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Worlds Collide


When and where the first trips to Latin America? Spanish Empire in the Americas ... mule trade between Argentina and Potosi sold between 30,000 to 60,000 mules ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Worlds Collide

Worlds Collide
  • Lecture 2
  • Part II

What do you think?
  • What term should we use.?

How did the Worlds Collide?
When and where the first trips to Latin America?
Source Bergman and Renwick, 2003
How did the Worlds Collide?
When and where the first trips to Latin America?
Spanish Empire in the Americas
When and where the first viceroyalties and
cities were established?
Treaty of Tordesillas-1494
Why is it so important?
Worlds Collide
  • The Aztecs believed that one of their Gods was a
    a white god named Quetzalcoatl, who had sailed
    away many years ago and who had promised to
    return from the east.
  • When the Spanish, led by Hernan Cortez, entered
    the Aztec's land, Montezuma II welcomed him as a
    god and gave him gifts of gold.

Worlds Collide
  • Montezuma said to Hernan Cortez,
  • "For a long time we have known from the
  • writings of our ancestors that neither I
  • nor any of those who dwell in this land, are
  • natives of it, but foreigners who came from
  • very distant parts...and we have always held
  • that those who descended from him would
  • come and conquer this land and take us as
  • their vassals. So because of the place from
  • which you claim to come, namely, from
  • where the sun rises...and the things you tell
  • us of the great lord or king who sent you
  • here, we believe and are certain that he is
  • our natural lord...So be assured that we
  • shall obey you.

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The Columbian Exchange
  • Plants
  • Animals
  • Diseases
  • Demographic
  • Mineral Wealth
  • Trade Items
  • Technology
  • Language
  • Religion
  • Economy
  • Government
  • Urban Planning
  • The Columbian Exchange is the sharing of
    cultures that transformed the lives of two
  • Its was a two-way process with people, goods, and
    ideas moving back and forth.
  • The three Gs
  • What was exchanged?

Key terms
  • Culture
  • Cultural traits
  • Acculturation
  • Cultural landscape
  • Cultural diffusion

  • Americas
  • Maize
  • Potato
  • Tomato
  • Tobacco
  • Beans
  • Cacao
  • Cotton
  • Europe
  • Sugar
  • Rice
  • Wheat
  • Coffee
  • Banana
  • Grapes

Origin of Plants and Livestock
Source Bergman and Renwick, 2003
  • So what?
  • Asian and African plants were introduced such as
    bananas, plantains, sugarcane, and rice.
  • Crops were introduced to a new environment to
    which they were better suited and to a location
    that could easily be transported.
  • The Portuguese made it a policy to introduce
    plants from one part to another in their empire.
    Bananas to Brazil and maize, manioc, and peanuts
    to Africa.
  • These crops became important global commodities.
  • Diffusion of plants throughout the world.

Diffusion of Plants
Source Bergman and Renwick, 2003
Diffusion of Plants
Source Bergman and Renwick, 2003
  • Americas
  • Turkey
  • Europe
  • Cattle
  • Horse
  • Pigs
  • Sheep

  • Introduction of Animals from Europe had a big
    impact on land use, economies and lifestyles.
  • L.A. had no large domesticated animals
  • except for llamas.
  • The imported animals became the center of Latin
    America livestock industry.
  • Environmental impact.

Source Bergman and Renwick, 2003
  • Americas
  • New strains
  • of syphilis
  • Europe
  • Smallpox
  • Flu
  • Measles
  • Typhus

  • The greatest genocide in human history.
  • Central Mexico
  • Indigenous population decline from 25 million to
    less than one million with a century. Mexico and
    Central America experienced a population decline
    by as much as 90 percent.
  • Caribbean
  • In the island of Hispaniola, population declined
    from one million to 1492 to 46,000 by 1512.
  • North America
  • 90 percent of the Indian population were gone
    within a century of the Puritan landing on
    Plymouth Rock.

  • Indian population decrease
  • African Diaspora
  • European Migration
  • Mixing of Populations

Indian Population Decrease
  • Diseases
  • In Europe, an outbreak of small pox would kill 30
    percent of those infected.
  • However, in the Americas the small pox death rate
    was nearly 50 percent.
  • War
  • The battle of Tenochtitlan lasted eight days
    where 240,000 natives perished.
  • Labor

African Diaspora
  • A decrease in Native American population prompted
    labor import from Africa.
  • They worked in
  • mines,
  • agriculture,
  • port towns,
  • sugar mills.
  • African slaves were imported to all parts of

African Diaspora
Source Bergman and Renwick, 2003
European Migration
  • A relatively small number of European males
    migrated to Latin America and the Caribbean
    during the colonial period.
  • To give an example, from Mexico and Central
    America in 1570 only about 60,000 or 2 percent of
    the total population 3,096,000, was classified as
  • By 1650 that white population had doubled to
    120,000, roughly 6 percent of the depleted total
    of 1,880,000.
  • At the close of the colonial era in 1825 about 1
    million or 14 percent of the total population of
    just over 7 million was white.

European Migration 1800s
Source Bergman and Renwick, 2003
  • Miscegenation The intermixing of Indians,
    Africans, and Europeans created a multi-racial
  • Color became status symbol.
  • Complex race structure.
  • Peninsulars Europeans born in the the Iberian
  • Creoles Children of European descent born in
  • Mestizo Offspring's of European and Indian
  • Mulatto Children of European and African unions.
  • Zambos Indians and Black.
  • Coyotes Mestizos and Indian..

  • Religious Proclamation
  • English crown- ordered their agents to conquer,
    occupy and possess the lands of the heathens
    and infidels.
  • Spanish crown- sought not only to grab the land
    but to convert any indigenous people to embrace
    the Catholic faith and be trained in good
    morals. (by any means necessary)
  • Governors- Diego Velasquez, the Cuban governor
    instructed Hernan Cortez as he departed to Mexico
    in 1519,
  • Bear in mind from the beginning that the first
    aim of your expedition is to serve God and spread
    the Christian Faith. . . You must neglect no
    opportunity to spread the knowledge of the True
    Faith and the Church of God among those people
    who dwell in darkness

Diffusion of Religion
Source Getis, Getis, and Fellman, 2005
  • Results
  • Baptism- within a month of Hernan Cortez arriving
    in Mexico first baptisms took place.
  • Consensual Unions/Marriages- newly baptized
    Indian women were grabbed as concubines.
  • Marriages were performed by priests.
  • Destruction- The first bishop of Mexico, Juan de
    Zumarraga, claimed to have destroyed more than
    five hundred Indigenous temples and twenty
    thousands idols.
  • In essence, the Spanish conquest of 1519-1521
    destroyed the core of Aztec religionthe cult of
    warfare and human sacrifice.

  • Transformation- The result of two strong
    religions was that old god went underground, and
    the Indians learned to cover their worship in a
    Christian disguise.
  • Virgin of Guadalupe the Virgin of Guadalupe
    appeared to an Aztec man named Juan Diego.
    Within six years 9 million Indians had been
    baptized as Catholics in central Mexico.
  • The Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe
  • Christians lyrics were written to Indian melodies
    and native dances were incorporated into Catholic
    morality plays.
  • The church accepted a process of mutual
    adaptation, in which Indians embraced
    Christianity symbols and forms, while the church
    turned a blind eye to the pagan content beneath
    the Catholic surface.

  • The Spanish missionaries early adopted the myth
    of Quetzalcoatl and thought that he was actually
    St. Thomas the Apostle, who had come to Mexico to
    help convert the Aztec Indians to Christianity
    and that the spirit of St. Thomas was in Cortes.
  • Jesuits encouraged adaptation of African deities,
    filled the church with black figures, created
    Christian rituals in African languages, music,
    and dances in order to reach the slaves.

  • The Church reached every aspect of colonial life.
  • Administrative center- Functioned next to or
    above the Spanish Civil Government.
  • Financial center- while the crown collected its
    royal fifth from the elite, the church collected
    10 percent from everyone.
  • Large landowner and had large labor force.
  • Revolutionary figures- Father Miguel Hidalgo, a
    Creole priest, organized an uprising of Mestizos
    and Indians.
  • Religious symbols- Virgin of Guadalupe

Worlds Collide
  • Lecture 2
  • Part III

Source Bergman and Renwick, 2003
  • The importance of the Missions
  • The church sent an army of Franciscan, Dominican,
    and Jesuits priests to the new territories.
  • Missionaries sought to escape the moral decay of
    Europe and save the lost souls of the Americas.
  • Missions became the principal frontier for the
    Spanish expansion.
  • The first mission was founded in Venezuela in
  • Tension arose between missions and landowners.
  • In 1767, the colonial elite succeeded in
    expelling the Jesuits. At that time 2,200
    Jesuits were working in the colonies with more
    than 700,000 living in the missions.

  • Missions played a key role in colonizing the
    United States.
  • Franciscans founded 40 thriving missions in
    Florida and the Southwest.
  • Founders of key USA cities such as San Antonio,
    El Paso, Santa Fe, Tucson, San Diego, Los
    Angeles, Monterrey, and San Francisco.
  • Acculturation Center- agricultural practices,
    cultural, and religious.

Fig. 7.25
Source Getis, Getis, and Fellman, 2005
Source Bergman and Renwick, 2003
  • Economy
  • Mining
  • Agriculture
  • Land tenure system
  • Encomiendas
  • Repartamiento
  • Haciendas
  • Mitas
  • Engenho

  • What where the most important mining centers?
  • Mexico Zacatecas boomed between 1580-1630.
  • Upper Peru (Bolivia) Potosi, Bolivia in 1544
    major silver ore deposit where discovered. Potosi
    boomed period was between 1580-1630.
  • Brazil gold was discovered in 1693 in Minas
    Gerais. In the
  • 1700s became the worlds leading gold producer.
  • estimated 800,000 people flocked to the area.
  • (Winn, 1992 Rosenberg, 1992 Blouet Blouet,

  • Why where mining center important during the
    colonial period?
  • Extraction center
  • Gold and Silver were exported back to Europe.
    (Legacy of extraction of raw material to colonial
  • Became permanent centers.
  • Required large and cheap labor force.
  • Created global and local trading
  • ex. Locally mines needed livestock, ropes, food,
    supply, etc. While, globally they needed mercury
    from Spain.
  • Became growth poles.
  • Became important economic centers.
  • Created new capital cities.
  • In the case of Rio de Janeiro became such an
    important main port for the mines that in 1763
    the capital city was moved from Salvador to Rio.

  • Encourage the advancement of technology.
  • Spanish developed an amalgamation process with
  • Created and expanded infrastructure.
  • Spaniards built hundreds of miles long to bring
    salt, mercury, and supply to the mines.
  • Created ports on the Pacific Coast and organized
    the transportation from the Andes mountains to
    Panama City to Spain.
  • The mines of the Americas financed Spains
    economic growth (1550-1650)
  • By 1600 was producing half of the worlds silver.
    It would yield 60 million ounces of precious
    model during the colonial period.
  • Created a dependency of Spain towards the
  • The amount of silver that arrived to Spain
    generated an inflation that made Spain industry
    and agriculture uncompetitive.
  • The silver passed through the hands of the
    Spanish toward the Dutch, French and British to
    pay for the luxurious life-style and to pay for
    the products they did not produce.
  • The silver allowed Europe on the road to
    industrial revolution and global empire.

  • How were the agriculture and the mining center
  • As the mining center grew so did the agriculture
  • The agriculture provided the grains and animal
    products. Ex. The mule trade between Argentina
    and Potosi sold between 30,000 to 60,000 mules
    during the 1600-1700.
  • What was the importance of agriculture in the
  • Developed the infrastructure
  • Commercial agriculture grew by development of
    ports, inlands towns, administrative centers, and
  • Export based agriculture
  • Most of the agriculture was consumed in the
    Americas except for dyestuffs, hides, and sugar.

  • How important was Sugar?
  • In the case of the Portuguese they did not found
    large civilization to conquer or wealth to steal.
    What they did find was arable land to cultivate.
  • Sugar was an economic force to Portuguese Brazil,
    as silver was to Spanish Peru.
  • Sugar was the fuel that spur the colonization and
    economic growth of Portugal in the Americas.
  • Sugar was Brazil initial link to the outside
    world and its biggest export and the major source
    of wealth.

  • Created international economic trading.
  • The Dutch provided the capital to establish the
    plantations and mills and market the sugar
    throughout Europe.
  • The Portuguese had the necessary technology from
    their experience in Africa.
  • Created the African Diaspora
  • At first they to bribe and coerce the Amerindian
    Indians. However, they were not use to the hard
    labor of the plantation and die in great numbers.
  • by 1570 they began to replace them with Africa
    slaves. By 1620, Brazil became the largest
    producer of sugar and the largest exported of
  • It created a new society
  • The Lord of the Mill had unlimited power of the
    slaves and dispense justice.
  • He also exerted his power over the less wealthy
    white land owners without sugar mills, mulatto
    subsistence farmers and ranchers, priests,
    merchants, and Portuguese officials.
  • The economic and social patterns created by the
    Sugar plantation created a complex society with a
    dependency on a single crop and foreign markets,
    migrant labor, and an unequal society divided by
    color and class.

Atlantic Slave Triangle
Land Tenure System
  • Encomienda System
  • was an economic and social institution
  • used as reward for the conquistador.
  • used to control the native population.
  • allow land to be used but not owned.
  • Repartamiento system replace the encomiendas.
  • system allocated Indian labor to mines or
    agriculture for a certain period of time.
  • At the end of the colonial era the system was
    being used to require Indians to purchase goods
    from Spain.

Land Tenure System
  • Mitas
  • Forced labor system in the viceroyalty of Peru
    which that required one-seventh of all formally
    free, unskilled Indian males over 18 years to
    provide labor service to the crown.
  • Labor was paid. However, Indians where forced to
    travel great distances and their pay the same as
    the tribute they had to surrender each year.
  • Mine owners have the right to 13,300 Indians to
    work and operate the mines each year.
  • Indians will report each Monday to the mines.
    They would work until Saturday evening with out
    coming out.
  • In Peru Mitas where abolished in 1812.
  • Hacienda System
  • Allowed for land ownership throughout the Spanish
  • A complex social organization.
  • Self-sufficient.
  • It provided the owner with economic return.
  • It also offered social prestige and political

Land Tenure System
  • Engenho
  • Was the central social institution in colonial
    Brazilian life during the 1600s.
  • The engenho was a combination
  • Land
  • Agricultural and Industrial enterprises
  • Technical innovation
  • Capital and credit
  • Skilled and enslaved labor

Mineral Wealth
  • Americas
  • Gold
  • Silver
  • Europe

Trade Items
  • Americas
  • Minerals
  • Raw Materials
  • Agricultural products
  • Europe
  • Manufactured goods

  • Americas
  • Europe
  • Wheels
  • Steel
  • Guns

Summary of the Legacy of Colonization
  • What you think is the legacy of colonization?
  • Political- Audiencias became centers of newly
    independent states in Spanish America, so the
    colonial legal and administrative structure
    influenced state formation.
  • Architecture/Urban planning- The use of
    architecture and urban planning as tools of
    European conquest is a recurrent theme in Latin
    American history. King Philip II of Spain ordered
    town planners to use a grid or checkerboard plan
    for the layout of new towns and cities in his
    Laws of the Indies (1573).
  • The plan featured a plaza major, or central
    square, with the main
  • church, government buildings, and residences of
    the authorities
  • facing the square. In port cities straight
    streets connected the plaza
  • major to the warehouses and docks of the port and
    to the imposing
  • fortresses that protected them.

Summary of the Legacy of Colonization
  • Social- a social class was created based on
    color, class, and culture.
  • Religion- a blending of religion occurred.
  • - The church became an important power.
  • Language
  • Demographic
  • Education

Summary of the Legacy of Colonization
  • Economic- colonial Latin America produced primary
    products and was dependent on the Iberian
    Peninsula for markets, capital, and credit.
  • Land use- animals, plants, and farming
  • Health
  • Land ownership- the colonial era saw the
    development of large landowners at the top of the
  • Many landless peasants at the bottom.
  • Unequal distribution of land, resources, and
    wealth continued into the independence era.
  • The gap between rich and poor.
  • Gender relation- Machismo

Further Reading
  • Schwarts, Stuart B. (1985) Sugar plantations in
    the formation of Brazilian society Bahia
  • Clayton, Lawerence A. and Conniff, Michael L.
    (1999). A history of Latin America.
  • Winn, Peter (1992). Americas The changing face
    of Latin America and the Caribbean.
  • Blouet, Brian W. and Blouet, Olwyn M. (2002).
    Latin America and the Caribbean A systematic and
    regional survey.
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