????. ??? ????? ???? ?? ???? ????
?????? ?????. ? ?? ??? ??? ?? ??? ???? ????, ??,
??, ??, ??, ???? ??, ?? ?? ?? ??? ??? ??. ?? ??
??? ???? ??? ???? ??? ??? ??? ???? ???? ?? ???
?????. ???? ??? ?? ????? ??? ????? ??? ???? ???
???? ??? ????. ??(thyme), ????(peppermint),
?????(eucalyptus) ?? ??? ???? ??, ????, ???? ??
?????? ??????. ????? ???(??)?? ???? ??? ??. ????
???? ??? ??? ? ????? ???? ??, ??(????)? ???? ???
??. ????(rosemary) ?? ???(sage)? ?? ??? ??? ???
??? ???? ????? ???. ???? ??(winter green oil)?
??? ??? ????? ??? ????? ????. ????, ???, ???,
???, ??? ?? ??? ???? ??? ??.
9
?? ?? ?? ???? ???? ??? ? ??? ?? ??? ?? ??, ??? ??
????. ?? ????? ???? ???? ??? ??? ??? ?? ?? ???
???? ??? ?? ?? ????.???, ??? ???? ?? ?? ??? ??
???(0.5 )?? ????, ?? ??? ????? ?? ? ?? ???(3)??
???? ???? ??, ??, ???? ?? ???? ????. ??? ????
??? ???? ?? ??? ??. ????, ??(Hyssop) ?? ??? ?????
????? ??? ??? ?? ???? ??? ??, ??, ??, ??, ?? ??
?? ? ??? ????. ????? ????? ?? ????. ? ???? ???
??? ?? ??? 500?? ??? ????? ??? ?? ???, ?? ???
????, ????, ??, ????? ??? ??? ??.
10
???????? ??? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??? ??? ???
???? ??? ???. ????? ???? ?? ???? ?????. ???? ????
?? ?????. ??? ????? ??(?????)?? ??? ??? ??? ??
???? ? ???? ??? ??? ??????. ????? ?? ??(????)?
????? ?? ????? ????? ?? ?? ??????. ?? ????
????? ???? ???? ?? ??? ?? ??? ??????, 500 BC
11
Ingredients Used in Aromatherapy In
aromatherapy, only pure and natural essential
oils, absolutes, floral waters, resins,
carrier oils, infused oils, herbs and other
natural substances are used. Read about the
natural ingredients used in aromatherapy within
the below special article section
12
What are Essential Oils? An essential oil is a
liquid that is generally distilled (most
frequently by steam or water) from the leaves,
stems, flowers, bark, roots, or other elements of
a plant. Essential oils, contrary to the use of
the word "oil" are not really oily-feeling at
all. Most essential oils are clear, but some oils
such as patchouli, orange and lemongrass are
amber or yellow in color. Essential oils contain
the true essence of the plant it was derived
from. Essential oils are highly concentrated
aromatic extracts which are distilled from a
variety of aromatic plant material including
grasses, leaves, flowers, needles twigs, peel
of fruit, wood and roots. The International
Organization for Standardization (ISO) in their
Vocabulary of Natural Materials (ISO/D1S9235.2)
defines an essential oil as follows An
essential oil is a product made by distillation
with either water or steam or by mechanical
processing of citrus rinds or by dry distillation
of natural materials. Following the distillation,
the essential oil is physically separated from
the water phase.
13
Dr. Brian Lawrence states "For an essential oil
to be a true essential oil, it must be isolated
by physical means only. The physical methods used
are distillation (steam, steam/water and water)
or expression (also known as cold pressing, a
unique feature for citrus peel oils). There is
one other method of oil isolation specific to a
very limited number of essential oil plants. This
is a maceration/distillation. In the process, the
plant material is macerated in warm water to
release the enzyme-bound essential oil. Examples
of oils produced by maceration are onion, garlic,
wintergreen, bitter almond, etc. What is NOT an
Essential oil is a CO2 extract, a halohydrocarbon
extract or an empyreumatic distillate."
14
What are Absolutes? Like their essential oil
counterparts, absolutes are highly aromatic
liquids extracted from plants. Absolutes,
however, are extracted in a complex manner that
requires the use of chemical solvents that are
later removed during the final stages of
production. Sometimes, the hot steam or water
used to distill an essential oil does not extract
much natural oil from the plant or harms the
precious natural oil. The solvent extraction
methods are often used in these cases. As a
rule, absolutes are more concentrated than their
essential oil cousins. Where it is true that a
little essential oil goes a long way, a little
absolute goes an even longer way. A very trace
amount of solvent can remain in the final
absolute. This indeed is a disadvantage to using
absolutes as aromatherapy focuses on the use of
pure and natural plant matter. Although the
amount of remaining solvent is minimal, absolutes
are used in true aromatherapy with care, respect
and knowledge. Essential oils should never be
taken internally by anyone that is not trained,
educated and experienced at doing so. Absolutes
should never be taken internally by anyone
because of that small amount of trace solvent
that may remain.
15
What are CO2s? Oils extracted by the CO2 (carbon
dioxide) method are commonly called CO2s for
short. In a nutshell, CO2s are extracted by
pressurizing carbon dioxide until it becomes a
liquid. The liquid carbon dioxide then acts as a
solvent on the natural plant matter and the
essential oil content then dissolves into the
liquid CO2. Afterwards, the CO2 is brought back
to natural pressurization, the CO2 evaporates
back into its gaseous state and what is left is
the resulting oil. CO2s are often labeled as
essential oils as opposed to absolutes since no
trace of a harmful solvent will remain in the
final product. CO2s have an advantage over
essential oils because none of the constituents
of the oil are damaged by heat. CO2s are usually
thicker than their essential oil counterparts and
often smell closer to the aroma of the natural
herb. CO2s have been said to contain additional
constituents than what is extracted from the same
plant using steam distillation. This would seem
to make sense since CO2s generally are thicker
oils and often seem to have a more rounded aroma.
16
What are Carrier Oils? Carrier oils also referred
to as base oils or vegetable oils are used to
dilute essential oils, CO2s and absolutes before
applying to the skin. They carry the essential
oil onto the skin. Different carrier oils offer
different properties and the choice of carrier
oil can depend on the therapeutic benefit being
sought. Carrier oils are generally cold-pressed
vegetable oils derived from the fatty portions of
the plant. Unlike essential oils that evaporate
and have a concentrated aroma, carrier oils do
not evaporate or impart their aroma as strongly
as essential oils. Examples of carrier oils are
sweet almond, apricot kernel, grapeseed, avocado,
peanut, olive, pecan, macadamia nut, sesame,
evening primrose, walnut and wheat germ. Most
oils bought in the grocery store are not
cold-pressed. Instead, the oils are heated and
therefore have less therapeutic benefit. Mineral
oil is not used in aromatherapy because mineral
oil is not a natural product. It is also said
that mineral oil can prevent essential oil
absorption into the skin. Essential oils do not
go rancid. Carrier oils, however, can go rancid.
Carrier oils that you purchase should be natural
and unadulterated. Exceptions include buying
carrier oils that have natural vitamin E added.
Vitamin E acts as a natural preservative.
17
Aromatherapy ? ??? ?????? 1) ??? ???, ???? ??
???, 2) ?? ???, 3) ???, 4) ??(bee wax), ???,
????, ??, ? ?? ???.
Almond Oil - very easily absorbed by the skin, is
very smooth, has little smell, keeps well,
contains vitamin D and has beneficial effects on
hair, dry skin and brittle nails. Almond oil is
an excellent emollient (softening and soothing to
the skin) and also helps the skin to balance its
loss and absorption of moisture. This oil is one
of the most popular of the carrier oils used in
aromatherapy and massage, since it is non-greasy,
spreads easily and is also great for nourishing
the skin. The aroma is light, slightly sweet and
nutty.
18
Apricot kernel Oil - light, contains Vitamin A,
particularly good for use on the face if the skin
is dry or aging. Apricot oil has moisturizing,
nourishing and revitalizing properties and is
particularly helpful for dehydrated, delicate,
mature and sensitive skin. It is also helpful to
soothe inflammation. This finely textured oil
spreads easily and is particularly rich in both
oleic acid and linoleic acid. Avocado Oil -
heavy, rich in nutrients, very good for dry aging
and sensitive skins. Evening Primrose Oil -
helpful for skin conditions such as eczema and
psoriasis, only keeps for about 2 months after
opening. Avocado oil is often used for clients
with dry or mature skin, people suffering from
eczema, psoriasis or similar skin complaints. It
is also very useful when treating sun or climate
damaged skin that is dehydrated and under
nourished, as it is said to help with the
regenerating of the skin and softening of the
tissue. Although it can be used pure, it is in
most cases mixed with another carrier, such as
Almond, or Grapeseed. It is easily absorbed into
the skin and deep tissue, and has wonderful
emollient properties, making it excellent for use
in all massage blends.
19
Grapeseed Oil - light, good for oily skin, one of
the least expensive oils. Grapeseed oil is rich
in linoleic acid, an essential fatty acid quite
important for the skin and the cell membranes. It
is purported to have regenerative and
restructuring qualities and has great skin
moisturizing properties. Grapeseed oil is a great
non- greasy oil to use, but could be enriched by
blending it with another carrier, such as almond
or wheat germ. This is fine textured, oil with a
very light, slightly sweet hint of a nutty aroma,
and with a satiny finish. It contains vitamins,
minerals, and protein, GLA, and a small amount of
vitamin E. Holy oil is known as an ideal carrier
oil due to its molecular structure. It carries
essential oils deep into the skin. An excellent
glide, non-greasy, odourless, hypoallergenic
oil. Jojoba oil closely resembles that of your
own skin it is an excellent moisturizer and is
ideal for all skin types. It can in most cases be
used on blemished skin without any problems, as
it helps to control acne. Jojoba(Simmondsia
chinensis) is also a favorite oil to use as a
carrier oil for aromatherapy as it penetrates the
skin easily and is suitable for all skin types.
The aroma is light to medium, not as sweet as the
nut oils.
20
Olive Oil - can be used in a pinch, but has a
strong smell which may compete with the essential
oil Peach Kernel Oil - light, contains vitamins
A E, very good for the face Soya Oil - easily
absorbed, rich in vitamin E Sunflower Oil -
contains essential fatty acids, rich in vitamin
E, has a slightly nutty smell Wheatgerm Oil -
contains vitamins A, B, C and E, firms and tones
the skin, reduces blemishes, can help to reduce
scar tissue and stretch marks, has a strong
smell. Wheat germ oil has a high vitamin E
content and essential fatty acids, thus it is
used extensively in aromatherapy massage blends.
It is said to promote a smoother, younger-looking
skin, assisting in healing scar tissue as well as
stretch marks. It is too sticky to use on its
own, but is wonderful when blended with a lighter
carriers, such as sweet almond. When it is
applied topically on to the skin it is said to
help promote the formation of new cells, improve
circulation, and help repair sun damage. It is
also used to help relieve the symptoms of
dermatitis. This carrier is said to stimulate
tissue regeneration and is often added to other
blends because of its antioxidant properties.
21
What are Infused Oils? An infused oil consists of
a carrier oil that has been permeated (infused)
with one or more herbs. The benefit to using an
infused oil as opposed to a plain carrier oil is
that the infused oil will contain therapeutic
properties of both the carrier oil and the herbs
that were infused into the oil. Some plants do
not have much essential oil contained in them,
and in those cases, it is rare or impossible to
find an essential oil for that plant species.
Infusing the herb into a carrier oil, however,
can be a suitable way to still use the herb for
aromatherapy purposes. Infused oils generally
have an oily feeling that varies depending on the
base oil used. They also are not as concentrated
as essential oils. Additionally, infused oils,
just like carrier oils, can go rancid. Please
note that it is important that you need the
safety information and contraindications of the
herbs you choose to use in your infused oil.
22
The easiest way to make an infused oil is by the
use of a crock pot with a very low heat setting.
Since the infused oil must be gently heated, it
is essential that your crock pot does not
overheat the oil. Do not use a crock pot that
only has one heat setting as that crock pot most
likely will overheat the oils. Add 2 ounces of
your chosen carrier oil and 1/2 - 2/3 ounce of
dried herbs (if you use fresh herbs, double the
amount of herbs used) to your spotlessly-clean
crock pot and stir well. Turn your crock pot to
the lowest heat setting. Allow to heat on the
lowest setting for two hours, stirring every
10-15 minutes (setting a timer to remind you to
stir is important). After two hours, carefully
strain the oil by using unbleached muslin
(usually available at fabric stores). You should
strain the oil at least twice. If any herbs
remain in the infused oil, the oil can go rancid.
23
What are Resins? When some trees are injured,
they produce a thick, sometimes solid, sticky
substance called a resin. Benzoin (Styrax
benzoin) is an example of a resin. In production,
the trees will be cut in many spots to encourage
the tree to produce its resin. Natural resins
provide therapeutic benefit, but are hard to work
with in aromatherapy because they are extremely
thick and sticky. You will find liquid resins
that have been extracted by solvent or alcohol
extraction.
24
What are Hydrosols? Briefly stated, a hydrosol is
the water that remains after producing an
essential oil via steam or water distillation.
Hydrosols are sometimes also referred to as a
floral water or distillate water. Suzanne Catty,
author of Hydrosols The Next Aromatherapy
proposes the following definition "Hydrosols are
the condensate water coproduced during the steam-
or hydro-distillation of plant material for
aromatherapeutic purposes." Suzanne Catty,
Hydrosols The Next Aromatherapy (Rochester, VT
Healing Arts Press, 2001), 10. The plant matter
used in essential oil distillation imparts a
wonderful aroma to the water. This hydrosol also
offers therapeutic benefit and is also sold for
aromatherapy use. Some plants are actually
distilled for the resulting hydrosol instead of
the hydrosol being simply a byproduct of the
distillation. It is always wise to ask vendors
for details about the hydrosols that they sell
(and preferably request samples, too).
25
Important Note Sometimes water simply blended
with essential oils are sometimes sold as floral
waters or even falsely referred to as hydrosols.
It is important that you ask the vendor for
specifics about his/her "floral waters."
Hydrosols can be used in place of water in
creating facial toners and other skin care
products. They can also be added to the bath,
used as a light cologne or body spray, and even
used in finger bowls for elegant, romantic
dinners. Examples of commonly available hydrosols
are rose, roman chamomile, neroli and lavender.
26
Rose Floral Water (organic) For All Skin
TypesThis Aromatic certified organic Rose Floral
Water is distilled from Turkish Damask Rose
blossoms and pure spring water. Beneficial for
all skin types, it has a cleansing, harmonizing,
toning and cooling effect. Helps to restore
moisture and softens fine facial lines. Rose
water is used in the making of many face care
products.
27
About Aromatherapy ProductsNot all ready-made
aromatherapy products labeled with the word
"aromatherapy" are pure and natural. Products
that contain artificial ingredients do not
provide true aromatherapy benefits. At worst,
they provide no benefit. At best, they provide
only a fraction of the benefit that natural
products supply. Buyers seeking true aromatherapy
products must look at the ingredients within a
product to ensure that the product does not
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