Reducing Vulnerability to Drought through Mitigation and Preparedness Report to the Inter-Agency Task Force for Disaster Reduction Sixth Meeting Geneva, Switzerland 24-25 October 2002 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Reducing Vulnerability to Drought through Mitigation and Preparedness Report to the Inter-Agency Task Force for Disaster Reduction Sixth Meeting Geneva, Switzerland 24-25 October 2002

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University of Nebraska-Lincoln. U.S.A.. Drought differs from. other natural hazards. Slow-onset, creeping phenomena (early warning systems, impact assessment, ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Reducing Vulnerability to Drought through Mitigation and Preparedness Report to the Inter-Agency Task Force for Disaster Reduction Sixth Meeting Geneva, Switzerland 24-25 October 2002


1
Reducing Vulnerability to Drought through
Mitigation and PreparednessReport to the
Inter-Agency Task Force for Disaster
ReductionSixth Meeting Geneva, Switzerland
24-25 October 2002
Dr. Donald A. Wilhite, Director National Drought
Mitigation Center International Drought
Information Center University of
Nebraska-Lincoln U.S.A.
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Drought differs from other natural hazards
  • Slow-onset, creeping phenomena (early warning
    systems, impact assessment, response)
  • Absence of universal definition (leads to
    confusion and inaction)
  • Severity is best described through multiple
    indicators and indices
  • Impacts are non-structural and spread over large
    areas (makes assessment and response difficult
    mitigation actions less obvious)
  • RESULT, progress on drought preparedness has been
    slow

4
Common Types of Drought Impacts
  • Economic
  • Social
  • Environmental

5
Trends in Drought Impacts
  • Impacts are increasing in response to growing
    vulnerability resulting from increased pressure
    on limited water resources, increasing population
    and many other factors.
  • Post-impact response increases vulnerability.
  • Impacts differ within and between countries,
    reflecting who and what is at risk and why.

6
Trends in Drought Impacts
  • Impacts are escalating in developed and
    developing countries, but the types of impacts
    differ.
  • More humid, less drought-prone regions often
    illustrate greater vulnerability.
  • Developed countries have more resources to
    respond, but may be no better prepared to deal
    with drought in a proactive manner.

7
The problem of definition
  • No universal definition
  • Impact/sector specific region specific
  • Drought types
  • Meteorological
  • Agricultural
  • Hydrological
  • Socio-economic
  • Drought types can occur separately or
    simultaneously

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Key Drought Indicators
  • Climate variables (e.g., precip., temp.)
  • Reservoir and lake levels
  • Soil moisture
  • Ground water
  • Snow pack
  • Stream flow
  • Vegetation
  • Forecasts

10
Common Drought Indices
  • Percent of Normal
  • Deciles
  • Palmer Drought Index
  • PDSI, PHDI, CMI
  • Surface Water Supply Index
  • Standardized Precipitation Index
  • Vegetation indices (NDVI, VCI, SVI)
  • U.S. Drought Monitor
  • Composite index approach

11
Shortcomings of DEWS
  • Data networks
  • Data sharing
  • Early warning system products
  • Drought forecasts
  • Drought monitoring tools
  • Integrated drought/climate/water supply
    monitoring
  • Impact assessment methodologies
  • Delivery systems
  • Global early warning systems

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Components of Drought for Risk Management
Hazard
Risk
Vulnerability
x

(natural event)
(social factors)
Climatology, Probabilities, Forecasts
Population growth and shiftsUrbanization Technolo
gy Land use practices Environment
degradation Water use trends Government
policies Environmental awareness
15
Droughta vision of the future
  • Increased frequency and severity of
    meteorological droughts
  • Increased impacts associated with increased
    vulnerability
  • Combination of the twoincreasing risk because of
    greater frequency of meteorological drought and
    increased vulnerability and greater impacts

16
Critical Issues for ISDR
  • Improve collection, processing, and availability
    of meteorological and hydrological data
  • Improve predictive capacities and use of
    forecasts in decision making
  • Improve understanding of drought causes at
    regional and national scales

17
Critical Issues for ISDR
  • Improve understanding of drought climatology and
    drought patterns
  • Inventory climate and water resource indicators
    and indices
  • Develop indicators, indices, and products for
    hazard assessment
  • Develop decision support models for end users and
    encourage feedback of impact assessment products

18
Critical Issues for ISDR
  • Develop and disseminate risk and vulnerability
    assessment tools
  • Disseminate drought planning methodologies
  • Integrate local or indigenous coping mechanisms
    as a part of drought risk reduction
  • Create drought impact reduction strategies as an
    integral part of drought preparedness plans
  • Develop drought policies at the regional and
    national level

19
Critical Issues for ISDR
  • Assess availability of skilled human resources
    needed for drought preparedness planning
  • Educate policy makers and the public on the need
    for improved drought preparedness as an integral
    part of water resources management

20
Critical Issues for ISDR
  • Support creation of regional drought preparedness
    networks to enhance regional capacity in sharing
    lessons learned
  • Enhance regional and international collaboration
  • Recognize the role of WMO, ISDR, NMHSs, and
    regional/national institutions in drought early
    warning and preparedness

21
Global Drought Preparedness Network
  • GOAL
  • To help nations build greater institutional
    capacity to cope with drought by promoting risk
    management and sharing lessons learned on drought
    monitoring, mitigation, and preparedness.

Building Regional and Global Partnerships
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Global Drought Preparedness Network
  • Individually, many nations will be unable to
    improve drought coping capacity.
  • Collectively, through global, regional, and
    national partnerships, we can share information
    and experiences to reduce the impacts of drought.

23
Regional Network Objectives
Must be region specificpossible objectives are
to promote
  • exchange of information
  • the use of common indices or indicators for early
    warning
  • data availability
  • scientific collaboration
  • drought policy development
  • drought planning methods and mitigation programs
    and actions

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http//drought.unl.edu
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Regional Drought Preparedness Networks
SAsia
Med
EAsia
GDPN (NDMC)
SSA
NAm
CAm
Europe
SAm
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Next Steps Regional Networks
  • Select one or more regions as demonstration
    projects
  • Identify potential sources of financial support
    for each regional network
  • Organize a launching workshop for each region
    involving key institutions
  • Identify scope, objectives, and activities for
    each regional network
  • Develop strategies for coordinating network
    developmentwhat is the role of the NDMC?

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Regional networks can facilitate development of
drought early warning systems, preparedness
plans, and policies aimed at vulnerability
reduction.
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Thanks for your attention!Visit the
NDMChttp//drought.unl.edudwilhite2_at_unl.edu
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