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Artificial Insemination in Large Animals

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Artificial Insemination in Large Animals Tony Seykora University of Minnesota % of Sows Bred A.I. 1990 7% 1997 50% 2004 75-80% A.I. Advantages in Swine Saves ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Artificial Insemination in Large Animals


1
Artificial Insemination in Large Animals
  • Tony Seykora
  • University of Minnesota

2
Characteristics of Ejaculates
Volume (ml)
Sperm / ml 106 Dairy Bulls
7 1250 Beef Bulls
5 1500 Rams,
Bucks 1
2000 Boars 225
125 Stallions
90 125
3
Effect of AI to Dairy Industry
Parameter 1945 1985 Change
Dairy cows (no.) 25 mil 11 mil -56 Milk
production (lbs.) 120 mil 140 mil 16 Milk/cow
(lbs.) 4,800 12,700 265 Total
feed -30 Feed Costs -3 bil
80 of dairy calves born as the result of A.I.
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Milk Production Record
  • True-Blue Duster Ihm Jen
  • 61,030 pounds in a 365 day lactation (3X)
  • 167 lbs a day
  • Probably gave 305 at peak lactation

6
Semen Collection
  • Semen used for AI can be collected by
  • rectal massage
  • electroejaculation
  • artificial vagina

7
Semen Collection (cont.)
  • The most common method of collection is the
    artificial vagina as this results in the highest
    quantity and quality of semen.

8
Semen Collection (cont.)
  • The artificial vagina consists of a large rubber
    tube lined with a water holding jacket.
  • A receptacle for collecting the semen is attached
    to the end of the tube.

9
Semen Evaluation
  • After the semen has been collected, it is
    examined in the lab under a microscope for
    motility and morphology.

10
  • Semen must contain at least 40 million cells per
    cc before freezing and 12.5 million cells per cc
    after thawing to be used for AI.

11
After the semen sample passes a thorough
evaluation, it must be processed using an
extender. The extender dilutes the semen sample
so it can be divided into several units for the
fertilization of many eggs. The extender also
dilutes the waste products produced by the sperm
so the sperm remains viable.
12
Processing the Semen
  • Extender also provides nourishment and protects
    the semen after it has been frozen.
  • Common extenders added to semen include milk, egg
    yolk, glycerine, and antibiotics.

New extenders are now developed that contain no
animal products!
13
Freezing the Semen
  • Semen is frozen at a constant rate until it
    reaches a temperature of 320 F.
  • Semen is stored in liquid nitrogen tanks to
    preserve it.

14
Heat Detection Recommendations
  • Patience
  • Dont distract cows move quietly
  • At least two 45 minute sessions (early morning
    and late evening)
  • Use heat detection aids
  • Use secondary heat signs
  • mounting other females
  • Swollen vulva
  • mud on flanks or rubbed off brand

15
Artificial Insemination
Onset of Heat
Ovulation and Fertilization
Sperm Capacitation
0 12 16
20 24 25 33
Hours
16
Semen is thawed by placing in 95 degree F water
bath.
  • The straw is placed into the end of the AI rod
    and a protective sheath is put over the rod.
  • The plunger is locked into place.

17
Locating the Cervix
  • The technician should insert one hand into the
    cows rectum to locate the reproductive tract and
    cervix.

18
Cleaning the Vulva
  • The skin around the vagina (the vulva) should be
    cleaned with paper towels to avoid contaminating
    the cow when inserting the AI rod into the
    vagina.

19
Inserting the Insemination Gun
  • Once the cervix has been located, the AI rod is
    inserted through the vagina into the reproductive
    tract.
  • The rod must be passed through the three muscular
    rings of the cervix and into the body of the
    uterus.

20
Depositing the Semen
  • Once the technician is sure the rod has passed
    through all three rings of the cervix, the semen
    is deposited into the body of the uterus.

21
Oviduct Site of Fertilization
Uterine horns
Ovary
Uterine body TARGET
Cervix
22
Kamar patches Useful on cows you suspect may be
coming into heat, but not yet showing standing
heat. Expensive 1.00/ apiece Should be used as
tool to supplement visual detection not replace it
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24
  • Tail Chalking
  • Can be prone to errors
  • Less labor intensive than observation
  • CHEAP

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27
Other Methods
  • teaser gomer bulls
  • chin ball marker
  • steroid-treated cows
  • Pedometers

28
Estrus synchronization
  • Estrus synchronization is a management tool with
    several different procedures
  • If used properly it can increase pregnancy rate.
  • No matter how well used will not increase
    conception rate
  • Increases pregnancy rate by increasing service
    rate

29
Synchronization Products
  • Prostaglandin (PGF)
  • Lutalyse?
  • Estrumate?

30
X
Follicle
Corpus Luteum
X
Ovulation
Progesterone
31
Synchronization Products
  • Progestins
  • Melengestrol Acetate (MGA)
  • Norgestomet
  • CIDR

32
Follicle
Corpus Luteum
X
?
Ovulation
Progesterone
33
Synchronization Products
  • Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH)
  • Cysterelin?
  • Fertagyl?
  • Facterel?

34
Follicle
Corpus Luteum
?
Ovulation
Progesterone
35
Ovsynch (Timed-A.I.)
Timed A.I.
GnRH
GnRH
PGF2?
7 days
2 days
18-24 hr
GnRH 3.50 PGF2? 3.00
Total Cost 10
36
Presynch
GnRH
14 d
7 d
12 d
48h
24h
GnRH
PGF2?
PGF2?
PGF2?
Time inseminate
Cost 16
37
Estrus Detection and AI
2 PGF
100 cows in herd
PGF
Heat detect and AI
PGF
-14 0 6
No. detected in estrus 65 Synchronization
Rate 65 Conception Rate 42/65 65
Pregnancy Rate 42/100 42
38
Timed AI
CO-Synch CIDR
100 cows in herd
GnRH AI
GnRH
PGF
CIDR
-7 -1 0 2-3
MGA
No. detected in estrus - Synchronization Rate
- Conception Rate 60/100 60 Pregnancy
Rate 60/100 60
39
Relative Price for Estrous Synchronization
Products
  • PGF (Lutalyse, Estrumate, Prostamate)
  • 2 to 3 Ave 2.50

?GnRH (Cysterelin, Factrel, Fertagyl) 2.50
to 6 Ave 4.50
  • Progestins (MGA, CIDR)
  • MGA - 0.05 to 0.20/head/day
  • Ave 0.10/head/day
  • CIDR - 6.50 to 10.00
  • Ave 8.00

40
Why AI for Beef?
  • Disease prevention
  • Widespread selection of bulls
  • Proven genetics
  • Reduce costs associated with
    bull maintenance
  • Uniformity
  • Genetic selection of replacements improves
    overall cowherd genetics

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43
Ultrasound Evaluation of Fetal Development for
Twin Pregnancies
ET US US US RP Live Birth
D 7 d 33 d 69 d 108 d180 Birth
No. of transfers 37 37 36 36
36 36 Pregnant recipients 37 30
27 24 22 21 Twins 37
17 11 9 8 7 twins of
pregnant recipients 100 57 41 38
36 33
44
Early Embryonic Pregnancy Detection
25 Day Pregnancy
35 Day Pregnancy
50 Day Pregnancy
45
Inducing Twins in Cows by Transferring Two
Demi-Embryos
Single Birth Twin Birth
Calving percent, 95 130 Weaning percent,
90 120 Sets of twins 3 30 Weaning wt
of twins, lb 425 425 Weaning wt of
singles, lb 550 550 Ave weaning wt, lb
541.00 487.50 Weaning wt/cow, lb
486.90 585 Price/lb,
1.00 1.05 Revenue/cow, 486.90 614.25
46
Swine A.I.
47
of Sows Bred A.I.
  • 1990 7
  • 1997 50
  • 2004 75-80

48
Boars collected 2 to 3 times per week. 12
inseminations per ejaculate. Assuming 2
inseminations per sow equals greater than 500
sows serviced per boar.
49
A.I. Advantages in Swine
  • Saves time.
  • Fewer boars to maintain.
  • Mate animals of different sizes
  • Works for producers of all sizes
  • More offspring from boars of top genetics

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Procurement of Boar Semen
  • Semen purchased form commercial studs
  • Semen collected from boars on farm.
  • Producers in area cooperatively own boars
  • Semen obtained from own boars boarded and
    collected at a commercial facility.

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