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Middle Ages: Part II


Clovis declares the Catholic Church official religion of ... Astrology. Inventors. Philosophy and Theology. St. Thomas Aquinas - greatest medieval philosopher ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Middle Ages: Part II

Middle Ages Part II
  • The Late Middle Ages and the
  • Catholic Church

I. The Catholic Church
A. Spread outside of Roman Empire
  • Clovis declares the Catholic Church official
    religion of the Frankish Kingdom (400s - France)
  • Angles and Saxons make Christianity official
    religion (500s - England)
  • Missionaries
  • St. Patrick - Ireland
  • St. Augustine

B. Split in Christian Church
  • Rome (Western Europe) and Constantinople (Eastern
    Europe) vie for religious power
  • Two points of contention
  • Pope in Rome and Bishop in Constantinople both
    claim to have complete authority
  • Disagree on Church doctrine
  • Church language
  • Religious beliefs
  • rituals

  • 1054 - Church splits into two distinct parts
  • Roman Catholic Church (Rome)
  • Greek Orthodox Church (Constantinople)
  • Roman Catholic Church is more influential
  • Free from political control (emperors control
    Greek church)
  • Dominant factor in western Europe in Middle Ages.
  • Western Europe gains more importance

C. People of the Church
  • Secular Clergy - live/work in the normal world
  • Pope - head of the church
  • Cardinals - princes of the church usually
    bishops that are appointed to be the popes
  • Bishops - religious leaders that run individual
    districts called diocese
  • Priests - religious leader of the local
  • Religious Orders - men/women who withdraw from
    normal world
  • Men - known as monks or friars live in
  • Women - known as nuns live in convents

  • Important religious orders
  • Benedictines
  • Started by St. Benedict - wrote the Benedictine
  • Monks devoted to hard work and prayer
  • Provided for poor and needy, helped travelers,
  • Copied manuscripts and preserved classical
    Greek/Roman literature
  • Franciscans and Dominicans
  • Founded by St. Francis of Assisi and St. Dominic
  • Consisted of mendicant (begging) friars that
    traveled around and ministered - Franciscans
    focused on the poor Dominicans focused on the
    upper class.

D. Activities of the Church
  • Religious activities
  • Supervising religious needs of people -
  • Excommunication
  • Uncovering/trying heresy
  • Economic activities
  • Income - properties, gifts, tithes
  • Maintained hospitals
  • By 13th century - church owns 30 of land in
    western Europe

  • Cultural activities
  • Promoted learning through schools
  • Copying ancient books/manuscripts
  • Influencing literature and architecture
  • Political activities
  • Maintained its own courts for cases.
  • Truce of God which prohibited warfare on
    certain days
  • Claimed supremacy over governments

Late Middle Ages
A. Crusades
  • Background
  • 4 separate missions to the middle east
  • Trying to recover the Holy Land of Jerusalem
  • Church trying to assert its power over the
  • Pope Urban II calls for the first crusade in
  • The Crusades
  • First Crusade - (1096) well organized expedition
    caught Moslems off-guard and gained control of
  • Third Crusade - (1189) crusade fails to recapture
    Jerusalem King Richard is able to negotiate safe
    passage of Christian Pilgrims

  • Effects of the Crusades
  • Broadened peoples outlook - reality of world,
    products, people outside of Europe
  • Stimulated trade - increased trading, money
    replaced barter, towns begin to grow again,
    middle class develops
  • Strengthened Kings and Central Governments -
    weakened nobility, increasing trade
  • Weakened Serfdom - some serfs gained freedom by
    participating in crusades, serfs begin to pay for
    land rather than working for nobles, serfs fled
    to growing cities
  • Encouraged learning - saw how advanced Moslems

B. Developing Towns
  • Trade centers and middle class
  • Middle class develops known as bourgeoisie
  • Most important trade center is Italy (Venice,
    Genoa, Pisa, Naples) due to access to
    Mediterranean sea
  • Other important regions for trade are Belgium,
    Northern Germany
  • Guilds in medieval towns
  • Merchant Guilds - association of merchants that
    regulate trade
  • Craft Guilds - regulated industry in a town
    (bakers, weavers, tailors, carpenters, etc.)

C. Cultural Achievements
  • Architecture - Romanesque style Gothic style
  • Higher Education - Schools and universities
  • Science and Inventions
  • Alchemy - developed into chemistry
  • Astrology
  • Inventors
  • Philosophy and Theology
  • St. Thomas Aquinas - greatest medieval
  • Literature
  • Beowolf Song of Roland
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