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HISTORY OF COMMUNITY COLLEGES

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Title: HISTORY OF COMMUNITY COLLEGES


1
HISTORY OF COMMUNITY COLLEGES
  • OR

2
MYTH BUSTING 101
  • By
  • Dr. Bill Piland
  • Emeritus Professor
  • San Diego State University

3
HIGHER ED-EARLY, EARLY DAYS
  • Quick and Dirty

4
Earliest Colleges
  • !st College Harvard 1636
  • 2nd College William Mary 1693
  • 3rd College Yale 1701
  • 1st Cal College CoP 1851
  • What do all of these have in common?

5
Earliest Colleges
  • All were Private!
  • Of the 1st colleges founded in all 50 states, 32
    were Privates.
  • AND
  • Most early JCs were Private.

6
Where did we get the idea for these 1st colleges?
7
Where did this idea come from anyway?
  • ENGLAND!

8
MOVING ON Post Civil War
  • Big problems with English model.
  • Small and elite, produce a few intellectual
    leaders.
  • Focused on Ideas and Theories.

9
Post Civil War
  • USA Needed to
  • Develop and Transmit knowledge to large s of
    people.
  • Emphasize Application to Solve Real Problems
  • Switch to a new model- UNIVERSITIES

10
Where did this UNIVERSITY model come from?
11
Germany!
  • Followed German University Model
  • Focus on Research and Scholarship
  • Majors and Schools
  • Specialization

12
And Now - A Totally New Idea
13
A NOBEL IDEA
  • The JUNIOR COLLEGE!
  • Where did this noble idea come from?

14
USA!
  • Yup, JUNIOR COLLEGES ARE UNIQUELY AMERICAN!

15
The American Idea
  • Who had this nobel idea?

16
May be difficult to Believe
  • UNIVERSITY PRESIDENTS!!!!!!

17
For Heavens Sake ! WHY?
18
University Presidents
  • Didnt want those unruly, uncouth, and unwashed
    Freshmen and Sophomores on their campuses!

19
The University Presidents
  • 1869 - Henry Tappan, U of Michigan
  • 1872 - William Farwell, U of Minn
  • 1892 - William Rainey Harper, U of Chicago
  • What do these presidents have in common?

20
When did this noble idea occur?
  • Difficult to say exactly, but probably in the
    middle to late 1800s

21
The Early Years of JCs
  • 1852 - Losell JC, Auburndale, MA
  • 1858 - Missionary Institute of the Evangelical
    Lutheran Church, Selingsgrove, PA
  • 1859 - U of Georgia
  • 1882 - Greely High School, CO.
  • 1901- Joliet JC, Joliet, IL

22
William Rainey Harper
  • 1st Pres U of C
  • 1892 Wild Educational Plan
  • Gave the name Junior College
  • Father of the JC
  • WRH College
  • 1900 A train ride that changed everything!

23
J Stanley Brown
  • Superintendent of Schools, Joliet, IL
  • Founded the 1st Public JC
  • 1901
  • Curriculum - Latin, German or French, Literature,
    Physics, Astronomy, Analytic Geometry, Poli Sci,
    Economy, Government, Psych, Spanish, Geology
  • 1st Head of the AACC

24
6 Basic Reasons for the JC
  • 1. Under home influence
  • 2. Attention to individual student
  • 3. Offer 2 years of transferable work
  • 4. General education
  • 5. Better teaching
  • 6. Inexpensive education

25
Growth of the JC
  • 1903 8 JCs 200 Students
  • 1921 210 JCs 2-3,000 Students
  • 1936 553 JCs 137,000 Students
  • (Most were Private JCs)
  • 1956 652 JCs 870,000 Students
  • 1986 1,231 CCs 4.8 Million Students
  • 2006 1,186 CCs 11.6 Million Students

26
1901-1930 Period
  • Sporadic Growth
  • 1910 1st Vocational Course-Fresno
  • California Becomes Important
  • 1920 AAJC Formed in St. Louis
  • (207 JCs, 137 Private, 70 Public)
  • (Public JCs in 8 States)
  • 1925 1st Book about JCs-Leonard Koos, The JC
    Movement, U of Chicago

27
1930s Period
  • Stagnation and Retrenchment
  • 1930 Asheville Case - North Carolina
  • 1932 Chicago Board of Education

28
1940s-50s Period
  • WW II More Stagnation
  • GI Bill of Rights
  • Local Community Interest
  • University Reaction
  • Growth of Vocational Courses
  • Then slow but steady growth

29
1960s Period
  • Tremendous Growth
  • State Master Plans
  • Switch to COMMUNITY Colleges
  • Broaden Mission
  • The Peoples College

30
NEW CC MISSION
  • Career Education
  • Transfer Education
  • Developmental Education
  • Adult and Continuing Education
  • Community Education
  • Economic Development

31
Now, the California Story
  • University Presidents AGAIN!
  • 1. David Starr Jordan - Stanford U.
  • 2. Alexis F. Lange U. of California

32
Important Dates/Events in California
  • 1907 - Legislation to Create JCs (1st in Nation)
  • 1910 - Fresno JC (1909 Santa Barbara?)
  • 1917 - Junior College Act - State Financial
    Support (1st in Nation)
  • 1921 - Law to Create JC Districts (1st in Nation)
  • 1928 - 31 Public JCs - 25,000 Students
  • 1929 - Direct State Funding - 30 per ADA

33
More Important Dates/Events in California
  • 1937 - 42 Public JCs - 52,000 Students
  • 1942 - 163,000 Students
  • 1947 - Legislatures Strayer Report
  • 1955 - 210,000 Students
  • 1960 - Donahue Act (Master Plan)
  • 1960 - 340,000 Students (56 Districts)
  • 1967 - 610,000 Students
  • 1967 - Stiern Act - Created BoG CCCCO

34
And Still More Important Dates/Events in
California
  • 1978 - Prop 13 - People's Initiative to Limit
    Property Taxation
  • 1988 - AB 1725 - CC Reform Act
  • 1996 - Prop 98 - Guaranteed Minimum Education
    Funding

35
AB 1725
  • Created the California Community Colleges
    system
  • Governance Systems
  • Mission and Functions
  • Employment Conditions

36
AB 1725 Mission and Functions
  • Primary Mission
  • Transfer and Vocational/Occupational
  • Essential and Important Functions
  • Remedial, ESL and Adult Non-Credit
  • Authorized Function
  • Community Services

37
California CCs Today
  • Full Partners in H.E.
  • Largest H.E. System in World
  • 72 Districts, 109 Colleges
  • 2.5 Million Students

38
Todays CC Agenda
  • 1. Access for the Left-Outs
  • 2. The Success Agenda
  • 3. The Learning College
  • 4. Worker Re-Training
  • 5. Emphasis on College
  • 6. Measuring Student Outcomes
  • 7. Determining and Meeting Changing Community
    Needs

39
Marching into the Future
  • Look at how far we have come.
  • Look at how our mission has expanded.
  • Will we keep building on our past?
  • Will we go off in a new direction?
  • Will we face up to the realities of our students
    needs?
  • Will we embrace the changing demographics?
  • Will we continue to be the Peoples College?
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