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Chapter : Historical Timeline (1893-present)


European art was deeply affected by an influx of Japanese prints. ... with the first non-objective painting and was a great influence on modern art. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter : Historical Timeline (1893-present)

Chapter Historical Timeline (1893-present)
1890s Art Movements and Artists/Designers (1 of
  • Arts and Crafts Movement proponents continued to
    disseminate information about design.
  • European art was deeply affected by an influx of
    Japanese prints.
  • American artists and designers were influenced by
    European trends and movements.
  • The Art Nouveau movement influenced all the
    visual arts, from design through architecture.
  • Toulouse-Lautrec embraced the poster.

1890s Art Movements and Artists/Designers (2 of
  • Companies hired Art Nouveau artists, such as
    Alphonse Mucha, to create posters to advertise
    their products.
  • American advertising agency, N.W. Ayer Son,
    opened a design department to design their own
  • Ethel Reed -- an American woman became a noted
    graphic designer and illustrator.

1890s Technology
  • Advances in printing technology in both Europe
    and American
  • In France, color lithography significantly
    advanced by Jules Cheret, allowed for great color
    and nuance in poster reproduction.
  • Advances in lithography helped give rise to the
    poster as a visual communications vehicle.

1890s Key Dates
  • 1870s-1890s (last decades of the nineteenth
    century) Art and Crafts movement
  • 1890 Art Nouveau movement begins
  • 1891 La Goulue Toulouse-Lautrecs first
  • 1893 Coca-Cola registered as a trademark
  • 1897 Vienna Secession formed
  • 1898 Advertising agency N.W. Ayer created the
    slogan, "Lest you forget, we say it yet, Uneeda
    Biscuit," to launch the first prepackaged
    biscuit, Uneeda, produced by the National Biscuit
    Co. (today, a company called Nabisco).

1900s Fine Art (1 of 2)
  • Two groups of German painters form art
  • Die Brücke (The Bridge), with Ernst Ludwig
    Kirchner as a leading proponent
  • Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider) with Russian
    artist Wassily Kandinsky, a leading member
  • Kandinsky is credited with the first
    non-objective painting and was a great influence
    on modern art.
  • In France, major artists Henri Matisse and Pablo
    Picasso (b. Spain) create rippling, everlasting
    effects in all the visual arts.

1900s Fine Art (2 of 2)
  • A very noteworthy influence (to this day), on
    typography was the Italian Futurists challenge
    to grammatical and typographic conventions.
  • They saw typography as a way to redouble the
    force of expressive words.
  • Dadaists used type and image as expressive visual
  • Artists such as Kurt Schwitters in his Merz
    magazine, used the idea of randomness as a
    guiding principle.

1900s Design (1 of 2)
  • Milestones in graphic design history occurred.
  • Principles of grid composition were taught in
  • Birth of pictorial modernism
  • The work of architect/designer Peter Behrens is
    watershed, exemplifying the relationship between
    design and industry.
  • He sought a modern visual language to express
    the age of mass production.
  • In 1907, Peter Behrens designed what might be
    thought of as the first corporate identity for
    AEG, a German electrical manufacturing

1900s Design (2 of 2)
  • In 1919, Gropius founded the Weimar Bauhaus in
  • The Weimar Bauhaus very influential design
    school laid the foundation for much of modern
    thinking about architecture and design.

1900s Key Dates (1 of 2)
  • 1901-1905 Picassos Blue period
  • 1905 Lucien Bernhard designs the Priester match
  • 1905 Salon dAutomne, Paris, important French
    art exhibit
  • 1907 - Peter Behrens corporate identity for AEG
  • 1909-1914 Pablo Picasso and George Braque, the
    period of Analytical Cubism
  • 1909 Futurist Manifesto proclaims enthusiasm
    for speed, war, and the machine age

1900s Key Dates (2 of 2)
  • 1910-1914 Die Brücke (The Bridge) flourishes in
  • 1910 Kandinsky and Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue
  • 1910 Analytical Cubism
  • 1913 Synthetic Cubism
  • 1916 Dada founded
  • 1919-1933 Bauhaus founded in Weimar, 1919,
    under the direction of architect Walter Gropius.
  • Staff included Paul Klee, Johannes Itten, Vasily
    Kandinsky, Laszlo Moholy-Nagy.

1920s Fine Art (1 of 2)
  • Fine art movements
  • Cubism, Futurism, De Stijl, Constructivism, Dada,
  • Greatly affected design and advertising
  • Picassos work continued to have a powerful
    effect on the visual arts.
  • The popular geometric style of the 1920s was Art
  • Significantly manifested in all the visual arts

1920s Fine Art (2 of 2)
  • In 1921, a group of Russian artists led by
    Constructivists Vladimir Tatlin and Alexander
    Rodchenko rejected art for arts sake, to
    pursue the duty of artist as citizen.
  • Constructivists viewed visual communications,
    industrial design, and the applied arts as
    mediums that could best serve their ideals and
    ideas for society.

1920s Design (1 of 2)
  • Many graphic designers absorbed artistic
    movements creating a popular visual aesthetic.
  • A.M. Cassandre, who was a renowned poster
    designer, created a visual language clearly
    influenced by Cubism, and brought it to the
    greater public via poster design.
  • Cassandres success in both typeface design and
    poster design, established him as a purveyor of

1920s Design (2 of 2)
  • Also greatly influenced by Cubism, Futurism and
    Art Deco movements, American graphic designer E.
    McKnight Kauffer created a body of work that,
    included 141 posters for the London Underground,
    as well as others for major corporations.
  • American advertising reflected designers great
    interest in Modernism and European art ideas as
  • Charles Coiner for the N. W. Ayer agency
    reflected an avant-garde influence.
  • In an attempt to visually express their dynamic
    modern age, both artists and designers are highly
    concerned with the relationship between form and

1920s Key Dates (1 of 3)
  • 1922 Aleksei Gans brochure on Constructivist
    ideology Konstruktivizm
  • 1922. E. McKnight Kauffer poster for London
  • 1922 Piet Mondrian mature Composition
  • 1923 Herbert Bayer cover design for Bauhaus
  • 1924 El Lissitzy poster for the Pelikan

1920s Key Dates (2 of 3)
  • 1924 Andre Bretons Manifesto of Surrealism
  • 1924 Charles Coiner joins N.W.Ayers art
  • 1926 Fritz Langs film Metroplis
  • 1927 Paul Renner designs Futura typeface
  • 1927 A. M. Cassandre railway poster

1920s Key Dates (3 of 3)
  • 1928 Dr. Mehemed Fehmy Agha is made art
    director at Vogue magazine.
  • 1928 Jan Tschichold advocates new ideas about
    typography in his book Die Neue Typographie
  • William H. Bradley, American, designed a series
    of covers for the Chap Book (influenced by the
    British Arts and Crafts movement and art)

1930s Design (1 of 3)
  • At the end of the 1920s, the modern movement hit
  • Pioneering visual ideas in the United States were
    American-born designers such as
  • Lester Beall
  • William Goldin
  • Alvin Lustig
  • Paul Rand
  • BradburyThompson

1930s Design (2 of 3)
  • Pioneering visual ideas in the United States were
    émigrés such as
  • Mehemed Fehmy Agha (Russian-born, emigrated in
  • Alexey Brodovitch (Russian-born, emigrated in
  • Will Burtin (German-born, emigrated in 1938)
  • Leo Lionni (Dutch-born, emigrated in 1939)
  • Herbert Matter (Swiss-born, moved to New York in
  • Sutnar Ladislav (Czech-born, traveled to U.S. in
    1939 and stayed)

1930s Design (3 of 3)
  • Many fled the Nazis and immigrated to America,
    including esteemed Bauhaus members
  • Mies van der Rohe
  • Josef Albers
  • Laszlo Moholy-Nagy
  • Walter Gropius.

Paul Rand A Seminal American Designer
  • Paul Rand, started in 1935, as the art director
    of Esquire and Apparel Arts magazines.
  • Rand also designed covers for Direction, a
    cultural journal, from 1938 until 1945.
  • Rands influence holds to this day.
  • Rand was greatly influenced by the European
    avant-garde thinkers and designers, though he
    established his own indelible point of view and
    visual vocabulary.

1930s Key Dates (1 of 2)
  • 1934 Herbert Matter designs Swiss travel
  • 1934 Alexey Brodovitch is art director at
    Harpers Bazaar.

Magazine spreadDesigner Alexey Brodovitch
1930s Key Dates (2 of 2)
  • 1935 WPA hires designers to work for the
  • 1937 Lester Beall designs Rural Electrification
    Administration poster.
  • 1937 Picassos Guernica painting portrays the
    devastation of the Spanish Civil War.
  • 1939 Bradbury Thompson designs first Westvaco
  • 1939 Leo Lionni becomes art director at N.W.

1940s Fine Art and Design (1 of 2)
  • In the U.S., during 1940s and 1950s, Abstract
    Expressionism is the primary artistic movement
    (overshadowing any representational artists),
    with leading artists such as
  • Jackson Pollack
  • Willem de Kooning
  • Franz Kline
  • Mark Rothko

1940s Fine Art and Design (2 of 2)
  • In the post World War II years, New York City
    became the art capital of the world.
  • In Italy, Olivetti corporation hired Giovanni
    Pintori, who contributed enormously to Italian
  • Pintoris vision, drawing on Futurist visual
    forms, manifested itself in corporate identity
    design and advertising.

1940s Design and War (1 of 3)
  • In 1939, World War II began.
  • Many artists and designers were called into
    active duty
  • Others used their great talents to create posters
    to disseminate public information, support the
    war effort, pump up morale, and create anti-Nazi
    vehicles, including
  • Ben Shahn
  • E. McKnight Kauffer
  • Joseph Binder
  • Abram Games
  • In England, The British Ministry of Information
    recruited available pre-eminent designers to this

1940s Design and War (2 of 3)
  • Many designers embraced Surrealism using
    photomontage and bold typography to create war
    posters, including German graphic artist John
    Heartfield, whose strong anti-war work satirized
    the Nazi party.

1940s Design and War (3 of 3)
  • What would eventually become the Advertising
    Council, a public service advertising
    organization, began in 1942 as the War
    Advertising Council, which was organized to help
    prepare voluntary advertising campaigns for
    wartime efforts.

PSAThe Advertising Council
1940s Key Dates
  • 1940s Paul Rand designs Directions covers.
  • 1946 Lou Dorfsman joins CBS.
  • 1947 Armin Hofmann begins teaching graphic
    design at the Basel School of Design.
  • 1947 Giovanni Pintori is hired by Olivetti.
  • 1949 Doyle Dane Bernbach opens.
  • 1949 Cipe Pineles cover for Seventeen.

1950s (1 of 4)
  • The International Typographic Style, or Swiss
    design, plays a pivotal role in design with an
    emphasis on clear communication and grid
    construction, with Max Bill and Ernst Keller as
    major proponents.
  • In 1959, the movement became a unified
    international one disseminating ideas in a
    journal, New Graphic Design.
  • The editors included Josef Muller-Brockmann,
    Richard P. Lohse, Carlo L. Vivarelli and Hans

1950s (2 of 4)
  • Important work created in America by seminal
    designers such as
  • Paul Rand
  • William Goldin
  • Lou Dorfsman
  • Saul Bass
  • Bradbury Thompson
  • George Tscherny
  • Ivan Chermayeff
  • Tom Geismar
  • Cipe Pineless
  • Otto Storch
  • Henry Wolf

1950s (3 of 4)
  • Saul Bass movie titles and film promotions set
    new standards for motion graphics and promotional

1950s (4 of 4)
Magazine spreadDesigner Bradbury Thompson
1950s Corporate Identity (1 of 2)
  • Corporate (visual) identity becomes gospel at
    corporations with in-house designers such as
  • William Goldin and Lou Dorfsman at CBS
  • Giovanni Pintori at Olivetti

1950s Corporate Identity (2 of 2)
  • Corporations begin to rely on designers to create
    visual identities that would differentiate them
    within a competitive marketplace.
  • Designers, such as Paul Rand created visual
    identities for IBM, Westinghouse, and ABC.

1950s Advertising
  • Doyle Dane Bernbach (DDB) rocked the advertising
  • DDBs Volkswagen campaign began the creative
    revolution in advertising.
  • DDB teamed art directors and copywriters to
    generate creative ideas to drive their
  • DDB didnt use a hard sell it set a new
    standard that winked at the consumer with greater

1950s Key Dates (1 of 2)
  • 1949 Hermann Zapf designs Palatino typeface.
  • 1955 Jackson Pollacks creates Autumn Rhythm.
  • 1950 William Goldin designs the CBS symbol.
  • 1955 Roy Kuhlman designs Grove Press paperback
  • 1955 Rudy deHarak opens his New York studio.

1950s Key Dates (2 of 2)
  • 1955 Fogleman defines corporate identity.
  • 1954 Adrian Frutiger creates a family 21
    sans-serif fonts named Univers.
  • 1954 Push Pin Studios is formed.
  • 1955 Saul Bass designs Man with the Golden Arm
    film graphics.
  • 1950s Henryk Tomaszewski creates Cryk.

1960s Corporate Identity
  • Corporate identity design grows in importance,
    work by
  • Lester Beall for International Paper Company
  • Chermayeff Geismar for Mobil, The Chase
    Manhattan Bank
  • Saul Bass for ATT, Continental Airlines, and the
    Girl Scouts
  • Massimo Vignelli and the Unimark office for Knoll

1960s Changes in Design (1 of 3)
  • The poster was extremely popular with great work
  • Gunter Rambow, in Germany
  • Wes Wilson, in California
  • Victor Moscosco in California
  • George Lois designs covers for Esquire magazine
  • Milton Glaser

PosterDesigner Milton Glaser
1960s Changes in Design (2 of 3)
  • Pop Art movement
  • A movement drawing upon imagery from popular
    culture, with leading artists Andy Warhol, Roy
    Lichtenstein, and Robert Indiana
  • Challenged the conventions of Modernist thinking
  • Push Pin in New York and Haight Ashbury/San
    Francisco music scene designers rocked
    Modernisms structural boat.

1960s Changes in Design (3 of 3)
  • Wolfgang Weingart was at the forefront of those
    slowly challenging Modernisms core.
  • American graphic designers, including the Push
    Pin Studios, Saul Bass, and Herb Lubalin
    redefined American graphic design.

1960s Advertising
  • Doyle Dane Bernbach (DDB) continued to be the
    force behind creative advertising.
  • Employed at DDB were some of the most brilliantly
    creative art directors and writers of the
    twentieth century.
  • Bob Gage
  • Helmut Krone
  • George Lois
  • Mary Wells Lawrence
  • Phyllis K. Robinson
  • Julian Koenig
  • Some of these creatives left DDB to open their
    own creative agencies, such as
  • George Lois Julian Koenig (together)
  • Mary Wells Lawrence

1960s Key Dates (1 of 2)
  • 1960 John Berg becomes art director at CBS
  • 1960 Lester Beall designs International Paper
  • 1961 Edouard Hoffman and Max Miedinger design
    Helvetica typeface.
  • 1962 Herb Lubalin designs Eros magazine.
  • 1962 Carl Ally opens Allly Gargano.
  • 1963 The Pepsi Generation ad

1960s Key Dates (2 of 2)
  • 1964 First Things First manifesto signed by
    22 signatories.
  • 1965 Andy Warhols Campbells Soup
  • 1967 Jay Chiat opens Chiat/Day.
  • 1968 Herb Lubalin designs Avante Garde
  • 1969 George Lois composited Esquire cover of
    Andy Warhol drowning in an oversized can of
    Campbell's soup.

1970s Design as Differentiator
  • It became clear to clients that design and
    advertising was going to distinguish their parity
    goods and services in a highly competitive
    international marketplace.

Identity Design firm Vignelli Associates
1970s New Thinking (1 of 2)
  • Some critics see the 1970s as the end of
    Modernism and the beginning of Postmoderism
    thinking, especially in the typographic
    directions taken by designers such as
  • Wolfgang Weingart
  • April Greiman
  • Willi Kunz
  • Dan Friedman

1970s New Thinking (2 of 2)
  • Some designers saw the Modernist style as
    corporate and reacted with alternative creative
  • Subversive posters emanating from the French
    design collective GRAPUS in California, April
    Greiman was experimenting with type, hybrid
    imagery, and mixing media.
  • A growing response to the perceived objectivity
    of Modernism with highly individual, personal
    aesthetics grew around the world.

1970s Key Dates (1 of 2)
  • 1970 GRAPUS studio, a French design collective,
    is formed by Pierre Bernard, Francois Miehe, and
    Gerard Paris-Clavel.
  • 1970 Raymond Loewy designs the U.S. Mail eagle
  • 1970 Shigeo Fukuda designs graphics for Expo
  • 1971 Saul Bass designs the United Way logo.

1970s Key Dates (2 of 2)
  • 1974 Paula Scher designs covers for CBS
  • 1975 Milton Glaser designs I LOVE NY symbol.
  • 1978 Louise Fili becomes art director of
    Pantheon Books.
  • 1978 Pentagram opens their New York office.
  • 1979 MCo founded by Tibor Kalman with Carol
    Bokuniewicz and Liz Trovato.

1980s Technology (1 of 2)
  • In 1984, Apple computers introduced the Macintosh
    computer, which provided graphic designers with
    the most significant tool since the pencil.
  • The digital revolution enabled designers to have
    more creative control.
  • Design/layout their own type
  • Become their own compositors
  • Easily manipulate imagery (as opposed to using
    handcrafted photomontage)
  • Imitate visual effects such as airbrushing

1980s Technology (2 of 2)
  • Easily make changes to layout and color
  • Generate type without a typesetter
  • Substitute hand-lettered comps with digitally
    produced finished-looking comps

Poster Designer April Greiman
1980s Design (1 of 3)
  • Termed the Postmodern (or Late Modernist) period,
    the 1980s and 1990s were an eclectic and diverse
  • Designers experimented with new technology.
  • The political and social climate provided a
    fertile environment for provocatively creative
    designers and thinkers, such as Tibor Kalman,
    founder of MCo.

1980s Design (2 of 3)
  • In California, Rudy VanderLans (trained in the
    Netherlands) and Zuzana Licko (b. Czechoslovakia)
    collaborated to create experimental typography in

Magazine spread, Émigré Designer Rudy
1980s Design (3 of 3)
  • David Carson designed Beach Culture magazine and
    his typographic methodology will eventually
    divide designers into camp divisions about
    typographic design philosophy.
  • In England, Neville Brody, art director of The
    Face magazine, challenged both editorial design
    and typographic design conventions.

1980s Advertising (1 of 3)
  • In England, advertising agency Bartle Bogle
    Hegarty (BBH) created sexy campaigns for Levis
    and Haagen-Dazs.
  • In New York, George Lois ad campaign concept I
    want my MTV transforms entertainment.
  • Chiat/Day created one of the great moments in TV
    advertising with its 1984 spot for Apple

1980s Advertising (2 of 3)
  • Advertising agencies outside of the usual ad
    hubs, made indelible marks, making cities such as
    Minneapolis and Dallas the homes of creative

1980s Advertising (3 of 3)
Ad Agency Doyle Dane Bernbach
1980s Key Dates (1 of 2)
  • 1981 MTV logo (art director Fred Seibert,
    designers Frank Olinsky, Pat Gorman, and Patti
    Rogof /Manhattan Design)
  • 1982 George Lois I want my MTV"
  • 1983 R/Greenberg Associates film title sequence
    The Dead Zone
  • 1984 Apple Macintosh TV spot 1984 by
    Chiat/Day Agency directed by Ridley Scott
  • 1984 Rolling Stone Perception/Reality
    campaign by Fallon McElligott and Rice/Minneapolis

1980s Key Dates (2 of 2)
  • 1985 BBH, London, revitalizes Levis brand
  • 1986 Neville Brody designs Typeface Six for The
  • 1988 Motel 6 Well Leave a Light on for You,
    The Richards Group, Dallas
  • 1988 David Carson designs Beach Culture
  • 1989 Jonathan Hoefler and Tobias Frere-Jones
    create type foundry

1990s Technology (1 of 2)
  • As the century came to a close, the technological
    boom continued to deeply affect all the visual
  • In 1990, Adobe released Photoshop, imaging
    software, providing a tool that enabled
    individual designers to manipulate imagery
    effectively, inexpensively, and rapidly.
  • The web would become the home to every brand
    worldwide as well as set new design challenges.

1990s Technology (2 of 2)
  • Designers would be forced to work closely with IT
    professionals to launch their visual designs.
  • Design and technology are at aesthetic crossroads
    that are reconciled in various ways with
    interesting effects on popular visual culture.

1990s Design Community Issues
  • There are hot debates on consumerism, typographic
    design form/function questions.
  • Green issues are arguments that even become
    known outside the design community.
  • Besides creating design to earn a living, some
    designers are tackling social and political
    issues with their independently conceived,
    created, and produced posters.
  • Design itself takes on new respect in museums and
    in media coverage.

1990s Design and Advertising (1 of 4)
  • Irony becomes a truly pervasive postmodern
    approach to all visual communications.
  • Unusual combinations of form and color
    juxtapositions mark the work of many.

Poster Design firm Sagmesiter Inc.
1990s Design and Advertising (2 of 4)
  • Historical stylistic references allow visual
    communicators to hold fast to the end of the
  • Corporations continue to count on branding and
    visual communications to distinguish their brands
    across borders.

1990s Design and Advertising (3 of 4)
  • No longer belonging to the marginalized artist,
    post-modernism is co-opted by major brands
    seeking to align themselves with hipsters and be
    perceived as trendsetters.

1990s Design and Advertising (4 of 4)
Poster Design firm Morla Design
1990s Key Dates (1 of 3)
  • 1990 Fabien Baron redesigns Interview magazine.
  • 1991 Paula Scher joined Pentagram, New York.
  • 1993 David Carson designs Ray Gun magazine.
  • 1993 Sagmeister Inc. is founded by Stefan
    Sagmeister in New York.

1990s Key Dates (2 of 3)
  • 1994 Got Milk? ad campaign by Goodby,
    Silverstein Partners, San Francisco for the
    California Fluid Milk Processor Advisory Board

1990s Key Dates (3 of 3)
  • 1995 Razorfish web design studio is founded
  • 1996 "Mixing Messages Graphic Design in
    Contemporary Culture" at the Cooper-Hewitt
    National Design Museum
  • 2000 Steven Brower redesigns Print magazine.
  • 2000 Émigré magazine (and other magazines)
    publishes First Things Manifesto 2000

2000 Advertising
  • Unconventional advertising formats and solutions
    are redefining advertising, with agencies leading
    the way.
  • Crispin Porter Bogusky / Miami
  • Diabolical Liberties / London
  • KesselsKramer / Amsterdam
  • Strawberryfrog / Amsterdam

Campaign Agency Strawberryfrog
2000 Post-9/11 (1 of 2)
  • The convergence of technology in the visual arts
    has helped redefine what graphic design is, but
    not what it is not.
  • Visual communications is an ever-evolving
    discipline that can solve innumerable
    communications problems.

Poster Designer Milton Glaser
2000 Post-9/11 (2 of 2)
  • Post 9/11, visual communicators are finding more
    and more that, as Paula Scher said, design
  • Whether it is to
  • Disseminate information to the public
  • Enhance understanding of editorial content
  • Design better election ballots
  • Design posters to get out the vote
  • Communicate across cultures
  • Create public service campaigns to raise
  • There are creative professionals who are
    constantly challenging us to think and reevaluate.
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