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Chapter 5 States of Consciousness


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Title: Chapter 5 States of Consciousness

Chapter 5States of Consciousness
Some Early Definitions
  • Consciousness All the sensations, perceptions,
    memories, and feelings you are aware of in any
  • Waking Consciousness Normal, clear, organized,
    alert awareness
  • Altered State of Consciousness (ASC) Awareness
    that is distinctly different in quality or
    pattern from waking consciousness

  • Definition Innate, biological rhythm
  • Microsleep Brief shift in brain-wave patterns
    similar to those of sleep
  • Sleep Deprivation Sleep loss being deprived of
    needed amounts of sleep
  • Sleep-Deprivation Psychosis Major disruption
    that occurs because of sleep loss
  • Hypersomnia Excessive daytime sleepiness

Figure 5.2
FIGURE 5.2 Sleep rhythms. Bars show periods of
sleep during the fourth, fifth, and sixth weeks
of an experiment with a human subject. During
unscheduled periods, the subject was allowed to
select times of sleep and lighting. The result
was a sleep rhythm of about 25 hours. Notice how
this free-running rhythm began to advance around
the clock as they fell asleep later each day.
When periods of darkness (shaded area) were
imposed during the fifth week, the rhythm
quickly resynchronized with 24-hour days.
(Adapted from Czeisler, 1981.)
Figure 5.3
FIGURE 5.3 Development of sleep patterns. Short
cycles of sleep and waking gradually become the
night-day cycle of an adult. While most adults
dont take naps, midafternoon sleepiness is a
natural part of the sleep cycle.
Measuring Sleep Changes
  • Electroencephalograph (EEG) Brain-wave machine
    amplifies and records electrical activity in the
  • Beta Waves Small fast waves associated with
    alertness and awakeness
  • Alpha Waves Large, slow waves associated with
    relaxation and falling asleep

Stages of Sleep
  • Stage 1 Small, irregular waves produced in light
    sleep (people may or may not say they were
  • Hypnic Jerk Reflex muscle twitch throughout body
    that may occur in Stage 1
  • Stage 2 Deeper sleep sleep spindles (bursts of
    distinctive brain-wave activity) appear
  • Stage 3 Deeper sleep Delta waves appear very
    large and slow
  • Stage 4 Deepest level of normal sleep almost
    purely Delta waves

States of Sleep
  • Rapid Eye Movements (REM) Associated with
    dreaming sleep is very light.
  • Body is very still during REM sleep.
  • Lack of muscle paralysis during REM sleep is
    called REM Behavioral Disorder.
  • Non-REM (NREM) Sleep Occurs during stages 1, 2,
    3, and 4 no rapid eye movement occurs.
  • Seems to help us recover from daily fatigue.

Figure 5.6
FIGURE 5.6 (a) Average proportion of time adults
spend daily in REM sleep and NREM sleep. REM
periods add up to about 20 percent of total sleep
time. (b) Typical changes in stages of sleep
during the night. Notice that dreams mostly
coincide with REM periods.
Sleep Disturbances
  • Insomnia Difficulty in getting to sleep or
    staying asleep, or waking early
  • Sleeping pills exacerbate insomnia cause
    decrease in REM and Stage 4 sleep and may cause
  • Drug-Dependency Insomnia Sleeplessness that
    follows withdrawal from sleeping pills

Types and Causes of Insomnia
  • Temporary Insomnia Brief period of sleeplessness
    caused by worry, stress, and excitement.
  • Avoid fighting it and read a book, for example,
    until youre struggling to stay awake.
  • Chronic Insomnia Exists if sleeping troubles
    last for more than three weeks.
  • Adopt regular schedule go to bed at the same
    time each night, for example.
  • Tryptophan Amino acid (chemical) that produces

More Sleep Disturbances
  • Sleepwalking (Somnambulism) Occurs in NREM sleep
    during Stages 3 and 4
  • Sleeptalking Speaking while asleep occurs in
    NREM sleep

Even More Sleep Disturbances
  • Nightmares Bad dreams
  • Occur during REM sleep
  • May occur once or twice a month brief and easily
    (unfortunately) remembered
  • Imagery Rehearsal Mentally rehearse the changed
    dream before you go to sleep again may help to
    eliminate nightmares

Night Terrors
  • Night Terrors Total panic and hallucinations may
  • Occurs during Stage 4 sleep
  • Most common in childhood may occur in adults

Physiological Sleep Problems
  • Sleep Apnea Interrupted breathing during sleep
    cause of very loud snoring
  • Hypersomnia Extreme daytime sleepiness
  • Apnea can be treated by
  • Surgery
  • Weight loss
  • Breathing mask
  • Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS Crib Death)
    Sudden, unexplained death of healthy infant
    (infants should sleep on back or on side to try
    to prevent)

  • REM Rebound Extra rapid eye movement sleep
    following REM sleep deprivation
  • Psychodynamic (Freudian) Theory Emphasizes
    internal conflicts, motives, and unconscious
  • Wish Fulfillment Freudian belief that many
    dreams are expressions of unconscious desires
  • Much evidence to refute this
  • Dream Symbols Images that have a deeper symbolic
  • Activation-Synthesis Hypothesis Dream content
    may be affected by motor commands in the brain
    (that occur during sleep) that are not carried out

  • Altered state of consciousness characterized by
    intensely narrowed attention and increased
    openness to suggestion
  • Mesmer Believed he could cure diseases by
    passing magnets over body true animal
    magnetism (mesmerize means to hypnotize)
  • Must cooperate to become hypnotized
  • Hypnotic Susceptibility How easily a person can
    be hypnotized
  • Basic Suggestion Effect Tendency of hypnotized
    people to carry out suggested actions as though
    they were involuntary

Hypnosis Cans and Cannots
  • Hypnosis CAN
  • Help people relax
  • Reduce pain
  • Get people to make better progress in therapy
  • Hypnosis CANNOT
  • Produce acts of superhuman strength
  • Produce age regression
  • Force you to do things against your will

Stage Hypnosis
  • Simulation of hypnotic effects.
  • Tricks of the Trade
  • Waking Suggestibility People on stage do not
    want to spoil the act, so they will follow any
  • Selection of Responsive Subjects Any volunteer
    who does not get hypnotized in the stage group
    and does not follow instructions is voted off.
  • The Hypnosis Label Disinhibits On stage, once
    you are in a hypnotic trance, your
    responsibility for actions is removed you can do
    whatever you want!

More Stage Hypnosis Tricks of the Trade
  • Hypnotist as Director Once they are in a trance,
    the volunteers are suddenly the shows stars,
    and they will act like it. The hypnotists only
    need to direct them.
  • Stage Hypnotists Use Tricks Stage hypnosis is
    50 deception and 50 taking advantage of the

  • Mental exercise designed to produce relaxation or
    heightened awareness
  • Concentrative Meditation Attention is paid to a
    single focal point (i.e., object, thought, etc.)
  • Produces relaxation response and thus works to
    reduce stress
  • Receptive Meditation Based on widening attention
    span to become aware of everything experienced at
    a given moment
  • Mantra Word(s) or sound(s) repeated silently
    during concentrative meditation
  • Relaxation Response Occurs at time of
    relaxation internal response that prevents
    activation of adrenal glands

Sensory Deprivation (SD)
  • Any major reduction in amount or variety of
    sensory stimulation
  • Benefits
  • Sensory enhancement
  • Relaxation
  • Changing habits
  • REST Restricted Environmental Stimulation
    Theory Makes it easier to change bad habits

Figure 5.10
FIGURE 5.10 A sensory isolation chamber. Small
flotation tanks like the one pictured have been
used by psychologists to study the effects of
mild sensory deprivation. Subjects float in
darkness and silence. The shallow
body-temperature water contains hundreds of
pounds of Epsom salts, so that subjects float
near the surface. Mild sensory deprivation
produces deep relaxation.
Drugs and Altered States of Consciousness
  • Psychoactive Drug Substance capable of altering
    attention, judgment, memory, time sense,
    self-control, emotion, or perception
  • Stimulant Substance that increases activity in
    body and nervous system
  • Depressant Substance that decreases activity in
    body and nervous system

Figure 5.11
FIGURE 5.11 Spectrum and continuum of drug
action. Many drugs can be rated on a
stimulation-depression scale according to their
effects on the central nervous system. Although
LSD, mescaline, and marijuana are listed here,
the stimulation depression scale is less
relevant to these drugs. The principal
characteristic of such hallucinogens is their
mind-altering quality.
Physical Dependence
  • Physical Dependence Addiction based on drug
    tolerance and withdrawal symptoms
  • Drug Tolerance Reduction in bodys response to a
  • Withdrawal Symptoms Physical illness following
    withdrawal of the drug

Psychological Dependence
  • Psychological Dependence Drug dependence based
    on psychological or emotional needs
  • Usually crave drug
  • Can be as powerful as physiological addiction

Stimulants (Uppers)
  • Amphetamine Synthetic stimulants that excite
    nervous system
  • Dexedrine and Methamphetamine are two types of
  • Amphetamine Psychosis Loss of contact with
    reality because of amphetamine use user tends to
    have paranoid delusions

  • Central Nervous System stimulant derived from
    leaves of coca plant also used as local
  • From 1886-1906, Coca-Cola did indeed have cocaine
    in it!
  • Highly addictive drug
  • Anhedonia (Inability to Feel Pleasure) Common
    after cocaine withdrawal

Designer Drugs
  • Chemically engineered version of an existing
    drug made to skirt drug laws
  • MDMA (Ecstasy) Chemically similar to
    amphetamine created by small variations in a
    drugs structure
  • Risks of using MDMA are unclear
  • May cause severe liver damage
  • Repeated use damages serotonergic brain cells

  • Most frequently used psychoactive drug in North
    America present in colas, chocolate, coffee, tea
  • Causes hand tremors, sweating, talkativeness,
    tinnitus, suppresses fatigue or sleepiness,
    increases alertness
  • May be hazardous to pregnant women if used
  • Caffeinism Physiological dependence on caffeine
  • Symptoms Insomnia, irritability, loss of
    appetite, chills, racing heart, elevated body

  • Natural stimulant found mainly in tobacco known
  • May cause stomach pain, vomiting, diarrhea,
    confusion, tremors
  • Addictive
  • Responsible for 97 of lung cancer deaths in men,
    74 in women

Sedatives Barbiturates
  • Barbiturates Sedative drugs that depress brain
  • Seconal and Amytal are two types

Sedatives Tranquilizers
  • Tranquilizers Lower anxiety and reduce tension
  • Valium, Xanax, and Librium are three types
  • Rohypnol Related to Valium lowers inhibitions
    and produces relaxation or intoxication. Larger
    doses can induce short-term amnesia and sleep
  • Date rape drug because its odorless and
  • Drug Interaction One drug increases the effect
    of another

  • GHB (Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate) Central Nervous
    System (CNS) depressant that relaxes and sedates
    combination of degreasing solvent and drain
  • Sedative effects may result in nausea, loss of
    muscle control, and either sleep or a loss of
  • Inhibits gag reflex, so some choke to death on
    their own vomit
  • Addictive and deadly

  • Ethyl Alcohol Intoxicating element in fermented
    and distilled liquors
  • NOT a stimulant but DOES lower inhibitions
  • Depressant
  • Binge Drinking Consuming five or more drinks in
    a short time four or more for women
  • Serious sign of alcohol abuse

Figure 5.12
FIGURE 5.12 The behavioral effects of alcohol
are related to blood alcohol content and the
resulting suppression of higher mental function.
Arrows indicate the typical threshold for legal
intoxication in the United States.
How a Drinking Problem May Develop (Jellinek,
  • Initial Phase Social drinker turns to alcohol to
    relieve tension or feel good
  • Crucial Phase Person begins to lose control over
  • Chronic Phase Person is now alcohol dependent

Treatment for Alcohol Abuse and Dependence
  • Detoxification Withdrawal of the person from
    alcohol occurs in a medical setting and is
    tightly controlled often necessary before
    long-term treatment begins

Alcoholics Anonymous (AA)
  • Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) Worldwide self-help
    organization composed of recovering alcoholics
    emphasizes admitting powerlessness over alcohol
    usage and wanting to recover.
  • Spiritual component
  • Free around for over 70 years!

Some Hallucinogens
  • Hallucinogen Substance that alters or distorts
    sensory perceptions
  • Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD) Hallucinogen
    that can produce hallucinations and other
    psychotic symptoms
  • Mescaline (Peyote) and Psilocybin (Magic
  • PCP (Angel Dust) Initially can have
    hallucinogenic effects also an anesthetic and
    has stimulant and depressant effects

  • Cannabis Sativa (Marijuana Pot) Leaves and
    flowers of the hemp plant
  • Active chemical THC
  • Effects Relaxation, time distortion, perceptual
  • Psychologically, NOT physiologically, addictive

Some Health Risks of Using Marijuana
  • Causes precancerous changes in lung cells.
  • Can suppress immune system, perhaps increasing
    risk of disease.
  • Activity levels in the cerebellum are lower than
    normal in pot users.
  • Pot may damage some of the brains memory

Dream Interpretation Freud
  • Four dream processes (mental filters) that hide
    true purposes of dreams
  • Condensation Combining several people, objects,
    or events into a single dream image
  • Displacement Directing emotions or actions
    toward safe or unimportant dream images
  • Symbolization Expressing feelings or ideas
    symbolically in dreams not literal expression
  • Secondary Elaboration Making a dream more
    logical and adding details while remembering it

Dreams Perls
  • Most dreams are a special message about what is
    missing in our lives, what we avoid doing when
    awake, or feelings that we need to re-own

Lucid Dreaming
  • Person feels fully awake within the dream and
    feels capable of normal thought and action
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