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Human Geography By James Rubenstein


Human Geography By James Rubenstein Chapter 9 Key Issue 1 Why Does Development Vary Among Countries? The world is divided between relatively rich and relatively poor ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Human Geography By James Rubenstein

Human Geography By James Rubenstein
  • Chapter 9
  • Key Issue 1
  • Why Does Development Vary Among Countries?

  • The world is divided between relatively rich and
    relatively poor countries.
  • Geographers try to understand the reasons for
    this division and learn what can be done about it.

More Developed Country (MDC)
  • Also known as a relatively developed country or
    a developed country, a country that has
    progressed relatively far along a continuum of

Less Developed Country (LDC)
  • Also known as a developing country, a country
    that is at a relatively early stage in the
    process of economic development.

Human Development Index (HDI)
  • Indicator of level of development for each
    country, constructed by United Nations, combining
    income, literacy, education, and life expectancy.

Human Development Index
Three Factors of Development
  • Economic (Gross domestic product per capita)
  • Social (Literacy rate and amount of education)
  • Demographic (Life expectancy)

Economic Indicators of Development
Economic Indicators of Development
  • Besides per capita GDP, 4 other economic factors
    distinguish MDCs from LDCs
  • Economic structure,
  • Worker productivity,
  • Access to raw materials, and
  • Availability of consumer goods.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
  • The value of the total output of goods and
    services produced in a country in a given time
    period (normally a year).

Per Capita GDP
Gross National Product (GNP)
  • Similar to GDP, except that it includes income
    that people earn abroad, such as a Canadian
    working in the United States.

  • The worlds lowest per capita GDP are found in
    sub-Sahara Africa, South Asia, and Southeast
  • The gap in per capita GDP between MDCs and LDCs
    has been widening during the past quarter century.

  • Per capita GDP, or any other single indicator,
    cannot measure perfectly the level of a countrys
  • Per capita GDP measures average (mean) wealth,
    not its distribution.

Types of Jobs
  • All jobs fall into one of three categories
  • Primary (including agriculture),
  • Secondary (including manufacturing), and
  • Tertiary (including services).

Primary Sector
  • The portion of the economy concerned with the
    direct extraction of materials from Earths
    surface, generally through agriculture, although
    sometimes by mining, fishing, and forestry.

Secondary Sector
  • The portion of the economy concerned with
    manufacturing useful products through processing,
    transforming, and assembling raw materials.

Tertiary Sector
  • The portion of the economy concerned with
    transportation, communications, and utilities,
    sometimes extended to the provision of all goods
    and services to people in exchange for payment.

Quaternary Sector
  • The portion of the economy concerned with
    business services, such as trade, insurance,
    banking, advertising, and wholesaling.

Quinary Sector
  • The portion of the economy concerned with health,
    education, research, government, retailing,
    tourism, and recreation.
  • Current practice is to include quaternary and
    quinary sectors in the tertiary sector

  • The of people working in agriculture exceeds
    75 in many LDCs, compared to less than 5 in
    many MDCs.
  • A high of agricultural workers in a country
    indicates that most of its people are spending
    their days producing food for their own survival.

  • Within MDCs, primary and secondary sector jobs
    have decreased.
  • Decline in manufacturing jobs reflects greater
    efficiency inside the factories and increased
    global competition.

Relationship between type of jobs and development
  • The value of a particular product compared to the
    amount of labor needed to make it.
  • Production in LDCs must rely more on human and
    animal power.

Value Added
  • The gross value of the product minus the costs of
    raw materials and energy.

Raw Materials
  • Development requires access to raw materials and
  • In Europe, countries took advantage of domestic
    coal and iron ore to promote industrial
    development throughout the 19th century.

European Colonies
  • Created to ensure adequate supply of raw
  • As colonies of Africa and Asia gained
    independence, they continued to supply the raw
    materials used in European industry.

  • As prices for raw materials decline due to global
    supply, LDCs have had difficulty achieving
  • In a global economy, availability of raw
    materials and energy resources measures a
    countrys development potential rather than its
    actual development.

Consumer Goods
  • Important
  • The wealth used to buy nonessentials promotes
    expansion of manufacturing, which in turn
    generates additional wealth in the society.

  • Quantity and type of goods and services is a good
    measure of the level of development.
  • Particularly good indicators are motor vehicles,
    telephones, and televisions.
  • The number of individuals per telephone and motor
    vehicles exceeds 100 in most LDCs.

Telephone Lines per 1000 Persons
  • In LDCs, the minority who own consumer goods,
    such as telephones, motor vehicles, and
    televisions, are government officials,
    landowners, and other elites.
  • As a result of greater exposure to cultural
    diversity, people in MDCs display different
    social characteristics from people in LDCs.

Social Indicators of Development
Social Indicators of Development
  • MDCs use part of their greater wealth to provide
    schools, hospitals, and welfare services.
    Infants survive, and adults live longer. Well
    educated, healthy, and secure populations can be
    more economically productive.

Education and Literacy
  • The assumption no matter how poor the school,
    the longer the pupils attend, the more likely
    they are to learn.--
  • The reality quality of education is measured by
    student/teacher ratio and literacy rate.

Student/Teacher Ratio
  • The average pupil attends school for about 10
    years in MDCs, compared to only a couple of years
    in LDCs.
  • LDCs must learn technical information from books
    that usually are not in their native language,
    but in English, German, Russian, or French.

Literacy Rate
  • The percentage of a countrys people who can read
    and write.
  • It exceeds 95 in MDCs, compared to less than
    1/3rd in many LDCs.

Health and Welfare
  • When people get sick, MDCs possess the resources
    to care for them.
  • In many wealthier countries, health care is a
    public service for little or no cost.
  • The United States is an exception.

Persons per Physician
  • People in MDCs receive more calories and proteins
    daily than they need.
  • In LDCs of Africa and Asia, most people receive
    less than the daily minimum allowance of calories
    and proteins recommended by the United Nations.

Daily Available Calories per Capita
Demographic Indicators of Development
Life Expectancy
  • Babies born today can expect to live into their
    early forties in LDCs and mid-seventies in MDCs.
  • Males live 9 years longer in MDCs than in LDCs.
  • Females live 13 years longer.

Infant Mortality Rate
  • In LDCs, 90 of infants survive, while 99 of
    infants survive in MDCs.
  • Babies die of malnutrition and dehydration from
  • Some die from poor medical practices, such as
    umbilical cords cut with dirty knives.

Crude Birth Rate
  • Annual CBR exceeds 40 per 1000 in LDCs, while it
    is less than 15 per 1000 in MDCs.
  • CBR does not indicate a societys level of
  • The mortality rate for women in childbirth is
    significantly higher in LDCs.
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