Unit II: Making a New Republic Chapters 6 11 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

1 / 142
About This Presentation

Unit II: Making a New Republic Chapters 6 11


Just days after the capture of Philadelphia, Americans achieve most significant ... Storming the Bastille ~ Paris, 1789. HIST 1301~Unit II. 49. The Republic ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:250
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 143
Provided by: Kel74


Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Unit II: Making a New Republic Chapters 6 11

Unit II Making a New Republic (Chapters 6 - 11)
  • History 1301 US History Part I
  • Dr. Carol A. Keller

Unit II Making a New Republic (Chapters 6 - 11)
  • Overview
  • The American People the
  • American Revolution
  • Reshaping the Republic
  • The Republic Launched
  • The Jeffersonian Republic
  • The Opening Of America
  • The Rise of Democracy

Learning Outcomes Revolution
  • Understand the nature of 18th century warfare and
    be able to analyze the question, Will they fight?
  • Be able to account for the difference between
    loyalists and revolutionaries why some
    Americans become loyalists or try to remain
    neutral during the revolutionary struggle.
  • Comprehend the military strategy during the war,
    tracing the course of the conflict from north to
  • Understand the significance of the British
    surrender at Saratoga and the consequences of
    French entry into the war
  • Be able to describe the climate of opinion in
    these United States in 1783

Global Events
  • Global Rise in Population
  • China 150 m. in 1700 / 331 m. in 1800
  • Europe 118 m. to 187 m.
  • Slavery Expands
  • The Age of Revolutions
  • Wars for Independence in English Spanish
  • French Revolution
  • White Lotus Rebellion in China
  • Slaves revolt in Haiti

The American People the American
Revolution (6)
  • Preview Would Americans actually fight for
    independence? Even after the Battle of Bunker
    Hill, the answer was not clear. But British
    victories in the North were countered by an
    American triumph at Saratoga, convincing the
    French to commit to a crucial alliance with the
    United States.
  • The Highlights
  • The Decision for Independence
  • The Fighting in the North
  • The Turning Point
  • The Struggle in the South
  • The World Turned Upside Down

The American People the American Revolution (6)
  • Eroding the Bonds of Empire
  • The Boston Massacre
  • The Boston Tea Party, 1773
  • Continental Congress
  • Lexington
  • Concord
  • (April, 1775)
  • Independence ?

John Trumbell Declaration of Independence
4 July 1776
The Decision for Independence
  • The Second Continental Congress
  • Drafted the Olive Branch Petition (July 1775)
    as a last-ditch effort at peace
  • British aggressive response
  • Governor Dunmore of Virginia offers freedom to
    any slaves who will fight for the British

  • The Declaration
  • Thomas Jefferson, age 33, selected to write the
    explanation of Americas attempts at independence
  • Blams George III, affirms government by consent
    of the people
  • Declaration of Independence adopted, July 4, 1776
  • American Loyalists
  • Large pockets of loyalists, or tories, in the
    colonies seaboard areas parts of the

(No Transcript)
(No Transcript)
(No Transcript)
The Fighting in the North
  • Two Armies at Bay
  • Washington faced a powerful foe in the British
  • Cobbled together the Continental regulars and
    colonial militias
  • Trouble gaining enlistments
  • times that try mens souls Thomas Paine
  • Women of the Army were wives of poor soldiers
    who did support work in exchange for half-rations
  • Laying Strategies
  • British assumed rebellion could be quashed by
    focusing on Massachusetts resistance
  • By 1776, British enlarged target to New England
  • Problems in British military leadership William
    and Richard Howe

  • The Campaigns in New York and New Jersey
  • Continental victories at Trenton Princeton
    spurred support for the rebellion

George Washington at Princeton
  • Capturing Philadelphia
  • Summer 1777 British focus on Philadelphia
  • Washingtons army defeated at Brandywine
  • Even with British capture of the city in the fall
    of 1777, British conduct engendered hatred
  • Disaster at Saratoga
  • Just days after the capture of Philadelphia,
    Americans achieve most significant victory to
    that point of the war in New York
  • Victory convinces France to help Americans

The Turning Point
  • The American Revolution Becomes a Global War
  • Benjamin Franklin the key figure in strengthening
    the French-American alliance
  • Winding Down the War in the North
  • Winter of 1778 a low point for Continental Army
    at Valley Forge
  • Series of army uprisings, 1779-81

Washington Crossing the Delaware Emanuel
Leutze, Dusseldorf - 1850
  • War in the West
  • Contest between the British Americans over
    Indian alliances
  • Most tribes remained neutral
  • The Home Front in the North
  • Devastation from war continues to produce social,
    economic, and political problems
  • Daughters of Liberty remain vigilant supporters
    of war effort

The Struggle in the South
Between the autumn of 1778 and the summer of
1781, while Washington and his restless army
waited outside New York City, the British opened
another theater in the American war. Despite
their armed presence in the North, the British
had come to believe that their most vital aim was
to regain their colonies in the mainland South
  • The Siege of Charleston
  • British captures Savannah, Georgia in 1778
  • Moved on to Charleston, which surrendered in 1780

  • The Partisan Struggle in the South
  • The fall of Charleston energizes the loyalist
    movement on the frontier
  • Rebels loyalists battle for the backcountry,
    brutal acts
  • Major American defeat at Camden, S.C.
  • Green Takes Command
  • Defeated general at Camden, Horatio Gates,
    replaced by Nathaniel Greene
  • Greene begins unconventional campaign against
    superior British forces
  • Southern militia units stem the British advance

(No Transcript)
The British also lost in the Carolinas because
they did not seek greater support from those
southerners who would have fought for liberty
with the BritishAfrican American slaves (189).
  • African Americans in the Age of Revolution
  • Black Americans make up 1/3 of southern
  • Dunmores offer of freedom in 1774 sparks white
    fears of slave rebellion never materializes
  • African Americans seek liberty by fighting for
    both sides approximately 55,000 flee to freedom
    behind British lines to the North

The World Turned Upside Down
Despite his losses in the Carolinas, Cornwallis
still believed that he could score a decisive
victory against the Continental Army. The theater
he chose for that showdown was the Chesapeake
  • Surrender at Yorktown
  • Cornwallis waits for British navy, does not
    arrive in time
  • British surrounded by American French troops,
    French navy under De Grasse
  • Cornwallis surrenders, October 19, 1781

The World Turned Upside Down Republican
Challenge A new society ?
  • The Significance of a Revolution
  • American citizen-soldiers fought on their own
  • The Continental Army, whose ranks were the
    poorest Americans, bore the brunt of the
    successful rebellion
  • With the end of the war, what awaited the
    revolutionaries as they tried to build a nation?

Keywords and Terms (6)
  • Battle of Bunker Hill
  • our lives, our fortunes, our sacred honor.
  • Continental Army
  • Battle of Princeton
  • Valley Forge
  • Battle of Saratoga
  • loyalists
  • Hessians
  • Battle of Cowpens
  • Battle of Yorktown
  • General William Howe
  • George Washington
  • partisan war
  • Charles, Lord Cornwallis
  • General Nathaniel Greene
  • Comte de Grasse
  • Treaty of Paris, 1783

Reshaping the Republic (7)
  • Republican Society Government Peace
  • The State Constitutions
  • Social and Political Reform
  • African Americans in the Republic
  • Rethinking gender
  • Republican Motherhood
  • The West
  • Northwest Ordinances
  • Indian People
  • The Lessons of Republicanism

Abigail Adams
Learning Outcomes Republic
  • Understand the state constitutions as reflection
    of the postwar view of republicanism
  • Understand why the Articles of Confederation were
    the only form of government the new states would
  • Account for the diplomatic domestic political
    conflict over western settlement
  • Understand which Americans were willing to accept
    the Federal System (Constitution)
  • Be able to describe the social changes evident in
    the new Republic

Crisis Constitution (7)
  • Preview For a decade after independence,
    American revolutionaries were less committed to
    creating a single national republic than to
    organizing 13 separate state republics, united
    only loosely under the Articles of Confederation.
    By the mid-1780s, however, the weakness of the
    Confederation seemed evident to many Americans.
    The Constitutional Convention of 1787 produced a
    new frame of government that was truly national
    in scope.
  • The Highlights
  • Republican Experiments
  • The Temptations of Peace
  • Republican Society
  • From Confederation to Constitutions

Republican Experiments
  • The State Constitutions
  • Desire to curb executive power
  • Strengthen legislative powers
  • Written constitutions legal codes to protect
  • From Congress to Confederation
  • Articles of Confederation create a weak
    government that consists of a national legislature

The Temptations of Peace
  • The Temptations of the West
  • Greatest opportunities exists in the West
    region beset with intense conflict
  • Foreign Intrigues
  • British continue to harass American interests in
    the Old Northwest
  • Spanish designs on the Old Southwest
  • Indians play pivotal roles in both regions

The Temptations of Peace
  • States Disputes
  • Tensions between landed and landless states
  • Dispute resolved - Articles of Confederation
    ratified in 1781
  • The More Democratic West
  • State legislatures become more democratic as a
    result of population growth in the backcountry

(No Transcript)
  • The Northwest Territory
  • Congress adopts three ordinances in the 1780s to
    deal with issue of westward expansion
  • Most important is the Northwest Ordinance of
    1787, which outlaws slavery north of the Ohio
  • By limiting the spread of slavery in the
    northern states, Congress deepened the critical
    social and economic differences between North and
    South, evident already in the 1780s(206).

(No Transcript)
  • Slavery and Sectionalism
  • 1775 African Americans are 20 of nations
    population 90 live in the South
  • Difficulty of squaring republican ideals with the
    continued presence of slavery
  • Most northern states begin to abolish slavery
  • Free black population grows in both the North
  • Slavery continues to exist in southern states

  • Wartime Economic Disruption
  • Postwar consumption produces massive public and
    private debt
  • Reckless printing of paper money and shortage of
    goods spark severe inflation
  • Serious conflicts over economic policy
  • So long as the individual states remained
    sovereign, the Confederation was crippledunable
    to conduct foreign affairs effectively, unable to
    set coherent economic policy, unable to deal with
    discontent in the West.

Republican Society
  • The New Men of the Revolution
  • The American Revolution does not re-order
  • Urban artisans and even laborers attempt to carve
    out political and economic space
  • The New Women of the Revolution
  • Women excluded from politics but are less
    submissive after the Revolution

  • Mary Wollstonecrafts Vindication
  • Published in 1792, Wollstonecrafts book calls
    for educational reforms and equality laws
  • Virulent reaction to the book on both sides of
    the Atlantic
  • Republican Motherhood and Education
  • 1780-1830 period of better schooling and
    literacy rates
  • By 1850, as many women as men are literate
  • Women continue to be second-class citizens in the
    legal terms

Republican ideology viewed property as the key
to independence and power. Lacking property,
women and black Americans were easily consigned
to the custody of husbands and masters. Then,
too, prejudice played its part the perception of
women and blacks as naturally inferior beings.
  • The Attack on Aristocracy
  • Limited success in achieving equality because of
    republicans obsession with rooting out vestiges
    of the monarchy rather than raising up the
    bottom of society
  • Disestablishment of state-supported churches
  • Example of Society of Cincinnati, which could no
    longer base membership on heredity

From Confederation to Constitutions
  • The Jay-Gardoqui Treaty
  • Sectional animosity aggravated by proposed
    treatynever ratifiedbetween the United States
    and Spain over shipping rights on the Mississippi
  • Shays Rebellion
  • 1786 Daniel Shays leads rebellion of disaffected
    farmers in western Massachusetts

Reshaping the Republic (7)
  • Articles of Confederation Crisis ?
  • Inventing a Federal Republic
  • Compromise
  • A Republic with Slaves
  • We the People
  • The Struggle for Ratification
  • Federalists Antifederalists
  • The Bill of Rights

Constitution of the United States 1789 page one
  • Framing a Federal Constitution
  • May 1787 delegates meet in Philadelphia for the
    express purpose of revising the Articles of
  • James Madison becomes key figure in the proposed
    overhaul of the government
  • The Virginia and New Jersey Plans
  • Madisons Virginia Plan three-branch government
    Congress could veto state legislation
  • Patersons New Jersey Plan a weaker central
    government than Madisons plan provided for
  • Deadlock between the plans

  • The Deadlock Broken
  • Benjamin Franklin brokers a compromise over
  • Creation of the Electoral College
  • Separation of powers
  • Possibility to amend the Constitution
  • Ratification
  • Anti-Federalists oppose Constitution because of
    perceived power it gives to aristocrats and the
    central government
  • Madison, Hamilton, and Jay write The Federalist
    Papers to counter concerns
  • Madison also promises a Bill of Rights

(No Transcript)
Within the life span of a single generation,
Americans had declared their independence twice.
In many ways the political freedom claimed from
Britain in 1776 was less remarkable than the
intellectual freedom that Americans achieved by
agreeing to the Constitution.
  • Changing Revolutionary Ideals
  • Americans reject some republican beliefs by
    agreeing to a sovereign national government and
    an independent executive
  • Behavior shaped by interest rather than virtue
  • Constitutional debates will evolve into
    subsequent political tensions

Keywords and Terms (7)
  • deference
  • Northwest Ordinance
  • Jay-Gardoqui Treaty
  • The Federalist Papers
  • Alexander Hamilton
  • Manumission Society, 1785
  • disestablishment of religion
  • liberty and order
  • nationalists
  • Shays Rebellion
  • James Madison
  • interest v. virtue
  • Abigail Adams

Learning Outcomes Republic
  • Understand the state constitutions as reflection
    of the postwar view of republicanism
  • Understand why the Articles of Confederation were
    the only form of government the new states would
  • Account for the diplomatic domestic political
    conflict over western settlement
  • Understand which Americans were willing to accept
    the Federal System (Constitution)
  • Be able to describe the social changes evident in
    the new Republic

The Republic Launched (8)
  • Preview In 1789 Americans could be divided into
    those who were rural, largely self-sufficient
    farmers and those tied more closely to the world
    of commerce. Politics in the early republic was
    rooted in this fundamental social division.
  • The Highlights
  • 1789 A Social Portrait
  • The New Government
  • Expansion and Turmoil in the West
  • The Emergence of Political Parties
  • The Presidency of John Adams

The Republic Launched (8)
  • Setting the Agenda
  • Establishing Government
  • Jefferson Hamilton
  • Hamiltons Grand Design
  • The Reports
  • Foreign Affairs
  • The French Revolution
  • European War
  • U.S. Neutrality
  • Jays Treaty

Storming the Bastille Paris, 1789
The Republic Launched (8)
  • The West
  • Miami Confederacy
  • The Whiskey Rebellion
  • Popular Political Culture Political Parties
  • Adams Presidency
  • Crisis abroad XYZ Affair
  • Suppression at home
  • Alien and Sedition Acts
  • Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
  • The Election of 1800

Thomas Jefferson
Learning Outcomes Republic
  • Understand the division between the
    semisubsistence economy and the commercial
  • Be able to explain the differences between the
    Federalists and the Republicans
  • Understand the way the French Revolution shaped
    United States foreign policy
  • Be able to describe the impact of the election of

The Founding of New England
  • 1789 A Social Portrait
  • First federal census (1790) about 4 million
  • Population will double every 22 years, mostly
    from natural increase
  • Poor transportation and few newspapers mean that
    the movement of people, goods, and ideas is slow

  • The Semisubsistence Economy of Crèvecoeurs
  • In 1783 French writer and traveler to rural
    America, Hector St. John Crèvecoeur, publishes
    his Letters from an American Farmer
  • he argues that American societys distinguishing
    characteristic is equality
  • Fairly broad distribution of wealth
  • Barter economy predominates

  • The Commercial Economy of Franklins America
  • East more tied to commerce than the backcountry
  • Greater inequality of wealth
  • Values of commercial economy and of backcountry
    in conflict
  • The Constitution and Commerce
  • Urban and rural American differ on the role of
    government in the economy

The New Government
  • Washingtons Character
  • Washington is controversial for the pomp he
    brings to the presidency
  • A tough historical figure to penetrate because of
    enormous attention by historians
  • Organizing the Government
  • Washington creates a cabinet of advisors
  • Judiciary Act of 1789 defines the judicial system

  • The Bill of Rights
  • By 1791, 10 amendments guaranteeing basic
    freedoms were ratified
  • Hamiltons Financial Program
  • Alexander Hamilton, Washingtons secretary of the
    treasury, promotes ambitious plan for the federal
    governments role in the economy
  • Wants to link the interests of the wealthy
    commercial class to the government
  • 1791 first Bank of the United States created

The passage of Hamiltons program caused a
permanent rupture among supporters of the
  • Opposition to Hamiltons Program
  • Madison and Jefferson become leading opponents to
    Hamilton and the Federalists
  • Fear of a financial aristocracy and a system of
  • The Specter of Aristocracy
  • In spite of fears, Hamiltons program is an
    economic successinflation ends, the currency is
    stabilized, and the governments credit restored

Expansion Turmoil in the West
  • The Resistance of the Miami
  • Federal government tries to buy Indian titles to
    land in order to promote white settlement in the
    Ohio River Valley
  • Treaty of Greenville (1795) Miami Confederacy
    cedes two-thirds of the area between Lake Erie
    and the Ohio River

  • The Whiskey Rebellion
  • Westerners irritated over new excise tax (1791)
    on distilled liquors
  • Pockets of unrest all over the backcountry
  • Resistance collapses with Washingtons deployment
    of the army
  • Pinckneys Treaty
  • 1796 establishes 31st parallel as the southern
    boundary of the United States
  • Gives Americans free navigation of the
    Mississippi River

The Emergence of Political Parties
  • Americans and the French Revolution
  • Most Americans welcome news of the revolution in
    France in 1789
  • Hamilton and the Federalists, however, see the
    French Revolution as leading to anarchy
  • The event becomes a defining issue between the
    Federalists and Jeffersonian Republicans

  • Washingtons Neutral Course
  • Washington proclaims American neutrality and
    moderates Jeffersons attempts to support France
  • Jays Treaty (1795) illustrates Americas
    secondary position to Britain
  • The Federalists Republicans Organize
  • By the mid-1790s, most politicians have aligned
    themselves with one of the two major parties

In his Farewell Address, Washington warned
against the dangers of parties and urged a return
to the earlier nonpartisan system. But that
vision had become obsolete parties were an
effective way of expressing the interests of
different social and economic groups within the
  • The 1796 Election
  • John Adams defeats Jefferson, who, because of a
    quirk in the Constitution, becomes vice-president
  • Federalists political base is the more
    commercial Northeast the Jeffersonian
    Republicans is the West
  • Federalist Republican Ideologies
  • Federalists believe in a strong central
    government - fear mob rule
  • Republicans believe in weaker central government
    - fear corruption by the aristocracy

The Presidency of John Adams
  • The Naval War with France
  • French raiding of American shipping becomes a
    major issue for Adams
  • 1797 Adams sends diplomats to France to
    negotiate, and the French demand bribes
  • This event, known as the XYZ Affair, aggravates
    tensions with France and between the two
    political parties
  • Political Violence in the Early Republic
  • Political tensions threaten to devolve into armed
  • Ideology of republicanism makes activists
    vigilant protectors of liberty
  • Federalists achievements capped by strengthening
    stability order of nations society foreign

  • Suppression at Home
  • Federalists try to suppress disloyalty at home
    with the Alien and Sedition Acts (1798)
  • Persecuted Republicans enlarge their
    interpretation of the freedom of the press
  • Virginia Kentucky Resolutions demand an end to
    federal governments abuse of authority
  • The Election of 1800
  • Jefferson and Adams run again Jefferson wins

The Election of 1800
Keywords and Terms (8)
  • public opinion
  • Bank of the United States
  • Neutrality Proclamation
  • Treaty of Greenville, 1794
  • XYZ Affair
  • Virginia Kentucky Resolutions
  • Aaron Burr
  • Election of 1800 -- A Revolution ?
  • Judiciary Act of 1789
  • French Revolution, 1789
  • Thomas Pinckney
  • Whiskey Rebellion
  • Alien Sedition Acts
  • 12th Amendment

Learning Outcomes Republic
  • Understand the division between the
    semisubsistence economy and the commercial
  • Be able to explain the differences between the
    Federalists and the Republicans
  • Understand the way the French Revolution shaped
    United States foreign policy
  • Be able to describe the impact of the election of

The Jeffersonian Republic (9)
  • Regional Identities
  • The West
  • White settlement
  • Indian People revitalization
  • Commercial Capitalism
  • Jeffersonian Ascendancy
  • Republican principles
  • Louisiana Purchase, 1803
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition
  • The Barbary War

Tenskwatawa the Prophet
Learning Outcomes Jeffersonian Republic
  • Understand to what degree the election of 1800
    reversed the Federalist course
  • Understand the growth of nationalism
  • Comprehend the struggles of Native peoples to
    preserve traditional cultures
  • Account for the issues of the War of 1812 and the
    peace following
  • Think of the various ways Republican express
    their nationalism
  • Be able to describe the passing of the
    revolutionary generation and newly emerging
    cultural and political patterns by the 1820s

The Jeffersonian Republic (9)
  • John Marshall and Judicial review
  • Second term crisis
  • Burr Conspiracy
  • Slave Trade
  • Foreign Affairs
  • Neutral rights again
  • The Embargo
  • Madison
  • the Young Republicans
  • The Strange War of 1812

Battle of New Orleans Eugene Louis Lami, 1839
The Jeffersonian Republic
  • Preview Jefferson supported his agrarian
    principles by acquiring the Louisiana territory.
    But increasingly he abandoned his earlier ideals
    of limited government in favor of more active
    nationalism.The growth in national power and
    pride was not halted, either by Pan-Indian
    alliance under Tecumseh or by Great Britain in
    the War of 1812.
  • The Highlights
  • Jefferson in Power
  • Jefferson and Westward Expansion
  • Whites and Indians on the Frontier
  • The Second War for American Independence
  • America Turns Inward

Jefferson in Power
  • The New Capital City
  • Washington, D.C. replaced Philadelphia as the
    nations capital in 1800
  • Isolation of swampy city reflected Jeffersons
    preference for decentralized government
  • Jeffersons Character and Philosophy
  • Jefferson maintained a fervent belief in human
  • Jeffersons radicalism has been exaggerated
  • Republican Principles
  • Belief in limited government
  • 1800 election established tradition of having an
    opposition party
  • Jeffersons Economic Policies
  • President made series of spending cuts
  • National debt reduced from 83 million to 57
  • Failed to abolish Hamiltons program

(No Transcript)
During his tenure on the bench, Marshall
extended judicial review to all acts of
government. It took time for the doctrine to be
accepted, but since Marshalls time the Supreme
Court has successfully defended its position as
the final judge of the meaning of the
  • John Marshall and Judicial Review
  • Judiciary Act of 1801 repealed by Congress in
    1802 by strict party vote
  • Supreme Court, led by Chief Justice Marshall,
    established judicial review in Marbury v. Madison
  • The Jeffersonian Attack on the Judiciary
  • Republicans tried to scale back Adamss judicial

Jefferson and Western Expansion
  • The Louisiana Purchase
  • Surprise Spanish cession of Louisiana to France
    arrested American designs to acquire the
  • Jefferson deployed Madison and Livingston to deal
    with the French for New Orleans
  • Napoleon needed money, and offered the entire
    territory for 15 million
  • Treaty ratified, 24 to 7

The expedition fired the imagination of
Americans about the exotic lands of the newly
acquired Louisiana Purchase as well as the
Pacific Northwest.
  • Lewis and Clark
  • Spring 1804 expedition left St. Louis to explore
    the Louisiana Territory
  • Returned in 1806 with valuable information about
    the West

(No Transcript)
Settlers Indians on the Frontier
  • The Course of White Settlement
  • Treaty of Greenville had opened floodgates of
    settlers into the Ohio Territory
  • Backcountry society began to mature
  • A Changing Environment
  • Massive deforestation altered plant and animal
  • Wests increasing population led to more disease

  • The Second Great Awakening
  • Beginning in the late 1790s, the new religious
    revival swept the backcountry
  • Revival reached its climax with camp meetings at
    Cane Ridge, Kentucky, in 1801
  • African Americans attended revivals, spurring
    fear by slaveowners of growing egalitarianism
  • Revivals were attractive to all groups because of
    the emotional escape they provided

  • Pressure on Indian Lands and Culture
  • The Prophet, Tecumseh, and the Pan-Indian
  • Increased white settlement caused the destruction
    of many Indian cultures Some Shawnees, under
    assault from white settlements, turned to
    religious movement in the late 1790s
  • The Prophet, or Tenskwatawa, promoted isolation
    from whites
  • Prophets older brother Tecumseh promoted
    political message of unity

(No Transcript)
The Second War for American Independence
As Tecumseh worked to overcome obstacles to a
Pan-Indian alliance, Jefferson encountered his
own difficulties in trying to achieve American
political unity.
  • The Barbary Pirates and Cultural Identities
  • American perceptions of Islamic culture forged by
    dispute with Barbary states
  • USS Philadelphia captured 1803
  • Lt. Stephen Decatur blockade

  • The Second War for American Independence
  • Neutral Rights
  • American shipping caught between the warring
    nations of France and Britain
  • British navys policy of impressment caused a
    deterioration of relations
  • Both Britain and France raided hundreds of
    American ships, 1803-1807
  • The Embargo
  • Embargo Act of 1807 prohibited American vessels
    in foreign ports and stopped exports
  • Embargo was a huge economic disaster

  • Madison the Young Republicans
  • The Madison Years
  • Madison won the presidency in 1808, bringing
    tremendous experience to the position
  • Madison too often deferred to others, which led
    to the War Hawks in Congress taking the lead in
    the party
  • The Decision for War
  • American anger focused on the British
  • In June 1812, Congress declared war on Britain

  • The War of 1812
  • National Unpreparedness
  • Army navy of the United States too small
    under-funded to wage war
  • After dismal invasion of Canada in 1812, American
    efforts improve with Commander Perrys victory at
    Lake Erie
  • A Chance Such as Will Never Occur Again
  • Tecumseh tries to exploit the situation, but his
    Creek allies were defeated in 1814
  • Pan-Indian movement dies with Tecumsehs death
  • The British Invasion
  • British captures Washington in 1814
  • Andrew Jacksons victory at New Orleans in 1815
    ends the fighting
  • The Hartford Convention
  • New Englanders meet, but victory at New Orleans
    steels the spotlight
  • Treaty of Ghent ends the war

American Turns Inward
  • The Missouri Crisis
  • Missouri Territorys possible admission into the
    Union in 1819 provoked national debate over
  • Missouri Compromise settled dispute, and
    established the 3630 line, north of which
    slavery could not exist

  • Monroes Presidency
  • The Monroe Doctrine
  • James Monroe won the election of 1816
  • Transcontinental Treaty (1819) with Spain gave
    Florida to the United States
  • Improved relations with Britain, 1810s
  • Monroe affirmed Americas opposition to future
    European colonies in the Western Hemisphere
  • The End of an Era
  • End of foreign threat and beginning of American

America Turns Inward
  • The End of an Era
  • Monroes Presidency
  • Statecraft and John Quincy Adams
  • Florida
  • Transcontinental Treaty 1819
  • The Monroe Doctrine, 1823
  • Ill feelings in
  • The Era of good Feeling

Keywords and Terms (9)
  • Tecumseh
  • The Prophet
  • Albert Gallatin
  • Barbary States
  • Chesapeake/Leopard, 1807
  • Marbury v. Madison
  • John Marshalls Judicial Nationalism
  • Non-Intercourse Act
  • War Hawks
  • Embargo Act
  • Aaron Burr
  • William Henry Harrison
  • Oliver H. Perry at Lake Erie
  • Andrew Jackson
  • Battle of New Orleans
  • Daniel Webster
  • Hartford Convention
  • Treaty of Ghent
  • Adams-Onis Treaty
  • John Quincy Adams
  • 1819 - Critical year

Learning Outcomes Review Jeffersonian Republic
  • Understand to what degree the election of 1800
    reversed the Federalist course
  • Understand the growth of nationalism
  • Comprehend the struggles of Native peoples to
    preserve traditional cultures
  • Account for the issues of the War of 1812 and the
    peace following
  • Think of the various ways Republican express
    their nationalism
  • Be able to describe the passing of the
    revolutionary generation and newly emerging
    cultural and political patterns by the 1820s

The Forces of Nationalism (10)
  • Nation-Building The New Nationalism Expansion
  • Peace New Expectations
  • Boundaries
  • A People in motion
  • Culture of the Frontier

Young Omahaw, War Eagle, Little Missouri and
Pawnees Charles B. King, 1821
Learning Outcomes Nationalism
  • Understand how a market revolution transformed
    the United States after 1815
  • Consider how historians account for the impact of
    a boom-and-bust economic life on American society
  • Explain the differences factory life made on
    American social structures
  • Be able to describe the long term consequences of
    the market revolution

The Forces of Nationalism (10)
  • The Market Economy
  • Transportation Revolution
  • The Canal Age
  • Steamboats
  • Commerce Banking

The Erie Canal
The Arabia Steamboat
The Forces of Nationalism (10)
  • The Market Economy
  • Railroads
  • Commerce Banking
  • Immigration Population
  • The new working class
  • Industrialization
  • Urbanization
  • Technological
  • Advances

Railroad Revolution The Changing Landscape
The Crystal Palace, London 1851
The Forces of Nationalism (10)
  • Early Industrialism Labor
  • Textile Manufacture
  • Francis Cabot Lowell
  • Lowell (Waltham), MA.
  • The Mill Girls
  • New Workplaces
  • New workers
  • The labor movement
  • Southern Economy

Merrimack Valley Mills

The Forces of Nationalism
  • Social Structures of the Market Society
  • Prosperity and Anxiety
  • The Politics of Nation-Building
  • Political restructuring
  • James Monroe
  • Disinterested Statesman
  • The Missouri Compromise
  • Judicial Nationalism again

John Marshall 1755 - 1835
The Opening of America
  • Preview In the quarter century after 1815 a
    market revolution transformed the United States
    into a boom-and-bust, geographically mobile
    society defined above all by materialism and
  • The Highlights
  • The Market Revolution
  • A Restless Temper
  • The Rise of Factories
  • Social Structures of the Market Society
  • Prosperity and Anxiety

The Market Revolution
  • The New Nationalism
  • New generation of political leaders
  • 1816 Congress charters Second Bank of the United
    States and passes a mildly protective tariff
  • Support for national internal improvements
  • The Cotton Trade
  • Invention of cotton gin in 1793 by Eli Whitney
    dramatically alters southern agriculture

  • The Transportation Revolution
  • Between 1825 and 1855, cost of transportation
    falls 95, bringing new regions into the market
  • The Canal Age
  • Erie Canal completed in 1825
  • Canal era dramatically lowers costs of
  • By 1850, economic depression ends the canal era
    in spite of its many achievements

  • Steamboats and Railroads
  • Because of its size, United States very dependent
    on river transportation
  • Steamboats revolutionize transportation in the
    West, 1820-60
  • By the 1850s, railroads come to dominate the
    transportation system
  • Agriculture in the Market Economy
  • Shift toward commercial agriculture from small
  • Regional specialization in crops emerges

(No Transcript)
  • John Marshall and the Promotion of Enterprise
  • Constitutionality of the national bank
  • Interstate commerce encouraged by Gibbons v Ogden
  • Protection of contracts between individuals or
  • General Incorporation Laws
  • Importance of corporations raising capital,
    limited liability, incorporation of partnerships
    and ventures
  • General incorporation laws pass

A Restless Temper
  • A People in Motion
  • A high-speed society
  • The whole continent presents a scene of
    scrambling and roars with greedy hurry.
  • Population Growth
  • Immigration rises after 1830
  • In 1830s some 600,000 immigrants arrive

  • The Federal Land Rush
  • By 1850 almost half of all Americans live outside
    the original 13 states
  • Speculators help settle western lands
  • Geographic Mobility
  • On the road again-by 1850 nearly half of all
    native-born free Americans live outside the state
    where they had been born
  • The search for opportunity influences Americans
    desires to move

  • Urbanization
  • Urban centers, old and new important urban
    centers in St. Louis and Cincinnati arose
  • The South, with only 10 percent of its people
    living in cities, is least urbanized region

All these changesthe amazing growth of the
population, the quickening movement westward, and
the rising migration to the citiespointed to a
fundamental reorientation of American
development. Expansion both excited and
unsettled Americans.
The Rise of Factories
  • Technological Advances
  • Small-scale manufacturing through factories and
    cheap transportation
  • Acceptance of technology-from 1790-1860 the US
    Patent Office grants more patents than England
    and France combined
  • Interchangeable parts
  • Communication-Morse invent the telegraph

  • The Postal System
  • Remote areas connected to the rest of the country
    through the postal system
  • US had an extensive postal system
  • Textile Factories
  • Lowell the first fully integrated textile
  • Hard work in the mills 6 days a week with 30
    minutes for noon meal
  • Transformation of Lowell from native-born workers
    to Irish immigrants causing declining wages

(No Transcript)
(No Transcript)
(No Transcript)
  • Lowell and the Environment
  • Reshaping the areas waterscape to harness water
    for energy
  • Damaging effects flood farm lands, devastates
    fish population, contaminates water supply
  • Industrial Work
  • Artisan system adaptation to the disciplined
    factory work routine proved difficult
  • Transformation of work from pride to productivity

  • The Shoe Industry
  • Lynn as the center of shoemaking Massachusetts
    towns population doubled every 20 years
  • Wages reduced because of number of employees
  • In a little more than a generation shoemaking
    ceased to be a craft
  • The Labor Movement
  • 1834 National Trades Union formed
  • Strength of labor unions collapsed with the
    depression following the Panic of 1837

Social Structures of the Market Society
  • Economic Specialization
  • Decline of womens traditional work
  • New ready-made mens clothing reduces amount of
    sewing women do
  • Materialism
  • Wealth and status Wealth is something
    substantial. Everybody knows that and feels it.

  • The Emerging Middle Class
  • Separation of middle class from manual laborers
  • Material goods as emblems of success
  • The Distribution of Wealth
  • As American society became more specialized and
    differentiated, greater extremes of wealth
  • Market society allowed the rich to build up their
    assets through new investment opportunities

  • Social Mobility
  • Limits of social mobility
  • Improved status came through savings and home
  • A New Sensitivity to Time
  • Due to mass production of clocks ordinary
    families can now afford them
  • Clocks begin to invade private as well as public

  • The Market at Work Three Examples
  • The market transforms Kingston, New York
  • Sugar Creek, Illinois
  • Mountain men and the fur trade

The mountain men, the farmers of Sugar Creek,
and the workers of Kingston were all alert to the
possibilities of the market.The path of
commerce, however, was not steadily upward.
Prosperity and Anxiety
  • The Panic of 1819
  • National depression
  • Debts become hard to pay for both city dwellers
    and rural Americans
  • The Missouri Crisis
  • Missouri Compromise
  • Americans look to take more direct control of the

Keywords and Terms
  • Chauncey Jerome
  • The Market Revolution
  • steam power
  • Eli Whitney
  • John Quincy Adams
  • 1819 - Critical year
  • Erie Canal, 1825
  • Incorporation Laws
  • Federal Land rush
  • Lowell Offering
  • Dartmouth College Case
  • implied powers
  • The Marshall Court
  • American System
  • John C. Calhoun
  • the common man
  • Adams-Onis Treaty
  • Frontier Thesis
  • McCulloch v. Maryland
  • Tallmadge Amendment
  • democracy

SummaryLearning Outcomes Nationalism
  • Understand how a market revolution transformed
    the United States after 1815
  • Consider how historians account for the impact of
    a boom-and-bust economic life on American society
  • Explain the differences factory life made on
    American social structures
  • Be able to describe the long term consequences of
    the market revolution

Andrew Jackson the Nation (11)
  • Triumph of White Mens
  • Democracy
  • Democratic Ferment
  • Democratic culture
  • Jacksonian Politics
  • Elections of 1824 1828
  • Democracy and Race
  • Jackson and the West

Andrew Jackson, 1829-1837
Jacksonian Impulse (11)
  • Indian Removal Trail of Tears
  • The Second American
  • Party System
  • Nullification
  • The Bank War
  • How democratic was
  • Jacksonian democracy?

The Cherokee Trail of Tears Robert Lindneux
Learning Outcomes Democracy
  • Understand how a new political culture emerged in
    the 1820s and 30s
  • Be able to account for the difference between the
    views of Calhoun and Jackson
  • Explain in what ways democratic policies are
    thought to have intensified racism
  • Be able to describe the Triumph of the Market

The Rise of Democracy
  • Preview In the 1820s and 1830s a new democratic
    political culture championed the wisdom of the
    people and the need for political parties.
  • The Highlights
  • Equality and Opportunity
  • The New Political Culture of Democracy
  • Jacksons Rise to Power
  • Democracy and Race
  • The Nullification Crisis
  • The Bank War
  • Van Buren and Depression
  • The Jacksonian Party System

Equality and Opportunity
  • The Tension between Equality and Opportunity
  • Widespread opportunity will inevitably produce
    inequality of wealth
  • Americans promot equality of opportunity, not
    equality of condition

The New Political Culture of Democracy
  • The Election of 1824
  • No candidate has a majority of the popular or
    electoral votes
  • House decides the race between Andrew Jackson
    John Quincy Adams
  • Adams wins, prompting calls of a corrupt
    bargain with Henry Clay
  • Anti-Masonry and the Defense of Equality
  • Freemasons reach 150,000 members in 1826
  • Anti-Masonic movement emerges as an
    anti-aristocracy phenomenon
  • 1830s emergence of the Whig party
  • Social Sources of the New Politics
  • New attitudes toward government prompt democratic
  • Male suffrage expands in Europe and Latin
    America, too

Popular political parties provided an essential
mechanism for peacefully resolving the
differences among competing interest groups,
regions, and social classes.
  • The Acceptance of Parties
  • Rise of the professional politician
  • Acceptance of parties as sources of checking
  • The Politics of the Common Man
  • New style of politics
  • Limitations of the democratic political system

Jacksons Rise to Power
  • John Quincy Adamss Presidency
  • Adams not a politically savvy president
  • Jackson, leading the Democrats, beats Adams in
  • President of the People
  • Jackson reflects the common persons attitudes
    values ?
  • Jackson defends the emerging spoils system

Jacksons Rise to Power
Democracy and Race
  • Accommodate or Resist?
  • New, aggressive attitudes of white Americans
    placed Indians in the Old Southwest in a
    precarious position
  • Changing nature of Cherokee society

Ironically, at the same time that white racial
attitudes toward Indians were deteriorating, the
Cherokees racial attitudes toward blacks were
also hardening, paralleling the increased racism
among white Americans.
Democracy and Race
  • Trail of Tears
  • Jackson pressures Congress for Indian removal
  • Jackson ignores Worcester v. Georgia (1832)
  • Cherokees, Creeks, Choctaws, and Chickasaws
    removed from the Southeast
  • Removal sparks military resistance by Indian
    groups in other regions

(No Transcript)
Democracy and Race
  • Free Blacks in the North
  • 171,000 free blacks in the North in 1840
  • Discrimination on the rise
  • Black poverty high
  • The African American Community
  • Black community was not as diversified as white
    society because of limited economic opportunity
  • The Minstrel Show
  • Appeal of minstrelsy rested on prevalent racial
  • Deepening racism during the Jacksonian era

The Nullification Crisis
  • The Growing Crisis in South Carolina
  • State hit hard by the depression of 1819
  • Tariff is the central issue
  • Denmark Veseys conspiracy (1822) adds to
  • Tariff of Abominations, passes by Congress in
    1828, provokes a severe response

  • Calhouns Theory of Nullification
  • Calhoun argues that states could nullify federal
  • Minority rights versus majority rule
  • Nationalists theory of the Union
  • The Nullifiers Nullified
  • Jackson threatens military action against South
    Carolina for legislatures tariff nullification
  • Compromise of 1833 ends the crisis by lowering
    the tariff

The Bank War
  • The National Bank and the Panic of 1819
  • Second national bank exacerbates economic
    problems in 1819
  • Banks become a source of considerable political
  • Biddles Bank
  • Bank president expands the banks influence
  • Promots unpopular paper money

Jacksons own experiences left him with a deep
distrust of banks and paper money.
  • The Clash between Jackson and Biddle
  • 1832 Biddle pushes for the early renewal of
    banks charter
  • Congress passes the recharter bill Jackson
    vetoes it
  • Jacksons veto message secures his position as
    champion of the people

  • The Bank Destroyed
  • Jackson tries to cripple the bank after he wins
    re-election in 1832
  • Jackson orders secretary of treasury to remove
    banks deposits
  • Jacksons Impact on the Presidency
  • Jackson strengthens the authority of the
    executive branch
  • The modern presidency begins with Jackson

Van Buren and Depression
  • Van Ruins Depression
  • Martin Van Buren, Jacksons Democratic successor,
    associated with the Panic of 1837
  • 1840 Congress creates the Independent Treasury
    to keep the governments funds

By 1840 the Whigs had done much to perfect their
partys national organization, and with the
nation stuck in the worst depression of the
century, they approached the election of 1840 in
high spirits.
  • The Whigs Triumph
  • Election of 1840 is the first modern presidential
    campaignimportant use of imagery
  • Women take a new, more public political role
  • Record voter turnout (nearly 80)
  • Harrison defeats Van Buren

(No Transcript)
The Jacksonian Party System
  • Democrats, Whigs, and the Market
  • Democratic ideology rests on perceived conflict
    between the people greedy aristocrats
  • Whig ideology rests on belief in continued
    commercial development
  • Democrats belief in limited government and
    opposition to monopolies is key
  • Whigs desire an active government
  • The Social Bases of the Two Parties
  • Whigs promote the market economy, while Democrats
    fear it
  • Whigs attract high-status native-born religious
    groups, while Democrats attract more Germans and
    Irish religious groups, particularly Catholics
  • The Triumph of the Market
  • Market continues to expand in spite of Jacksonian
    efforts against it

Keywords and Terms
  • Equality and Opportunity
  • Workingmens Party
  • Nicolas Biddle
  • 2nd Bank of United States
  • equality of opportunity
  • Henry Clay
  • John C. Calhoun
  • Theory of Nullification
  • enlightened elite
  • laissez-faire
  • Worster v. Georgia
  • Peggy Eaton
  • hard money
  • Alexis de Tocqueville
  • Democracy in America
  • Van Buren the Whigs
  • Panic of 1837

SummaryLearning Outcomes Democracy
  • Understand how a new political culture emerged in
    the 1820s and 30s
  • Be able to account for the difference between the
    views of Calhoun and Jackson
  • Explain in what ways democratic policies are
    thought to have intensified racism
  • Be able to describe the Triumph of the Market
Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
About PowerShow.com