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Guests 2


Modernism & Postmodernism 'Modernism conceives of representations as being problematic, whereas ... Characteristics of Modernism and Postmodernism ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Guests 2

Guests 2
  • Tara, Laura, Kate, Sarah, Jennifer,
  • Veronica

  • The key to understanding tourism and tourist
    behaviour is understanding what motivates
    tourists to travel

  • 2 main motivation forces - (Dann)
  • Pull (External) factors- inspired by a
    destinations attractiveness, e.g.cultural
  • Push (Internal) factors- desire to escape, rest,
    experience social interaction

Theories on what are key motivators for travel
  • Tourists seek authentic experiences since the
    normative aspects of their lives are felt to be
    superficial, artificial or contrived
    (MacCannell)- Quest for the Authentic Other
  • Tourists are looking for something different and
    unusual, a relatively simple search for the
    pleasure of the new and surprising (Urry) - Quest
    for the Other
  • Search for self-actualisation (Selwyn) - Quest
    for the authentic self

Theories on what are key motivators for travel
  • (1)Traveller is motivated by going away from
    rather than going towards something/somebody
  • (2) Travellers motives and behaviours are
    self-orientated- Now I decide what is on and it
    should be good for me - KING GUEST syndrome,
    more concerned with the Self and experiencing
    other cultures plays a subordinate role

  • What motivates you to travel?

Questioning Motivation Theory
  • Motives are difficult to measure A
    reiteration of reasons featuring in travel
    brochures areready made and easy to tick off on
    a questionnaire Many motives remain hidden in
    the subconsciousness and cannot be brought to
    light by simple questions Individuals
    motivations change across time so tourists will
    undertake different types of travel experiences

Questioning Motivation Theory
  • The emergence of holidays as lifestyle
    statements is increasing and may not reflect the
    individuals real motivation for travelling
    Features that attract tourist to a site can be
    considered motivations, but when acted upon
    become activities (Moscardo et al)

Understanding Tourist Motivation
  • It is important to recognise the
    heterogeneous nature of tourist motivation
    (individuals may have multiple motivations) In
    order to do so tourist typologies - a method of
    sociological investigation that seeks to classify
    tourists according to a particular phenomenon
    (motivation or behaviour) It is also used as a
    tool to understand the socio-cultural impacts of
    tourism and is Useful for product development
    and marketing

Tourist Typologies- Cohen
  • Institutionalized tourism (organized mass
    tourist/individual mass tourism) and non-
    institutionalized (explorer/drifter) Based on
    similar observable behaviours, useful in
    understanding the impacts/effects of tourism
    Static tourism roles, meaningless in todays
    postmodern society, e.g. try and apply Cohens
    typology to contemporary travellers

Tourist Typologies - Plogg
  • Motivation Plogg- The psychocentric type
    and the allocentric type(people categorised
    according to life-style, self-image, attitudes
    towards life) Links travel motivations to types
    of destinations Criticism- tourists may not
    choose a destination but a holiday type e.g. gay

Tourist Typologies questioned
  • The field of tourism has suffered because
    various scholars have embraced shallow and
    counterproductive typologies. Do they (the
    typologies) explain tourists recreative
    behaviour, or are they, rather, a creation of the
    author ? (Lowych, van Langenhave and Bollaert)

Tourist typologies questioned
  • Tourists motivations and activities are too
    complex to collapse into rigid categories Lack
    of extensive case studies, questionnaires (form
    of gathering typology data) is problematic
    Traveller himself is a mixture of many
    characteristics and cannot be assigned this
    category of that one (Krippendorf)

Conclusions on Motivation
  • The one unchanged motive for many years has
    been mental hygiene(Krippendorf)
  • Long list of motives contradictions nature
    of tourism, a scintilling and multi-faceted part
    of human and social reality
  • Tourists will continue to use consumerism as a
    channel of personal transformation

Predictions for future travel motivations
  • Shift towards more active holidays Shift
    towards more responsible holidays Increasing
    interest in specific interest holidays
    Increase in lifestyle statement holidays
    Increase in modern travellers

Rites of Passage
  • Separation initial removal from society or
    ordinary life
  • Liminality period of marginality
  • Incorporation re-entry into society
  • (van Gennep)

Rites of Passage
  • Social Rites of Passage
  • childhood adulthood
  • unmarried married
  • wife widow
  • Tourist Rites of Passage
  • subjective? Individual?

Rites of Passage
  • Checklist
  • Summer Camp
  • Camping/Nature (May 24 weekend)
  • Spring Break
  • Grand Tour of Europe
  • Study/Work Abroad
  • Las Vegas, New York
  • Disneyworld
  • Snowbird retirement

  • Pilgrimage may be defined as travel to sacred
    places undertaken in order to gain spiritual
    merit or healing or as an act of penance or
  • (Burns Hoggart)

  • Religious pilgrimages churches, cathedrals,
    mosques temples (eg. Vatican,
    Mecca, Kibbutz)
  • Trophy pilgrimage Europe Paris Louvre Mona
    Lisa (MacCannell)
  • Genealogical pilgrimage return to the home of
    ones ancestors

The Tourist Gaze
  • John Urry (1990) Sociologist
  • Part of the tourism experience is to gaze upon or
    view different scenes, which are out of the
  • We gaze at what we encounter
  • This gaze is socially organised and systemised
    (theory adapted from Foucoults work)
  • Urry writes on how the tourist gaze has changed
    and developed, the processes by which it is
    reinforced, and considers who or what authorises
    it and what are the consequences for the places
    and people which are its object.
  • there is no single gaze as such. It varies by
    society, by social group and by historical
  • The Tourist Gaze is constructed

  • Urry describes
  • - Romantic Gaze individual encounter with
    place visited
  • - Collective Gaze togetherness in visiting
  • Romantic Gaze in opposition with Collective Gaze
    paradoxical because as more people seek the
    untouched destination the more it then comes
    under the Collective Gaze
  • Media produces, conditions the tourist gaze
    e.g. wildlife programs, marketing
  • There are many professional experts who help to
    construct and develop our gaze as tourists.
    Places are chosen to be gazed upon anticipation
    is constructed and sustained e.g. TV, magazines
    (but who chooses what and how this takes place)

  • The Gaze turns landscape and people encountered
    into objects of aesthetic pleasure. Some argue
    that this is done through visual possession.
  • Cameras capture the gaze and can separate some
    tourists from locals. They are providing a
    spectacle for visual capture and consumption
    (even if it is unintentional).
  • Appropriate the object of the photo. Nature,
    environments and people are transformed into
    objects that are passed on.

The Gaze is distinguished by signifiers,
semiotics and symbolic icons like Big Ben, Eiffel
tower which are endlessly reproduced and
consumed. Gaze is constructed through signs and
tourism involves collection of signs
  • Dynamic Text and Tourist Gaze Andrew McGregor
  • McGregor examined the way in which guidebooks
    lead to a commoditized experience and gaze, and
    the power that text has over the tourist
    perceptions and experience in Tana Toraja in
  • Guidebooks as tutoring tourists to gaze at
    aspects of a place either comparatively,
    enthusiastically or with disinterest in order to
    realise an authentic exotic Other.
  • The tourists realise images they go to see
    authenticity can be irrelevant in terms of
  • Tourists becoming permanent parts of the
    landscape, and therefore influencing how tourism
    objects are reworked to fit the gaze.
  • Influence of text on gazes. Creates a
    standardised image of what to expect. How it
    affects where travellers go and what travellers
    do within a destination.

  • Found that whilst search for difference is
    integral to the entire experience, in Tana Toraja
    it was found that the guidebook selects what
    aspects of the destination will be focused on as
  • Tourists gazed upon different sites in different
    ways depending upon the amount and type of prior
    information they had been exposed to.
  • the known
  • the imagined
  • the unknown
  • the unseen
  • Found that the Gaze can be heavily structured by
  • BUT
  • Based on 55 interviews and carried out in
    English, with predominantly European tourists

Different views of Victoria Falls wow thats so
postcard visitor seeing Victoria falls (quoted
Osborne 200079)
Tourist landscapes are consumed by the tourist's
who gaze upon them
A different view of Vic Falls
Some tour operators are like surrogate parents
restrict tourists to certain approved objects to
gaze at. Paradoxically the pursuit of exotic
and diverse ends in uniformity.
  • Dahles work on Amsterdam
  • Canal tours present an image of Amsterdam in
    front of a global audience - constructed gaze
    route takes in distinct objects that invoke a
    sense of Amsterdam
  • People are told what to gaze at, when and where
    to look. View from boat is the Citys public
    face. Symbolically simple and adorned with
    stereotypical features.
  • Private face walking tours from within.
  • Profitable tourist gazes, such gazes are not left
    to chance. (MaCannell)
  • Constructed a gaze of the townscape in their own
    narrative style.

Canal Boat Tours
  • Considerations
  • Cant portray tourists as one homogenous group
    too simplistic
  • Cohen (1979) has suggested that the desire for
    authenticity has influenced tourists to the point
    that when they gaze on places they mentally try
    to separate the authentic from the inauthentic.
  • Globalisation of tourist gaze enables comparison
    of environments. Undergoing a universalization of
    the tourist gaze
  • For Urry - widespread and colonising tourist gaze
    has the effect of transforming environments, many
    of which are reconstructed for visual consumption
  • Western grand narrative, whose values structure
    the discourse - silencing of the Other  - What
    about domestic tourism?
  • Stresses the importance of visual consumption and
    sees the gaze as the most important tourist

Burns allows for systematic study of tourist
motivation from a social science perspective but
fails to address the tourists that deliberately
seek out the familiar
Other Factors Holiday experiences are physical
and not merely visual Too static and passive
Looks can deceive, there are things unseen and
unsaid People work in the knowledge that they
are in the Tourist Gaze
  • Authenticity is not a fixed property it is a
    negotiated attribute with multiple dimensions
    whose status is evaluated by different assessors
    (Handler Saxton)
  • The Bamboo Beating Dance in Hainan, China (Xie
  • Senegalese Dance Performances in Dakar (Daniel
  • Tourist involvement leads to creativity
  • If the tourists are satisfied is it all that

AuthenticityPart 2
  • Pre Departure

  • Marketing tool
  • Tourist myth
  • Experience a different way of life
  • White beaches, palm trees
  • Undiscovered places

  • Danns study
  • 4 types of paradise
  • Paradise Contrived no people natives as
    scenery natives as cultural markers
  • Paradise Confined tourists only tourist
  • Paradise Controlled limited contact with
    locals natives as servants, natives as
    entertainers, natives as vendors
  • Paradise Confused further contact with locals,
    attempt to enter locals only zones natives as
    seducers, natives as intermediaries, natives as
    familiar, natives as tourists, tourists as
  • -Dann 1996

Kuoni example

Thomas Cook examples
First Choice example
Modernism Postmodernism
  • Modernism conceives of representations as being
    problematic, whereas postmodernism problematises
    reality (Urry, 1990, 13)

  • Characteristics of Modernism and Postmodernism
  • How does this shift change how we look at tourism
  • Example- authenticity in tourism

The Santa Claus Industry commodification of
Why do people visit such sites?
  • Tourism is not isolated from political,
    natural, economic or social environments
  • A complex set of social phenomena
  • A system or a set of subsystems- connected with
    society and culture

Tourism and Anthropology
  • Tourism and anthropology both seek to
    identify and make sense of human dynamics-
    host/guest interaction at the heart of tourism
    This human interaction, not business and
    marketing, is the key factor in tourisms many
    paradoxes important link between tourism and
    anthropology Tourism is a global set of
    activities crossing many cultures, there is a
    need for deeper understanding of the consequences
    of the interaction between generating and
    receiving tourism societies (Burns and Holden)

Tourism and Anthropology
  • Tourism viewed as a ritual                     
  • Vs
  • Tourism viewed as a form of imperialism

Anthropology and tourism questioned
  • Tourism has to too many motivations to and is
    too complex to be categorised Too much work on
    the anthropology of tourism lacks empirical
    (research) grounding Reflects the white middle
    class views of authors rather that scientific
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