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Department of Maternal and Child Health


... Infant Care Program ... Emergency Maternity and Infant Care Program (EMIC), passed by ... for maternity and infant care for the wives and infants of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Department of Maternal and Child Health

MCH/Public HealthMilestonesPart VI 1940-1959
Greg R. Alexander, MPH, ScDCathy Chadwick, MPH
Donna J. Petersen, MHS, ScDMaryAnn Pass, MD,
MPH Martha Slay, MPHNicole Shumpert, BS
  • Department of Maternal and Child Health
  • The MCH Leadership Skills Training Institute
  • University of Alabama at Birmingham

  • Supported by funding from the Maternal and Child
    Health Bureau

White House Conference on Children in a Democracy
U.S. Involvement in World War II begins
Antibiotics used to reduce mortality due to
infectious diseases
Emergency Maternity Infant Care Program
Childrens Bureau placed in Social Security
School Lunch Program begins
Formation of United Cerebral Palsy
Brown vs. Board of Education ends segregated
Polio vaccine developed
Increasing awareness and provisions for children
with mental disabilities
1940 White House Conference on Children in a
  • The White House Conference on Children in a
    Democracy addressed the problems concerning
  • It also focused attention on discrimination on
    the basis of race or creed, and urged the
    elimination of such practices.
  • Another result of the conference was a proposal
    for a national program on maternity care.

Expectant Mother
  • In the years during and following World War II,
    a number of demographic changes impacted upon the
    health care delivery system.
  • The population explosion during these years, in
    addition to increasing demands on the health care
    delivery system and changes in medical education,
    resulted in a shortage of physicians and other
    health care professionals who provided primary
    care services.

1941 U.S. enters World War II
Children at Auschwitz
  • The migration from small and rural communities,
    and the growth in the population of urban areas,
    also contributed to an increasing
    mal-distribution of health resources.
  • These problems were compounded by health care
    financing difficulties

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1943 Emergency Maternity Infant Care Program
  • The Emergency Maternity and Infant Care Program
    (EMIC), passed by Congress in 1943, provided
    funds for maternity and infant care for the wives
    and infants of servicemen in the four lower pay
  • Medical, nursing, and hospital services for the
    prenatal period, as well as delivery and six
    weeks postpartum care, were provided to these
    families at no charge.
  • In addition, complete care was provided for
    infants less than one year old.

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Emergency Maternity Infant Care Program
  • The program continued until mid-1948.
  • It was the largest public medical care program
    undertaken in the United States up to that time.
  • Because it was closely identified with the war
    effort, Congress and the Executive branch
    strongly supported this program.

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  • The United States experienced significant
    advances in medicine and public health during
    these years and technical developments in the
    health field continued to grow and expand at a
    rapid pace.
  • Antibiotics, such as penicillin, streptomycin,
    and tetracycline, discovered during this period,
    reduced morbidity and mortality caused by
    pneumonia, meningitis, dysentery, and other
    bacterial infections.

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Antibiotics Introduced
  • Antibiotics, known as miracle drugs, provided
    enormous benefits to adults and children.
  • These drugs significantly reduced child mortality
    rates due to pneumonia, meningitis, and
    dysentery, as well as other diseases caused by

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  • There was rapid progress in the knowledge of
    nutrition and vitamins, as well as in emerging
    medical fields, such as pediatric surgery.
  • Health care professionals devoted increasing
    attention to the physical, mental, and emotional
    development of the child.

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 1946 Childrens Bureau Placed in Federal
Security Agency
  • In 1946, the Childrens Bureau was placed in
    the Federal Security Agency.

President Harry Truman
School Lunch Act
  • The National School Lunch Act was passed in
    1946 as a measure to secure the well-being and
    health of children as well as to encourage
    consumption of local food.

School Children
1949 Formation of United Cerebral Palsy
  • Leonard and Isabelle Goldenson worked to help
    establish the National Institute of Neurological
    Diseases and Stroke, part of the National
    Institutes of Health.
  • The recruitment of parents of children with
    cerebral palsy interested in improving services
    for their kids in New York City and the
    surrounding area gave rise to the National
    Foundation for Cerebral Palsy.
  • In 1949,the name of the organization was
    changed to United Cerebral Palsy and affiliates
    across the nation were formed.

Leonard Goldenson, founder of UCP
  • In spite of these advances during the 1940s,
    the 1950s were years of stagnation for child
  • Infant mortality ceased to decline, and the
    maternal mortality rate remained high for certain

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  • An increasing number of new mothers chose to
    bottle feed their infants.
  • Additionally, large numbers of children in
    low-income families received no medical or dental

Infant Formula Production
1950 Mid-century White House Conference on
Children and Youth
  • The Mid-century White House Conference focused
    on the mental and emotional development of the
    child with the theme of the total well-being of
  • Issues regarding the needs of retarded
    children also were considered in the conference.

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1950 Mid-century White House Conference on
Children and Youth
  • In addition, the conference addressed the
    problems of racially segregated public schools,
    and commissioned Kenneth Clark to write
    Prejudice and Your Child.
  • In 1954, this document became part of the U.S.
    Supreme Courts opinion in Brown versus the Board
    of Education (see 1954, Brown v. The Board of

Banning of Segregation in Schools
1951 National Childrens Bureau Division of
Child and Maternal Health
  • Martha May Eliot, a pediatrician, was
    instrumental in many postwar programs for
    maternal and child health
  • In 1951, she became Bureau Chief of the
    National Children's Bureau Division of Child and
    Maternal Health

Martha May Eliot
1952 National Association of Retarded Children
  • As a result of the Mid-century White House
    Conference, the National Association for Retarded
    Children was formed.

National Association of Retarded Children
1953 Department of HEW
  • The Federal Security Agency became known as the
    Department of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW)
    in 1953, under the leadership of President Dwight

President Dwight Eisenhower
1954 Brown v. Board of Education
  • The Supreme Courts decision in Brown v. The
    Board of Education had a significant impact on
    the future course of special education.
  • This decision challenged the long held opinion
    that separate but equal was legally and
    socially acceptable.
  • This same ruling was used in Utah in 1969 to
    support the decision requiring fair and equal
    education for mentally retarded students.

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Polio Vaccine Developed
  • Three immunologically distinct polio viruses
    were established as causative agents of
    poliomyelitis during the 1940s.

Polio Vaccine Field Trials
Polio Vaccine Development
  • In 1954, an inactivated vaccine was developed
    by Dr. Jonas Salk.
  • Two years later, Dr. Albert Sabin perfected a
    live attenuated vaccine.

Albert Sabin
Jonas Salk
1957 MCH-MR Demonstration Clinical Programs
  • Increased appropriations for Maternal and Child
    Health programs was authorized by Congress in
  • One million dollars was earmarked for
    demonstration clinical programs for mentally
    retarded children.
  • The response was so prompt and organized, that
    new diagnostic, consultative, and educational
    clinics rapidly were established nationwide.

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1958 Full-time Working Mothers
  • By 1958, women were entering the job market in
    greater numbers than ever before.
  • It was estimated that 4,037,000 children under
    age 12 lived in families in which the mother
    worked full time.
  • A Childrens Bureau survey found that 400,000
    of these children had no adult supervision during
    the day.

Working Mothers
Special Projects for Retarded Children
  • Special programs for retarded children existed
    in 44 states by 1958.

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Maternal and Child Health/Public Health
Milestones 1940-1959Photo Acknowledgements
  • Slide 6 Pregnant migrant woman living in
    California squatter camp. Kern County. Lange,
    Dorothea, photographer.
  • Slide 8 Photograph from the Main Commission for
    the Investigation of Nazi War Crimes, courtesy of
    USHMM Photo Archives. Polish children imprisoned
    in Auschwitz look out from behind the barbed wire
    fence. (July 1944)
  • Slide 10 Children playing, Shafter Migrant Camp,
    Shafter, CA, March 1940. Arthur Rothstein,
  • Slide 12 The Childrens Bureau. DHEW book
  • Slide 14 Nacogdoches County, Texas. Mother and
    child. Vachon, John, 1914-1975, photographer.
    1943 Apr.
  • Slide 16 History of World War II Medicine.
    Schenley Labs Advertisement.
  • Slide 18 Pneumonia was a serious concern of the
    Public Health Service in the early decades.
    Together with influenza, it was the leading cause
    of death in the 1900s. National Library of
  • Slide 20 Throat examination. Wisconsin Health
  • Slide 22 Harry S. Truman, 33rd president of the
    United States, assumed office when Franklin D.
    Roosevelt died, on April 12, 1945. Within the
    first weeks of his presidency, the Allies had won
    the war in Europe. Truman then made the most
    difficult decision that ever faced any president,
    choosing to use the new atomic bomb against Japan
    to end World War II.

Maternal and Child Health/Public Health
Milestones 1940-1959Photo Acknowledgements
  • Slide 24 Holton Arms School.
    Children holding hands in a circle at Holton Arms
    School. Theodor Horydczak. 1920-1950.
  • Slide 26
  • Slide 28 Public Health Service photo. PHS book
  • Slide 30
  • Slide 32 Class of convalescents, Charity
    Hospital, New Orleans, LA.
  • Slide 34
  • Slide 36
  • Slide 38
  • Slide 40 Dwight D. Eisenhower parlayed his great
    success as supreme Allied commander during World
    War II into two terms as the 34th president of
    the United States.Hulton Getty Picture
  • Slide 42

Maternal and Child Health/Public Health
Milestones 1940-1959Photo Acknowledgements
  • Slide 44 Public School 61, New York, New York,
    participating in nationwide Salk polio vaccine
    trials, organized and sponsored by National
    Foundation for Infantile Paralysis. Dr. Emanuel
    Dubow gives injection to Jeffrey Coles, as New
    York Health Commissioner Dr. Leona Baumgartner,
    NFIP Medical Director Dr. Hart E. Van Riper and
    NFIP president Basil OConnor look on. April 27,
  • Slide 46 Salk The first effective vaccine used
    as a preventative against poliomyelitis was
    developed in 1952 by Jonas Salk. Salk's earlier
    work on an anti-influenza vaccine during the
    1940s led to his discovery. By the mid-1950s, the
    vaccine had been widely distributed in the United
    States, greatly reducing the domestic incidence
    of polio. Culver Pictures. .
  • Sabin
    57.html Dr. Albert Sabin begins field trials in
    USSR and Eastern Europe in 1957. Sabin is shown
    in this photograph standing in front of one of
    the many roller-drums that helped to cultivate
    the virus used in his experiments on the
    live-virus vaccine.
  • Slide 48 Physician and nurse with a Downs
    Syndrome child. Courtesy of National Library of
  • Slide 50 After America's entrance into World War
    II, military production in the United States
    increased severalfold. Many women took jobs or
    volunteered in staffing weapons factories,
    earning the nickname of "Rosie the Riveter."
    Intense rationing efforts of certain foods and
    materials, such as rubber and metals, were also
    enacted to feed America's war machine. Culver
  • Slide 52 The Childrens Bureau photo by Esther
    Bubley in DHEW book
  • PHS Book Mullan, F. Plagues and Politics The
    Story of the U.S. Public Health Service. New
    York Basic Books. 1989
  • DHEW book U.S. Department of Health, Education,
    and Welfare, Public Health Service, Health
    Services Administration. Child Health in
    American. DHEW Publication No. (HAS) 76-5015.

  • This work builds upon the earlier efforts of
    Dr. Allan C. Oglesby, Cindy Camberg, EdD, and
    Cathy Chadwick of the Maternal and Child Health
    Institute to Increase Leadership Skills Project,
    San Diego State University, and draws upon their
    Manual of the History and Philosophy of Maternal
    and Child Health as a foundation for this
    multi-volume series.
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