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Promoting Active Healthy Lifestyles


Offer activities that encourage high rates of physical activity. ... Use a differential style of teaching that allows students to make some decisions ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Promoting Active Healthy Lifestyles

Promoting Active Healthy Lifestyles
  • From Principles to Practice in Youth Sport and
    Physical Education
  • Lois S. Hale, Ph.D.
  • The University of Texas of the Permian Basin

The nature of the challenge
  • Inactivity is one of the ten leading global
    causes of death and disability (WHO, 2003)
  • More than 60 of adults do not engage in
    sufficient levels of physical activity to benefit
    their present and future health (WHO, 2003)

The Caribbean Challenge
  • There are substantial amounts of physical
    inactivity, especially among women.
  • A large proportion of the Caribbean population is
    not interested in making positive lifestyle
  • According to the World Health Organization (WHO)
    55 per cent of the people in the Caribbean will
    be hit with diabetes in the next 15 years.

Trinidad and Tobagos Challenge
  • A majority of adults know that regular physical
    activity is good for their health less than 20
    meet the criteria of 30 minutes of regular
    exercise 3 times/week. (National Health Survey,
  • Less than a third of Trinidadians exercise.
    (The West Indian
    Medical Journal, 2002)
  • A longer life span and an increasingly sedentary
    lifestyle have led to an increase in chronic
    diseases such as diabetes and hypertension.
    (Ministry of Health, TT)

But the children?
  • A substantial proportion of children and
    adolescents are not sufficiently active (over 50
    of adolescents) (Stone et al., 1998)
  • 60 of todays children in the United States
    manifest as least one modifiable risk factor for
    the development of coronary artery disease
    (Strong, et al., 1992)

Then there is obesity
  • Obesity and overweight rates are on the rise
    among young people in Trinidad and Tobago.
  • In the adult population of Trinidad and Tobago,
    16.8 are estimated to be obese and 31.4
    overweight.(Food and Agriculture Organization of
    the United Nations, 2003)
  • Over 60 of young women in Barbados are
    overweight. (Caribbean Youth Environment Network)

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But, I teach physical education and coach sport.
  • What can I do?

Support from Heath Ministries
  • Develop a healthy school policy or program.
  • Require physical education and include it in the
    formal exam system.
  • Broaden the range of sports and physical
    activities to include non-competitive activities
    such as aerobics and dance to encourage
    participation among girls.(Recommendations from
    a meeting of Caribbean Health Ministers, 2000)

What you do makes a difference
  • Evidence suggests that physical activity behavior
    patterns acquired during childhood and
    adolescence are likely to be maintained
    throughout the life span (Stucky-Robb
    DiLorenzo, 1993).
  • Adolescents who had more experience with physical
    activity and sports prior to age 15 had a higher
    psychological readiness for physical activity at
    30 years of age (Engstrom, 1991).

The purpose of this presentation is
  • To identify several psychosocial factors believed
    to influence current and future levels of
    physical activity among children and adolescents.
  • To discuss the implications that these factors
    hold for the design and delivery of physical
    education and sports programs that promote the
    adoption of active lifestyles by children and
    young people.

The assumptions upon which the presentation is
based Assumption 1
  • Schools should be responsible for providing
    appropriate and adequate physical activity for
    all young people through physical education
    programs as well as through school sports
    programs and after school leisure-time physical
    activity initiatives.

Assumption 2
  • Physical education and sports program personnel
    should endorse the adoption and continuation of
    an active healthy lifestyle by students and
    athletes as a major program goal recognizing
    that turning young people on to physical activity
    for a lifetime is a high priority.

Assumption 3
  • The degree of success that physical education and
    sports programs will have in meeting the program
    goal in number 2 is dependent upon
  • what is taught,
  • how it is taught, and
  • the structure of the physical activity
    environment in which children and young people

Psychosocial FactorsSelf-Efficacy and
Perceived CompetenceMotivational ClimateSocial
SupportPerceived BenefitsGender
Current Future Levels of Physical Activity
What is taught? (Curriculum) How is it taught?
(Instruction) How is the physical activity
environment structured? (Context)
Figure 1. The influence of psychosocial factors
and the nature of physical education and sports
programs on physical activity levels.
Psychosocial Factors
  • What psychosocial factors influence physical
    activity levels of children and adolescents?

  • Self-efficacy the confidence we have in being
    able to do a certain thing under particular
  • An important correlate of physical activity
    participation for children and adolescents
    choice, effort, and persistence.
  • In a study of the determinants of physical
    activity among children in 5th and 6th grades and
    again in 9th and 10th grades, the only positive
    predictor for girls was self-efficacy (DiLorenzo,
    et al., 1998).

Perceived Competence
  • The degree to which children participate in MVPA
    is related to their perceptions concerning their
    fitness competence (Kimiecik, Horn, and Shurin,
  • Children with low perceptions of their abilities
    to learn and perform sport skills do not
    participate or they drop out, whereas children
    who persist have higher levels of perceived
    competence (Weiss Chaumeton, 1992)

Perceived Competence
  • Self-perception of competence is influenced by
    personal dispositions (task and/or ego goal
    orientations) and experiences with others.
  • YOU convey to your students and athletes your
    expectations, values, and beliefs YOU shape
    their definition of achievement improvement vs.
    beating others.

Motivational Climates
  • Mastery or task involved climates
  • effort, learning, and self-reference goal
    achievement are promoted
  • Performance or ego involved climates
  • winning and social comparisons of ability are

Mastery Climates
  • Children task oriented.
  • Late childhood influenced by others.
  • Depending on expectations and rewards, they may
    continue to be task oriented or may adopt both
    task and ego orientations.
  • The physical education and sport environment we
    structure for them makes a difference.

Mastery Climates
  • higher task orientation
  • greater feelings of satisfaction
  • less boredom
  • higher perceived ability
  • higher intrinsic motivation
  • the belief that effort and ability are causes of
    success (Attribution theory)
  • a more positive attitude toward physical
    education (Weigand Burton, 2002)

Social Support
  • Parents, siblings, friends, and others influence
    participation in PA.
  • Boys perceive significantly more modeling and
    support from friends for PA than girls (Stallis,
    et al., 1996).
  • Perceived social support has more impact on PA
    levels of girls than boys - lack of support is
    the real issue for girls. (DiLorenzo, et al.).

Social Support vs. Social Control
  • behavioral reactance individuals perceive
    significant others to be exerting social control,
    rather than providing social support, so they act
    in the opposite way.
  • The degree to which 5th and 8th graders believed
    they were able to easily regulate their physical
    activities (perceived behavioral control) was
    shown to predict intent to participate (Craig,
    Goldberg, Dietz, 1996.)

Why children play
  • In study upon study, fun has been shown to be the
    primary reason children engage in sport and
    physical activity the primary perceived
  • Children prefer unstructured, self-directed
    physical activity outside of school (Walton, et
    al., 1999). Is that what we provide for them?

Perceived Benefits Fun, Enjoyment and Excitement
  • What happens to our play on our way to
  • becoming adults? Downgraded by the intellectuals,
  • dismissed by the economists, put aside by the
  • psychologists, it was left to the teachers to
  • the coup de grace. Physical education was born
  • and turned what was joy into boredom, fun into
  • drudgery, pleasure into work.
  • (Sheehan, 1978, pp. 72-73)

Why Children Are Active
  • Enjoyment of physical education
  • Afternoon time for sport and physical activity.
  • Family support for physical activity (support
    more important than parental physical activity

  • Generally, girls are less active than boys from
    childhood on with these differences increasing
    throughout adolescence.
  • There are differences in
  • preference for competitive activities,
  • perceived competence in physical activity, and
  • perceived benefits from participation.
  • How do we deal with these gender differences?

Recommendations for Practice
  • Now we know what we know, what do we do?

What should we teach?
  • Offer activities that encourage high rates of
    physical activity.
  • Allow for some choice of activities.
  • Include noncompetitive activities, partner and
    small group activities, lifetime and recreational
    activities, aerobic dance.
  • Make sure sport units are long enough to promote
    skill mastery implications for physical
    education and youth sport.

How is it taught?
  • Use inclusion style teaching so that activities
    are challenging and developmentally appropriate
    multiple levels of performance for the same task.
  • Use a differential style of teaching that allows
    students to make some decisions (e.g., choice of
    activity, degree of difficulty, pace) higher
    intrinsic motivation and task engagement.
  • Actively supervise children encouraging,
    prompting, providing feedback as you move around
    the class higher MVPA.

How is the physical activity environment
  • Do you reward improvement, effort and reaching a
    performance goal?
  • Do you reward winning and doing better than
    others within the same class or team?
  • Do you give the most praise when the victory
    comes easily to a student or an athlete?

Why a Mastery Climate?
  • A mastery motivational climate encourages
    students to set self-referent goals.
  • A mastery motivational climate results in a
    positive attitude and increased effort.
  • How do you know what type of environmental
    climate mastery or performance climate you
    are providing?

  • The key to enhanced motivation for an active
    lifestyle and perceived physical activity

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Develop Competence in a Mastery Climate
  • Develop perceived and actual competence.
  • Do it within a mastery climate.
  • Be sensitive to individual differences, but keep
    you eye on the target healthy, active
  • You cant do it alone.
  • Educate parents and significant others replace
    Did you win? with Did you have fun? or Did
    you improve?

Do you make a difference?
  • Absolutely!
  • You are professionals, passionately promoting
    active, healthy lifestyles.

Best wishes and good luck!
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