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Aroma expedition 20042 lecture note 3


The bark is used for paper and cordage. It is largely grown in Constantinople as a demulcent. ... Wanda Sellar, Daniel Co. Ltd. 2001. ??, ??, ???? , ??, ??, ??, ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Aroma expedition 20042 lecture note 3

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Animal sources of aromas are limited in
only five materials such as musk taken from male
deers (Moschus moschiferus parvipes) pods or
scent glands, civet from civet cat (Civetticus
civetta), ambergris from sperm whale (Physter
macrocephalus), castoreum from beaver (Caster
canadensis), and Bees wax (Apis mellifica). In
the past perfumers used in large amount produced
aromatic substances produced by some animals.
Today their price and their rarity prohibit
their use in the modern scents of mass perfumery.
The molecules of synthesis, poor substitutes are
good enough to trick the consumer's nose and the
deep aspirations of its spirit. In effects,
these animal aromatic substances are used by
mankind since the dawn of civilizations, for
curative scope as well as for pleasure, and they
belong to all the traditional pharmacopoeias.
Animal sources of fragrances. Top raw musk is
taken from the male deer's "pods", or scent
glands. Bottom left, civet center, ambergris
right, castoreum. dslee
Musk ?? (??) Odorous substance secreted by an
abdominal gland of the musk deer , used in
perfume as a scent and fixative. The gland, found
only in males, grows to the size of a hen's egg
the secretion is reddish-brown, with a honeylike
consistency and a strong odor that may function
in the animal as a sexual attractant. After the
pouch is cut the secretion hardens, assumes a
blackish-brown color, and when dry becomes
granular. In commerce the musk pouches are called
musk pods, and the dried secretion musk
grains. Usually a tincture of alcohol is made
from the grains this is then added to expensive
perfumes. The chief constituent that gives musk
its odor is the organic compound muscone.
Musklike substances are also obtained from the
muskrat and the civet. Some plants yield oils
which resemble musk these include the seed of
ambrette ( Hibiscus abelmoschos ) and the sumbul
root ( Ferula sumbul ) of central Asia and
Turkistan. A number of synthetic musklike
products are now also used. http//www.encyclope
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Civets (??? ???, ??? ???) have perineal glands
containing musk, an oily scented matter used
commercially in making perfume. Civets found in
Africa and India produce the best musk and are
bred in farms.
civet(s v t)  or civet cat, any of a large group
of mostly nocturnal mammals of the Old World
family Viverridae (civet family), which also
includes the mongoose. Civets are not true cats,
but the civet family is related to the cat family
(Felidae). Most civets have catlike bodies, long
tails, and weasellike faces. Their fur may be
gray or brown, and may be marked in various
patterns. All civets have scent-producing glands,
located in a double pouch near the genitals. The
fatty yellow secretion of these glands has a
distinctive musky odor used for territorial
marking. Commercially, this substance is known as
civet and is used as a perfume fixative. Civet
can be removed from captive animals every 14 to
20 days. Some civet species are hunted for their
fur. The ground-living, or true, civets form a
distinctive group within the family these
animals have a highly carnivorous diet. Most have
dark spots and ringed tails. They include several
Asian species (genus Viverra) and one African
species (Civettictis civetta). Best known is the
Indian civet, V. zibetha, of S. Asia, from which
most of the civet for perfume is derived. It has
tawny fur with black spots and black bands on the
tail. It is about 30 in. (76 cm) long, excluding
the 20-in. (42-cm) tail, and about 15 in. (38 cm)
high at the shoulder it weighs up to 25 lb (11
kg). Its musk glands are greatly enlarged. Some
of the ground-living civets are called linsangs
and genets. The palm civets form another distinct
group within the civet family. These are
arboreal, largely fruit-eating animals of Africa
and Asia they are classified in several genera.
The North American spotted skunk is sometimes
popularly called civet but is not closely related
to civets. Civets are classified in the phylum
Chordata, subphylum Vertebrata, class Mammalia,
order Carnivora, family Viverridae. The Columbia
Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition.  2001. http//
Ambergris ???(???) sperm whale
???(???) (ambergres) , waxlike substance
originating as a morbid concretion in the
intestine of the sperm whale. Lighter than water,
it is found floating on tropical seas or cast up
on the shore in yellow, gray, black, or
variegated masses, usually a few ounces in
weight, though pieces weighing several hundred
pounds have been found. Ambergris has been
greatly valued from earliest times. It is now
used as a fixative in perfumes. Its active
principle is ambrein, a crystalline alcohol with
the empirical formula C30H51OH. Its very typical
scent, animally but of great sweetness seduce
particularly the feminine noses, in which they
instinctively recognize the odor that will
attract males. In fact, Ambergris, like all
aromatic substances of animal origin, is a
pheromone and acts directly on the hormonal
system through the sense of smell, without
physical contact....   
The Spermwhale (Physeter macrocephalus) Length
male 15.8-18.5m (49-59ft) wt. 45-70 tons, female
10.9-12m wt. 15-20 tons.
In the past Ambergris was eaten and burnt like
incense and strangely, being of origin animal, it
burns making a pleasant smell. Through inhalation
the body absorbs the aromatic molecule of the
smoke that penetrate in the blood circuit
reaching all the organs. In fumigations as well
as by ingestion, the medical effect of these
pheromones is comparable to a modern estrogen
Ambergris is still sold in the city of Mecca. I
have seen many Iranians asking for it to perfume
sellers. Men eat it to stimulate their sexual
power and women to cure infertility. The famous
chronist Ibn battuta, known as "the Traveler of
Islam" narrates in his diaries to have observed
with astonishment in a city of Persia that people
ate hashish and Ambergris without sense of guilt
, alluding possibly to a narcotic effect of
Amber. In Morocco it is tradition to use
Ambergris with tea and it is amazing to observe
how a very small piece of Ambergris sticked 
inside the teapot's cover flavors the tea by mere
contact with the vapor for years along. The Sperm
whale strangely it is not on the way towards
extinction, but the natural rarity of Ambergris
and its precious properties have rendered it
mythical just like Musk. Because of its very high
price, Ambergris is nearly not used anymore in
perfumery where it has been replaced by the
synthetic molecule ambreina.
Fumigation with ambergris
Castoreum. Beaver ?? (??) Castor
canadensis SOURCE.The preputial follicles of
both sexes of Cas'tor fiber Linné. These
follicles are not perceptible until the outer
skin is removed, when they are seen to lie
between the cloaca and pubic arch of the animal.
This species of animals is commonly known as the
beaver, and is found more or less throughout the
Temperate and North Temperate Zones. DESCRIPTION.
The dry, resinous, brownish contents of the
fig-shaped sacs or follicles have a strong and
peculiar odor, an acrid, nauseous taste, and are
soluble in alcohol and ether. An aqueous
decoction of castor is of a light yellowish-brown
color which becomes turbid on cooling, and
changes to a dark color when ferric chloride is
added. Its odor is leathery, at beginning very
much animal and makes you just visualize the wild
beaver, but with the passing of time the smell
changes on the skin into a delicate and very
persistent leather fragrance. VARIETIES.American
or Canadian, and Russian or Siberian Castor. The
Russian variety differs from the American in the
size of the inclosing follicles in the former
the size varies from 2 1/2 oz. to 8 oz. (75 to
240 Gm.) in weight, and in the latter from 1 to 4
oz. (30 to 120 Gm.). There is also a difference
in the composition of the product from the
different varieties, the American probably
containing a larger percentage of resin. A Manual
of Organic Materia Medica and Pharmacognosy. by
Lucius E. Sayre, B.S. Ph. M., 1917.
ADULTERATIONS.Earthy matters, as well as resin
and blood, are sometimes used for this purpose,
but not frequently. The product from diseased
animals is also met with this often contains as
much as 50 per cent. of inert material and is of
a brownish-gray color. CONSTITUENTS.A bitter
resinous substance 14 to 58 per cent., 1 to 2 per
cent. of volatile oil containing carbolic acid, a
small quantity of castorin (a colorless, odorless
and tasteless, crystalline, non-saponifiable fat,
soluble in ether and boiling alcohol), together
with salicin, cholesterin, and about 3.5 per
cent. ash. The resin is dark brown, slightly
acid, soluble in alcohol but not in ether. The
volatile oil contains the odoriferous principle
and is generally colorless, having an acrid,
bitter taste. ACTION AND USES.Castor enjoys some
reputation as a stimulant, antispasmodic, and
emmenagogue, and is employed in cases of
hysteria, chorea, and epilepsy, associated with
sexual disorders. On account of its disagreeable
taste it is best administered in the form of a
pill. DOSE.5 to 10 gr. (0.3 to 0.6 Gm.) in the
form of a pill 1 to 4 fl. dr. (4 to 15 mils) of
the tincture. http//
Beaver. http//
Beaver ?? (??) Castor canadensis http//www.bear-
As recently as 10 years ago, this builder was on
the edge of extinction, hunted because of the
high demand for its soft water proof fur and a
substance called castoreum found in the beaver's
anal glands. Castoreum contains salicylic acid -
the active ingredient in aspirin.Now that the
beaver's important role in preserving wetlands is
recognized, conservationists are working to
reintroduce it to countries, such as Hungry, the
United Kingdom and the Netherlands where it had
been extinct. In these countries, the beaver is
hard at work, demonstrating how effective its
small-time operations are for sustaining the
EUROPEAN BEAVER Castor fiber http//
Dried beaver's pouch that contain the
castoreum http//
Bees wax Apis mellifica
Bees wax The absolute of bees wax  is extracted
with alcohol from old waxes that have been used
by the bees for more than five years to store
honey and pollen and larvae. Because waxy matters
absorb the aromatic molecules, the Bees wax with
the years becomes soaked with the aromas of
honey, propolis and of the very smell of the
bees, which is constituted of the pheromone
molecules that are the olfactory identity of each
bees family. That smell is so distinctly
perceivable that the bee-keepers recognize their
boxes by nose, approaching them in the fields.
The absolute of bees wax has a most pleasant
fragrance that directly reminds of honey perfume
and of its symbolic meaning, the sweetness and
the fullness of spiritual nutriment. Its scent
communicates warmness and protection,
equilibrates, gives confidence, comfort and helps
to harmoniously integrate the contrasting aspects
of personality. When we feel disappointed, bitter
or wounded, it aroma that irradiates the solar
force of the light heals the inner pains, opens
the heart and brings us into contact with our own
positive emotions. The perfume of bees wax 
emanates, shining like the sunlight, the joyful
energy of the bees perpetually busy in singing
the divine praise through their happiness to
work. This fragrance appeals to hyperactive
persons who must draw from their organizational
capacity. http//
Very often the plant scent is made up of complex
blends of substances, which may belong to several
chemical classes. The following groups of
compounds occur in the volatile essential oils
hydrocarbons, alcohols, acids, esters,
aldehydes, ketones, phenols and phenol ethers,
lactones, and various nitrogen and sulfur organic
Sources of fragrances
Animal sources Musk, civet, ambergris,
Musk Seed Botanical Hibiscus Abelmoschus (LINN.)
Family N.O. Malvaceae ---Synonyms---Abelmoschus
Moschatus. Semen Abelmoschi. Grana Moschata.
Ambretta. Egyptian Alcée. Bisornkorner.
Ambrakorner. Target-leaved Hibiscus. Ab-elmosch.
Bamia Moschata. Ketmie odorante. Galu gasturi.
Capu kanassa. ---Part Used---Seeds.
---Habitat---Egypt, East and West Indies.
---Description---This evergreen shrub is about 4
feet in height, having alternate, palmate leaves
and large, sulphur yellow, solitary flowers with
a purple base. The capsules are in the form of a
five-cornered pyramid, filled with large seeds
with a strong odour of musk. The capsules are
used in soup and for pickles, and the
greyish-brown, kidney-shaped seeds, the size of a
lentil, with a strong aromatic flavour, are used
by the Arabians to mix with coffee. They are used
in perfumery for fats and oils, and for the
adulteration of musk. ---Constituents---The
seeds contain an abundance of fixed oil, and owe
their scent to a coloured resin and a volatile,
odorous body. They also contain albuminous
matter. ---Medicinal Action and Uses---An
emulsion made from the seeds is regarded as
antispasmodic. In Egypt the seeds are chewed as a
stomachic, nervine, and to sweeten the breath,
and are also used as an aphrodisiac and
insecticide. The seeds made into an emulsion with
milk are used for itch. ---Other Species--- A
variety is found in Martinique, of a lighter grey
in colour and a more delicate odour. Hibiscus
esculentus or A. esculentus, okra, bendee, or
gombo, is cultivated for its fruit, the abundant
mucilage of which, called gombine, is used for
thickening soup. The long roots have much
odourless mucilage and when powdered are white,
and are said to be better than marsh-mallow. The
bark is used for paper and cordage. It is
largely grown in Constantinople as a demulcent.
The leaves furnish an emollient poultice.
The Directory of Essential Oils Wanda Sellar,
Daniel Co. Ltd. 2001.
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