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Middle Ages Renaissance Reformation


The Middle Ages were a dark age for Europe. ... During the Middle ages, philosophers and writers were concerned with life after death. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Middle Ages Renaissance Reformation

Middle Ages Renaissance Reformation
Medieval Europe
  • BackgroundThe Middle Ages were a dark age for
    Europe.  Near constant invasions and scant
    resources required that Europeans develop a new
    system for living.  This system included all
    aspects of life, social, political, and
    economic.  It was called Feudalism

  • Feudalism was a social, political, and economic
    system that dominated all aspects of medieval
    life.  The economic portion of feudalism was
    centered around the lord's estates or manor, and
    is called manorialism.  A lord's manor would
    include peasant villages, a church, farm land, a
    mill, and the lord's castle or manor house

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  • Manors were self sufficient all economic
    activity occurred on the manor. This meant that
    little to no trade occurred during this time
    period.  Most of the peasants during the Middle
    Ages were serfs. Serfs were given land to farm in
    exchange for service to their lord.  Service
    included working in the fields, maintaining roads
    and the manor, or military service in during
    wars. . 
  • The lords had responsibilities also under this
    system.  In return for the services and taxes
    paid by the peasants, they provided land and
    protection to them.  Lords also had to pay fees
    and give service to high lords and the king. 
    Feudalism affected all levels of society

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Comparison of Feudalism in Europe and Japan
Both practices developed in response to the need
for security and stability everyone had
well-defined social roles helped preserve law
and order
The Age of Charlemagne
  • Around 800 Western Europe was briefly unified. A
    Christian pope, proclaimed him Emperor of the
    Romans reviving the idea of a unified Christian
    world but widening the split between Eastern and
    Western Christinanity

During the middle ages two distinct Christian
churches emerged
  • Roman Catholic
  • Eastern Orthodox

Role of the Church
  • Spiritual Religion was a central part of life
    for medieval people from baptism to marriage.
  • Secular In addition to being the social center
    of the village, the church had economic power and
    political power. The Church was the largest
    landholder, gained wealth through tithing and had
    its own laws and courts which frequently clashed
    with Kings authority. Some parish priests ran

The Crusades
  • In the 1050s the Seljuk Turks invade the
    Byzantine empire and conquered Palestine or the
    Holy land.
  • The Muslims and Jews also considered this their
    Holy Land.
  • The Pope called for a crusade to free the Holy

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Reasons for the Crusades
  • The Pope wanted to increase his power
  • Christians believed it was their duty to recover
    the Holy Land
  • Nobles wanted to gain wealth.
  • Adventurers sought travel and excitement
  • Serfs hoped to escape feudal oppression

Impact of the Crusades
  • A major results of the Crusades, include Cultural
    Diffusion and an increase in trade.  European
    interest in goods from the east was stimulated by
    returning Crusaders who brought back many things.
    As the Crusades ended, ships that were once used
    to carry soldiers to the Middle East, now carried
    trade goods.  Merchants from rich Italian city
    states, such as Venice and Florence, dominated
    this trade. 

Trade Fairs and Growth of Cities
  • Along the trade routes, trade fairs were
    established in towns with larger populations, or
    at major crossroads.  Merchants and craftsman
    settled in these towns, and some grew to be
    cities of several thousand people.  This
    fundamentally altered the way people lived in
    Europe, and marked the beginning of the end of
    feudalism as serfs began to pay their feudal
    obligations with cash instead of service. An
    economy based on money, not barter emerged.

The Black Death
  • The bubonic plague was a highly infectious
    disease spread by the fleas on rats. Rats were
    common in the cities of this time.
  • This particular outbreak first appeared in China
    In the early 1300s with deaths of about 35
    million Chinese.
  • It was a global epidemic that that spread through
    the increased trade between counties.
  • Between 1347 and 1353, the plague killed on
    person out of every three in Europe over 25

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Transforming from the Middle Ages
  • Nobles, middle class, peasants
  • Trade/money/lending/ banking/insurance
  • Questioned church/secular view
  • Celebrate life/Enjoy the Present/ Humanism
  • Focus on Individual
  • Feudal System
  • Manors
  • Church is all knowing
  • Black Death
  • Focus on the Afterlife
  • Focus on Group

The Renaissance
  • Renaissance means rebirth. It was a golden age
    in the arts, literature and sciences.
  • During the Middle ages, philosophers and writers
    were concerned with life after death.
  • In stead of the medieval preoccupation of life
    after death, a new way of thinking, Humanism,
    focused on life in the present and emphasized
    individual achievements.
  • Ancient knowledge was rediscovered and the
    Classical period of the Greeks and Romans were

Why Italy?
  • Urban Centers
  • Large city-states in northern Italy
  • Cities breeding ground for intellectual
  • Cities Florence, Milan
  • Thriving centers of trade and manufacturing
  • Wealthy Merchant Class
  • Merchants wealthiest, most powerful class
    dominated politics
  • Had to pursue other interests Arts/education
  • Medici Family
  • Cosimo de Medici Influenced the ruling
    council (loans))
  • Lorenzo de Medici behind the scene dictator

Why Italy?
  • Classical Heritage
  • Return to Greek and Roman ideals
  • Arts and scholars inspired by ruins of Rome
  • 1300s Latin and Greek manuscripts studied

New Outlook/AttitudeClassical - Worldly
  • Patrons of Arts
  • Church spent beautifying Rome
  • Wealthy families supported artists
  • Renaissance Man
  • Ideal individual strove to master all areas of
  • universal man
  • Renaissance Woman
  • Inspire but not create art
  • Less influential than middle age women

New Outlook/Attitude
  • Enjoyment of Worldly Pleasures
  • Middle Ages piety
  • Humanists- can enjoy life without insulting God
  • People were still devout Catholics but
  • concerns were secular (worldly and here/now)

Renaissance Art
  • Some of the greatest paintings, sculptures, and
    architecture in the history of the world.
  • Greek and Romans styles were used for columns,
    arches, and domes.
  • Artists were supported by merchants, popes and
  • Art was detailed, realistic, and reflected study
    of human anatomy

Leonardo da Vinci
Raphael and Rubens
Literary Achievements
  • Dante Wrote the Divine Comedy
  • Cervantes wrote Don Quixote
  • Shakespeare wrote many plays
  • Machiavelli wrote the Prince

Impact of Printing Press
  • By 1300 papermaking and print technology had
    reached Europe from China.
  • The invention of moveable type led Gutenberg to
    print the Bible in 1456.
  • Books became more available
  • Literacy increased
  • Ideas spread rapidly

Causes of Reformation
  • The Renaissance. Humanism led people to question
    Church authority as increasing faith was put in
    human reason.
  • Strong Monarchs. A weakened church meant strong
    national monarchs could increase their power.
  • Problems within the church. Corruption among
    church leaders. Increased fees for marriage,
    baptism and indulgences for the pardon of sins.

  • In 1517 a German monk, named Martin Luther posted
    his famous 95 Theses against indulgences.
  • Promoted radical idea that faith in God alone,
    not the Pope granted pardon for sins.
  • Sparked Protestant Reformation.
  • Followers of Luthers beliefs were called
    Lutherans and---eventually----Protestants,
    because they protested Papal authority.
  • A French priest, John Calvin, an influential
    reformer who also preached predestination
    started another protestant movement.

Martin Luther and John Calvin
  • Ideas spread to Northern Germany and Scandinavia
  • Ideas spread to France, Germany, Holland,
    England and Scotland

Unless I am convicted by scripture and plain
reason, I do not accept the authority of the
popes and councils, for they have contradicted
each other, my conscience is captive to the
Word of God. I cannot and I will not recant
anything for to go against conscience is neither
right nor safe.  God help me. Amen. Martin
Luthers defense at his Catholic inquisition,
April 1521
Counter Reformation
  • A reform movement also took place in the Catholic
  • The purpose was to strengthen the Catholic Church
    and keep Catholics from converting to
  • 1545 Council of Trent reaffirmed Catholic beliefs
    and worked to end abuses
  • Ignatius Loyola founded the Jesuits. Jesuit
    missionaries helped spread Catholism around the

Effects of Reformation
  • Formation of Protestant Churches
  • Loss of religious and political unity in Western
  • Religious conflicts sparked wars among the
    European states for over 100 years
  • Anti-Semitism. Religious persecution increased,
    especially against Jews.
  • Witch Hunts

  • From the late Middle Ages feudalism continued to
    decline as kings, nobles and the Church struggled
    for power. A growing population and increase in
    trade led to a commercial revolution in Europe
    and a growing middle class. The Renaissance
    sparked a new way of looking at the world and the
    printing press helped new ideas such as the
    Reformation continue to challenge the old order.
    Nations began to unite under strong monarchs and
    nation states emerged.
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